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Journal ArticleDOI

Protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by the 2-methylaminochroman U83836E

01 Sep 1998-Kidney International (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 54, Iss: 3, pp 857-863

TL;DR: There is a protective effect of U83836E in ischemia-reperfusion injury, in that tissue damage due to oxidative stress is reduced, thus ameliorating renal function impairment.

AbstractProtection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by the 2-methylaminochroman U83836E. Background In a prior study the 21-aminosteroid (lazaroid) U74389F provided in vivo protection from oxidative stress when used as a preventive therapy in ischemia-reperfusion injury in the kidney. As the cell membrane is the principal site for lipoperoxidation, in the current study the very lipophilic 2-methylaminochroman U83836E, a recently developed lazaroid, was administered to rats at 3mg/kg before renal ischemia-reperfusion. In addition to the biochemical parameters, the renal function and the histological appearance were carefully evaluated. Methods Glutathione, adenine nucleotides and lipid peroxidation products were determined in kidneys reperfused for 2 and 24hours after 90minutes of ischemia. Renal function was assessed by plasma creatinine, and renal injury by histological examination. Results Reperfusion-induced glutathione oxidation, expressed as an oxidized-to-total glutathione ratio, was significantly attenuated both after 2 and 24hours of reperfusion by treatment with U83836E. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was still significantly depleted after 24hours in the control group, while at the same time treated animals had already recovered to baseline values. Lipid peroxidation products were significantly lower in lazaroid-groups both after 2 and 24hours of reperfusion. Renal function after 24hours of reperfusion was notably better in the treated rats. Histological examination confirmed the protective action of the drug. After 24hours the control group showed large areas of parenchymal hemorrhage and necrosis with dilated tubules and blood vessel thrombosis, while treated animals showed small necrotic areas with a background of mild interstitial inflammatory cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is a protective effect of U83836E in ischemia-reperfusion injury, in that tissue damage due to oxidative stress is reduced, thus ameliorating renal function impairment.

Topics: Kidney (61%), Kidney disease (54%), Renal function (53%), Adenine nucleotide (53%), Ischemia (52%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence indicating that the inordinate or aberrant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of ATN is reviewed, and the possibility that ROS may participate in the recovery phase of ATn is raised.
Abstract: Acute renal failure is commonly due to acute tubular necrosis (ATN), the latter representing an acute, usually reversible loss of renal function incurred from ischemic or nephrotoxic insults occurring singly or in combination. Such insults instigate a number of processes-hemodynamic alterations, aberrant vascular responses, sublethal and lethal cell damage, inflammatory responses, and nephron obstruction-that initiate and maintain ATN. Eventually, reparative and regenerative processes facilitate the resolution of renal injury and the recovery of renal function. Focusing mainly on ischemic ATN, this article reviews evidence indicating that the inordinate or aberrant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of ATN. This review also discusses the possibility that ROS may instigate adaptive as well as maladaptive responses in the kidney with ATN, and raises the possibility that ROS may participate in the recovery phase of ATN.

372 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Treatment with SS-31 protected mitochondrial structure and respiration during early reperfusion, accelerated recovery of ATP, reduced apoptosis and necrosis of tubular cells, and abrogated tubular dysfunction, suggesting that it may protect against ischemic renal injury.
Abstract: The burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during reperfusion of ischemic tissues can trigger the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, resulting in mitochondrial depolarization, decreased ATP synthesis, and increased ROS production. Rapid recovery of ATP upon reperfusion is essential for survival of tubular cells, and inhibition of oxidative damage can limit inflammation. SS-31 is a mitochondria-targeted tetrapeptide that can scavenge mitochondrial ROS and inhibit MPT, suggesting that it may protect against ischemic renal injury. Here, in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, treatment with SS-31 protected mitochondrial structure and respiration during early reperfusion, accelerated recovery of ATP, reduced apoptosis and necrosis of tubular cells, and abrogated tubular dysfunction. In addition, SS-31 reduced medullary vascular congestion, decreased IR-mediated oxidative stress and the inflammatory response, and accelerated the proliferation of surviving tubular cells as early as 1 day after reperfusion. In summary, these results support MPT as an upstream target for pharmacologic intervention in IR injury and support early protection of mitochondrial function as a therapeutic maneuver to prevent tubular apoptosis and necrosis, reduce oxidative stress, and reduce inflammation. SS-31 holds promise for the prevention and treatment of acute kidney injury.

224 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that resveratrol reduced the renal ischemia reperfusion injury through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Antioxidants including polyphenolics have been found to protect renal cells from the cellular injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion. Resveratrol, a stilbene polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has recently been found to protect isolated rat heart from ischemia reperfusion injury. This study was sought to determine if resveratrol could also protect renal cells from ischemic injury. Male Wistar rats were treated with control, resveratrol (0.23 microg/kg), vehicle used to solubilize resveratrol, and resveratrol plus L-NAME (15 mg/kg body wt), a nitric oxide blocker. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol administration reduced the mortality of ischemic rats from 50% to 10% and renal damage was reduced as indicated by histologic examination and serum creatinine level. The short-term administration of resveratrol also inhibited renal lipid peroxidation induced by ischemia and reperfusion both in cortex and in medulla. Electron paramagnetic resonance detected an increased formation of nitric oxide in the resveratrol-treated kidney that was reduced to the baseline value after treating the rats with L-NAME in addition to resveratrol. The results suggest that resveratrol reduced the renal ischemia reperfusion injury through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

145 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data clearly demonstrate that oxidative stress and RNS generation occur in the kidney during ischemia, and indicates that reactive nitrogen species (RNS) formation during I-R injury is driven by oxidant stress.
Abstract: Previous evidence suggests that both oxygen radicals and nitric oxide (NO) are important mediators of injury during renal ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. However, the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has not been evaluated in this model at early time points. The purpose of these studies was to examine the development of oxidant stress and the formation of RNS during I-R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and subjected to 40 min of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 0, 3, or 6 h of reperfusion. Control animals received a sham operation. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were monitored as markers of renal injury. Glutathione (GSH) oxidation and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts were used as markers of oxidant stress. 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT) was used as a biomarker of RNS formation. Significant increases in plasma creatinine concentrations and urea nitrogen levels were found following both 3 and 6 h of reperfusion. Increases in GSH oxidation, 4-HNE-protein adduct levels, and 3-NT levels were observed following 40 min of ischemia with no reperfusion. Since these results suggested RNS generation during the 40 min of ischemia, a time course of RNS generation following 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 min of ischemia was evaluated. Significant increases in 3-NT generation was detected as early as 10 min of ischemia and rose to values nearly 10-fold higher than Control at 40 min of ischemia. No additional increase was observed following reperfusion. The data clearly demonstrate that oxidative stress and RNS generation occur in the kidney during ischemia.

103 citations


Cites background from "Protection from renal ischemia-repe..."

  • ...The ability of superoxide dismutase (SOD), allopurinol, deferoxamine, and other antioxidants to attenuate renal I-R injury suggests that reactive oxygen species contribute to the development of renal injury (De Vecchi et al., 1998; Paller and Hedlund, 1988; Palleret al., 1984)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The crucial role of MAOs in mediating the production of injurious ROS, which contribute to acute apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by renal ischemia‐reperfusion in vivo, is demonstrated.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the ischemia-reperfusion injury. In kidney, the intracellular sources of ROS during ischemia-reperfusion are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the catecholamine-degrading enzyme monoamine oxidases (MAOs) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation after reperfusion and their involvement in cell events leading to tissue injury and recovery. In a rat model of renal ischemia-reperfusion, we show concomitant MAO-dependent H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation in the early reperfusion period. Rat pretreatment with the irreversible MAO inhibitor pargyline resulted in the following: i) prevented H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation; ii) decreased tubular cell apoptosis and necrosis, measured by TUNEL staining and histomorphological criteria; and iii) increased tubular cell proliferation as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. MAO inhibition also prevented Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and promoted extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, two mitogen-activated protein kinases described as a part of a "death" and "survival" pathway after ischemia-reperfusion. This work demonstrates the crucial role of MAOs in mediating the production of injurious ROS, which contribute to acute apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion in vivo. Targeted inhibition of these oxidases could provide a new avenue for therapy to prevent renal damage and promote renal recovery after ischemia-reperfusion.

95 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two representative compounds from a novel chemical series of potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation are described and one of the compounds, U74500A, may act as a membrane localized chelator of iron.
Abstract: Two representative compounds from a novel chemical series of potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation are described. The compounds 21-[4-(2,6-di-1-pyrrolidinyl-4-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl]-16 alpha-methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-triene-3,20-dione monomethane sulfonate (U74006F) and 21-[4-(3,6-bis(diethylamino)-2-pyridinyl)-1-piperazinyl]-16 alpha-methylpregna-1,4,9(11)triene-3,20-dione hydrochloride (U74500A) inhibited lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates and purified brain synaptosomes under a variety of conditions involving iron. With IC50 values ranging from 2 to 60 microM, U74006F and U74500A were comparable in potency to alpha-tocopherol or butylated hydroxytoluene and were nearly 100 times as potent as desferrioxamine. Some specificity for intact phospholipid membranes is suggested since the ability of U74006F or U74500A to inhibit lipid peroxidation was greatly reduced in methanol solutions of arachidonic acid. Despite close similarities in their structures, their response to increasing concentrations of Fe2+ in lipid peroxidation assays differed qualitatively. One of the compounds, U74500A, may act as a membrane localized chelator of iron.

454 citations


"Protection from renal ischemia-repe..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the last years, several studies have found that high doses of steroids can inhibit lipid peroxidation [1]....

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  • ...release of free arachidonic acid from injured cells [1]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1979-Medicine
TL;DR: The glycerol model of acute renal failure in the rabbit was found to differ in several significant ways from ATN in man and may have an entirely different pathogenesis.
Abstract: Renal biopsies from 24 patients with oliguric "acute tubular necrosis" (ATN) and 26 patients with non-oliguric ATN were compared with biopsies from 7 patients who had recently recovered from ATN and 20 control patients. Many morphologic changes were present in the biopsies of patients with ATN and absent in controls, but only two lesions were significantly more severe in patients who had ATN at the time of the biopsy compared with patients who had recently recovered from ATN. These two lesions, necrosis of individual tubular epithelial cells and loss of brush border in proximal tubules, may play a role in the pathogenesis of renal functional failure in ATN. Necrosis of individual tubular epithelial cells appeared to be a continuing process. In the patients with non-oliguric acute renal failure there was a positive correlation between duration of renal failure and severity of tubular necrosis. This was not observed in the patients with oliguric acute renal failure, but otherwise there were no identifiable morphologic differences between the two groups. The glycerol model of acute renal failure in the rabbit was found to differ in several significant ways from ATN in man. Despite the fact that the rabbits had significantly less severe renal failure, their kidneys showed much more severe tubular necrosis and much more prominent presence of tubular casts than was the case in biopsies from patients with ATN. Loss of brush border in proximal tubules was not an important feature of the glycerol model of acute renal failure in the rabbit. We suggest that the glycerol model is not analogous to human ATN and may have an entirely different pathogenesis.

424 citations


"Protection from renal ischemia-repe..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Histological assessment was semiquantitatively performed according to a previously published guideline [21]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Most currently available data are pertinent to understanding the early events at the tubule cell level, and this information will necessarily comprise most of the review.
Abstract: Work during the past several years has produced new insights into many aspects of the cell biology of ischemic injury to the tubulointerstitium. The major processes are conveniently considered in terms of early events, the prelethal and lethal cell injuries that occur during the period of ischemia and in the first hours of reperfusion, and late events, the proliferation and fibrosis which repair and restructure the damaged tissue. Most currently available data are pertinent to understanding the early events at the tubule cell level, and this information will necessarily comprise most of the review.

342 citations


"Protection from renal ischemia-repe..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Ischemia-reperfusion injury sustained by kidney during surgical revascularization of the renal artery or after transplantation often results in temporary or permanent alterations of renal function [22, 23]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1988-Stroke
TL;DR: It is shown that U74006F can improve survival and attenuate neuronal necrosis in a severe brain ischemia model and comparison of neuronal densities in the ischemic hemisphere with those in the contralateral nonischemic hemisphere revealed significant neuronal preservation.
Abstract: U74006F (21-[4-(2,6-di-1-pyrrolidinyl-4-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl]-16 alpha-methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-triene-3,20-dione, monomethane sulfonate) is a novel and potent inhibitor of central nervous system tissue lipid peroxidation that is devoid of classical steroid hormonal activities. Its possible efficacy in attenuating postischemic mortality and neuronal necrosis was examined in gerbils following 3-hour unilateral carotid artery occlusion. Male Mongolian gerbils received two intraperitoneal injections of either vehicle or U74006F (3 or 10 mg/kg), the first injection 10 minutes before and the second injection at the end of the 3-hour ischemic episode. In an initial series of experiments, vehicle-treated gerbils displayed 60.9% (14 of 23) survival 24 hours after ischemia, which decreased to 34.8% (8 of 23) at 48 hours. In contrast, the 10 mg/kg U74006F-treated group showed 86.7% (13 of 15) survival at 24 hours (p less than 0.15 vs. vehicle) and 80.0% (12 of 15) survival at 48 hours (p less than 0.02). In a second series, neurons in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and the medial and lateral cerebral cortex were counted in gerbils surviving 24 hours after unilateral carotid artery occlusion. Comparison of neuronal densities in the ischemic hemisphere with those in the contralateral nonischemic hemisphere revealed significant neuronal preservation in all three brain regions of 10 mg/kg i.p. x 2 U74006F-treated gerbils. Our results show that U74006F can improve survival and attenuate neuronal necrosis in a severe brain ischemia model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

257 citations