scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Proton Conductivity: Materials and Applications

14 Mar 1996-Chemistry of Materials (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 8, Iss: 3, pp 610-641
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the proton conductivity in materials and the elements of proton conduction mechanisms are discussed with a special emphasis on proton chemistry, including structural reorganization and diffusional motion of extended moieties.
Abstract: In this review the phenomenon of proton conductivity in materials and the elements of proton conduction mechanismsproton transfer, structural reorganization and diffusional motion of extended moietiesare discussed with special emphasis on proton chemistry. This is characterized by a strong proton localization within the valence electron density of electronegative species (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen) and self-localization effects due to solvent interactions which allows for significant proton diffusivities only when assisted by the dynamics of the proton environment in Grotthuss and vehicle type mechanisms. In systems with high proton density, proton/proton interactions lead to proton ordering below first-order phase transition rather than to coherent proton transfers along extended hydrogen-bond chains as is frequently suggested in textbooks of physical chemistry. There is no indication for significant proton tunneling in fast proton conduction phenomena for which almost barrierless proton transfer is suggest...
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Light scattering experiments revealed that the radius of gyration had a linear dependence on the molar mass of the aggregates, which suggests that the particles are in the form of rods or ribbons, or at least some elongated structure.
Abstract: Equivalent weight (EW) is the number of grams of dry Nafion per mole of sulfonic acid groups when the material is in the acid form. This is an average EW in the sense that the comonomer sequence distribution (that is usually unknown to the investigator and largely unreported) gives a distribution in m in this formula. EW can be ascertained by acid-base titration, by analysis of atomic sulfur, and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The relationship between EW and m is EW ) 100m + 446 so that, for example, the side chains are separated by around 14 CF2 units in a membrane of 1100 EW. Common at the time of this writing are Nafion 117 films. The designation “117” refers to a film having 1100 EW and a nominal thickness of 0.007 in., although 115 and 112 films have also been available. Early-reported studies involved 1200 EW samples as well as special experimental varieties, some being rather thin. The equivalent weight is related to the property more often seen in the field of conventional ion exchange resins, namely the ion exchange capacity (IEC), by the equation IEC ) 1000/EW. The mention of the molecular weight of high equivalent weight (EW > 1000 g‚mol-1) Nafion is almost absent in the literature, although the range 105-106 Da has been mentioned. As this polymer does not form true solutions, the common methods of light scattering and gel permeation chromatography cannot be used to determine molecular weight as well as the size and shape of isolated, truly dissolved molecules. Studies of the structure of this polymer in solvent (albeit not a true solution) will be mentioned in the scattering section of this review. It should be noted that Curtin et al. performed size exclusion chromatography determinations of the molecular weight distribution in Nafion aqueous dispersions after they were heated to high temperatures (230, 250, and 270 °C).1 Before heating, there was a high molecular weight shoulder on a bimodal distribution, due to molecular aggregates, but this shoulder disappeared upon heating, which indicated that the aggregates were disrupted. The peaks for the monomodal distribution for the heated samples were all located at molecular weights slightly higher than 105 g‚mol-1. Also, light scattering experiments revealed that the radius of gyration had a linear dependence on the molar mass of the aggregates, which suggests that the particles are in the form of rods or ribbons, or at least some elongated structure. Nafion ionomers are usually derived from the thermoplastic -SO2F precursor form that can be extruded into sheets of required thickness. Strong interactions between the ionic groups are an obstacle to melt processing. This precursor does not possess the clustered morphology that will be of great concern in this article but does possess Teflon-like crystallinity which persists when the sulfonyl fluoride form is converted to, for example, the K+ form by reacting it with KOH in water and DMSO. Thereafter, the -SO3H form is achieved by soaking the film in a sufficiently concentrated aqueous acid solution. Extrusion of the sulfonyl fluoride precursor can cause microstructural orientation in the machine direction, * Address correspondence to either author. Phone: 601-266-5595/ 4480. Fax: 601-266-5635. E-mail: Kenneth.Mauritz@usm.edu; RBMoore@usm.edu. 4535 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4535−4585

4,130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explain the transport properties and the swelling behaviour of NAFION and different sulfonated polyetherketones in terms of distinct differences on the microstructures and in the p K a of the acidic functional groups.

2,755 citations


Cites background from "Proton Conductivity: Materials and ..."

  • ...While proton mobility in hydrated polymers has large contributions from the diffusion of hydrated protons [15,18], proton mobility in an environment of immobilised heterocycles must completely rely on structure diffusion (Grotthuss-type mechanism [24]) comprising proton transfer between heterocycles and solvent reorganisation....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical Methodologies and Simulation Tools, and Poisson−Boltzmann Theory, and Phenomenology of Transport inProton-Conducting Materials for Fuel-CellApplications46664.2.1.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 46372. Theoretical Methodologies and Simulation Tools 46402.1. Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry 46412.2. Molecular Dynamics 46422.2.1. Classical Molecular Dynamics and MonteCarlo Simulations46432.2.2. Empirical Valence Bond Models 46442.2.3. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) 46452.3. Poisson−Boltzmann Theory 46452.4. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanical IonTransport Modeling46462.5. Dielectric Saturation 46473. Transport Mechanisms 46483.1. Proton Conduction Mechanisms 46483.1.1. Homogeneous Media 46483.1.2. Heterogeneous Systems (ConfinementEffects)46553.2. Mechanisms of Parasitic Transport 46613.2.1. Solvated Acidic Polymers 46613.2.2. Oxides 46654. Phenomenology of Transport inProton-Conducting Materials for Fuel-CellApplications46664.1. Hydrated Acidic Polymers 46664.2. PBI−H

1,915 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the area encompassing modified PFSA membranes, alternative sulfonated polymer and their composite membranes, and acid−base complex membranes is presented. But the authors do not discuss the performance of the composite membranes.
Abstract: The state-of-the-art of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is based on perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer membranes operating at a typical temperature of 80 °C. Some of the key issues and shortcomings of the PFSA-based PEMFC technology are briefly discussed. These include water management, CO poisoning, hydrogen, reformate and methanol as fuels, cooling, and heat recovery. As a means to solve these shortcomings, high-temperature polymer electrolyte membranes for operation above 100 °C are under active development. This treatise is devoted to a review of the area encompassing modified PFSA membranes, alternative sulfonated polymer and their composite membranes, and acid−base complex membranes. PFSA membranes have been modified by swelling with nonvolatile solvents and preparing composites with hydrophilic oxides and solid proton conductors. DMFC and H2/O2(air) cells based on modified PFSA membranes have been successfully operated at temperatures up to 120 °C under ambient pressure...

1,595 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Polyimides rank among the most heat-resistant polymers and are widely used in high temperature plastics, adhesives, dielectrics, photoresists, nonlinear optical materials, membrane materials for separation, and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, among others as mentioned in this paper.

1,534 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a unified scheme combining molecular dynamics and density-functional theory is presented, which makes possible the simulation of both covalently bonded and metallic systems and permits the application of density functional theory to much larger systems than previously feasible.
Abstract: We present a unified scheme that, by combining molecular dynamics and density-functional theory, profoundly extends the range of both concepts. Our approach extends molecular dynamics beyond the usual pair-potential approximation, thereby making possible the simulation of both covalently bonded and metallic systems. In addition it permits the application of density-functional theory to much larger systems than previously feasible. The new technique is demonstrated by the calculation of some static and dynamic properties of crystalline silicon within a self-consistent pseudopotential framework.

8,852 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a mechanism for electron transfer reactions is described, in which there is very little spatial overlap of the electronic orbitals of the two reacting molecules in the activated complex, and a quantitative theory of the rates of oxidation reduction reactions involving electron transfer in solution is presented.
Abstract: A mechanism for electron transfer reactions is described, in which there is very little spatial overlap of the electronic orbitals of the two reacting molecules in the activated complex. Assuming such a mechanism, a quantitative theory of the rates of oxidation‐reduction reactions involving electron transfer in solution is presented. The assumption of "slight‐overlap" is shown to lead to a reaction path which involves an intermediate state X* in which the electrical polarization of the solvent does not have the usual value appropriate for the given ionic charges (i.e., it does not have an equilibrium value). Using an equation developed elsewhere for the electrostatic free energy of nonequilibrium states, the free energy of all possible intermediate states is calculated. The characteristics of the most probable state are then determined with the aid of the calculus of variations by minimizing its free energy subject to certain restraints. A simple expression for the electrostatic contribution to the free energy of formation of the intermediate state from the reactants, ΔF*, is thereby obtained in terms of known quantities, such as ionic radii, charges, and the standard free energy of reaction. This intermediate state X* can either disappear to reform the reactants, or by an electronic jump mechanism to form a state X in which the ions are characteristic of the products. When the latter process is more probable than the former, the over‐all reaction rate is shown to be simply the rate of formation of the intermediate state, namely the collision number in solution multiplied by exp(—ΔF*/kT). Evidence in favor of this is cited. In a detailed quantitative comparison, given elsewhere, with the kinetic data, no arbitrary parameters are needed to obtain reasonable agreement of calculated and experimental results.

5,265 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jul 1961-Nature
TL;DR: Coupling of Phosphorylation to Electron and Hydrogen Transfer by a Chemi-Osmotic type of Mechanism is described.
Abstract: Coupling of Phosphorylation to Electron and Hydrogen Transfer by a Chemi-Osmotic type of Mechanism

4,039 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Aug 1994-Nature
TL;DR: The crystal structure of bovine mitochondrial F1-ATPase determined at 2.8 Å resolution supports a catalytic mechanism in intact ATP synthase in which the three catalytic subunits are in different states of the catalytic cycle at any instant.
Abstract: In the crystal structure of bovine mitochondrial F1-ATPase determined at 2.8 A resolution, the three catalytic beta-subunits differ in conformation and in the bound nucleotide. The structure supports a catalytic mechanism in intact ATP synthase in which the three catalytic subunits are in different states of the catalytic cycle at any instant. Interconversion of the states may be achieved by rotation of the alpha 3 beta 3 subassembly relative to an alpha-helical domain of the gamma-subunit.

2,878 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the spectral and x-ray properties of water and ionic solutions have been deduced quantitatively in good agreement with experiment using a model of the water molecule derived from spectral and X-ray data.
Abstract: On the basis of the model of the water molecule derived from spectral and x-ray data and a proposed internal structure for water, the following properties of water and ionic solutions have been deduced quantitatively in good agreement with experiment. (1) The crystal structure of ice. (2) The x-ray diffraction curve for water. (3) The total energy of water and ice. (4) The degree of hydration of positive and negative ions in water. (5) The heat of solutions of ions. (6) The mobility of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in water. And the following inferred in a qualitative way. (7) The density and density changes of water. (8) The explanation of the unique position of water among molecular liquids. (9) The dielectric properties of water and ice. (10) The viscosities of dilute ionic solutions. (11) The viscosities of concentrated acids.

2,835 citations