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Journal ArticleDOI

Pt–WO3 supported on carbon nanotubes as possible anodes for direct methanol fuel cells

TL;DR: In this article, the carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesised by the template carbonisation of polypyrrole on alumina membrane has been used as the support for Pt-WO3, Pt-Ru, and Pt.
About: This article is published in Fuel.The article was published on 2002-12-01. It has received 146 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Cyclic voltammetry & Carbon nanotube.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The research focuses on the durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), in particular, membrane degradation, and he has been involved in NEDO R&D research projects on PEFC durability since 2001.
Abstract: Rod Borup is a Team Leader in the fuel cell program at Los Alamos National Lab in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He received his B.S.E. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Iowa in 1988 and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1993. He has worked on fuel cell technology since 1994, working in the areas of hydrogen production and PEM fuel cell stack components. He has been awarded 12 U.S. patents, authored over 40 papers related to fuel cell technology, and presented over 50 oral papers at national meetings. His current main research area is related to water transport in PEM fuel cells and PEM fuel cell durability. Recently, he was awarded the 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program R&D Award for the most significant R&D contribution of the year for his team's work in fuel cell durability and was the Principal Investigator for the 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar (San Antonio, TX, USA) Best Poster Award. Jeremy Meyers is an Assistant Professor of materials science and engineering and mechanical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, where his research focuses on the development of electrochemical energy systems and materials. Prior to joining the faculty at Texas, Jeremy workedmore » as manager of the advanced transportation technology group at UTC Power, where he was responsible for developing new system designs and components for automotive PEM fuel cell power plants. While at UTC Power, Jeremy led several customer development projects and a DOE-sponsored investigation into novel catalysts and membranes for PEM fuel cells. Jeremy has coauthored several papers on key mechanisms of fuel cell degradation and is a co-inventor of several patents. In 2006, Jeremy and several colleagues received the George Mead Medal, UTC's highest award for engineering achievement, and he served as the co-chair of the Gordon Research Conference on fuel cells. Jeremy received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley and holds a Bachelor's Degree in Chemical Engineering from Stanford University. Bryan Pivovar received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin in 1994. He completed his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at the University of Minnesota in 2000 under the direction of Profs. Ed Cussler and Bill Smyrl, studying transport properties in fuel cell electrolytes. He continued working in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a post-doc (2000-2001), as a technical staff member (2001-2005), and in his current position as a team leader (2005-present). In this time, Bryan's research has expanded to include further aspects of fuel cell operation, including electrodes, subfreezing effects, alternative polymers, hydroxide conductors, fuel cell interfaces, impurities, water transport, and high-temperature membranes. Bryan has served at various levels in national and international conferences and workshops, including organizing a DOE sponsored workshop on freezing effects in fuel cells and an ARO sponsored workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells, and he was co-chair of the 2007 Gordon Research Conference on Fuel Cells. Minoru Inaba is a Professor at the Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Japan. He received his B.Sc. from the Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, in 1984 and his M.Sc. in 1986 and his Dr. Eng. in 1995 from the Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University. He has worked on electrochemical energy conversion systems including fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries at Kyoto University (1992-2002) and at Doshisha University (2002-present). His primary research interest is the durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), in particular, membrane degradation, and he has been involved in NEDO R&D research projects on PEFC durability since 2001. He has authored over 140 technical papers and 30 review articles. Kenichiro Ota is a Professor of the Chemical Energy Laboratory at the Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Japan. He received his B.S.E. in Applied Chemistry from the University of Tokyo in 1968 and his Ph.D. from the University of Tokyo in 1973. He has worked on hydrogen energy and fuel cells since 1974, working on materials science for fuel cells and water electrolysis. He has published more than 150 original papers, 70 review papers, and 50 scientific books. He is now the president of the Hydrogen Energy Systems Society of Japan, the chairman of the Fuel Cell Research Group of the Electrochemical Society of Japan, and the chairman of the National Committee for the Standardization of the Stationary Fuel Cells. ABSTRACT TRUNCATED« less

2,921 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanofibers as catalysts and catalysts supports has been analyzed from the early 1990s until the beginning of 2003.
Abstract: This review analyses the literature from the early 1990s until the beginning of 2003 and covers the use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanofibers as catalysts and catalysts supports. The article is composed of three sections, the first one explains why these materials can be suitable for these applications, the second describes the different preparation methods for supporting metallic catalysts on these supports, and the last one details the catalytic results obtained with nanotubes or nanofibers based catalysts. When possible, the results were compared to those obtained on classical carbonaceous supports and explanations are proposed to clarify the different behaviors observed.

1,742 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: More than 100 articles related to anode catalysts for the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) are reviewed, mainly focusing on the three most active areas: (1) progress in preparation methods of Pt-Ru catalysts with respect to activity improvement and utilization optimization; (2) preparation of novel carbon materials as catalyst supports to create a highly dispersed and stably supported catalysts; (3) exploration of new catalysts having a low noble metal content and non-noble metal elements through fast activity down-selection methods such as combinatorial methods.

1,607 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of carbon supports for Pt-based catalysts, with particular attention on new carbon materials, is presented in this paper, where the effect of substrate characteristics on catalyst properties, as electrocatalytic activity and stability in fuel cell environment, is discussed.
Abstract: To increase their electrochemically active surface area, catalysts supported on high surface area materials, commonly carbons, are widely used in low-temperature fuel cells. Recent studies have revealed that the physical properties of the carbon support can greatly affect the electrochemical properties of the fuel cell catalyst. It has been reported that carbon materials with both high surface area and good crystallinity can not only provide a high dispersion of Pt nanoparticles, but also facilitate electron transfer, resulting in better device performance. On this basis, novel non-conventional carbon materials have attracted much interest as electrocatalyst support because of their good electrical and mechanical properties and their versatility in pore size and pore distribution tailoring. These materials present a different morphology than carbon blacks both at the nanoscopic level in terms of their pore texture (for example mesopore carbon) and at the macroscopic level in terms of their form (for example microsphere). The examples are supports produced from ordered mesoporous carbons, carbon aerogels, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanohorns, carbon nanocoils and carbon nanofibers. The challenge is to develop carbon supports with high surface area, good electrical conductivity, suitable porosity to allow good reactant flux, and high stability in fuel cell environment, utilizing synthesis methods simple and not too expensive. This paper presents an overview of carbon supports for Pt-based catalysts, with particular attention on new carbon materials. The effect of substrate characteristics on catalyst properties, as electrocatalytic activity and stability in fuel cell environment, is discussed.

1,122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the recent advances in the stability improvement of the Pt/C cathodic catalysts in PEMFC, especially focusing on the durability enhancement through the improved Pt-C interaction.

780 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Sumio Iijima1
01 Nov 1991-Nature
TL;DR: Iijima et al. as mentioned in this paper reported the preparation of a new type of finite carbon structure consisting of needle-like tubes, which were produced using an arc-discharge evaporation method similar to that used for fullerene synthesis.
Abstract: THE synthesis of molecular carbon structures in the form of C60 and other fullerenes1 has stimulated intense interest in the structures accessible to graphitic carbon sheets. Here I report the preparation of a new type of finite carbon structure consisting of needle-like tubes. Produced using an arc-discharge evaporation method similar to that used for fullerene synthesis, the needles grow at the negative end of the electrode used for the arc discharge. Electron microscopy reveals that each needle comprises coaxial tubes of graphitic sheets, ranging in number from 2 up to about 50. On each tube the carbon-atom hexagons are arranged in a helical fashion about the needle axis. The helical pitch varies from needle to needle and from tube to tube within a single needle. It appears that this helical structure may aid the growth process. The formation of these needles, ranging from a few to a few tens of nanometres in diameter, suggests that engineering of carbon structures should be possible on scales considerably greater than those relevant to the fullerenes. On 7 November 1991, Sumio Iijima announced in Nature the preparation of nanometre-size, needle-like tubes of carbon — now familiar as 'nanotubes'. Used in microelectronic circuitry and microscopy, and as a tool to test quantum mechanics and model biological systems, nanotubes seem to have unlimited potential.

39,086 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ad-electrode has the same electrocatalytic characteristics as the alloy electrode for the oxidation of methanol on the Ru-Pt catalyst system as discussed by the authors.

1,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Apr 1996-Science
TL;DR: In this article, a force microscope equipped with a conducting probe tip has been used to map simultaneously the structure and resistance of the portion of the material protruding from the macroscopic contact.
Abstract: A general approach has been developed to determine the conductivity of individual nanostructures while simultaneously recording their structure. Conventional lithography has been used to contact electrically single ends of nanomaterials, and a force microscope equipped with a conducting probe tip has been used to map simultaneously the structure and resistance of the portion of the material protruding from the macroscopic contact. Studies of individual carbon nanotubes demonstrate that the structurally most perfect nanotubes have resistivities an order of magnitude lower than those found previously and that defects in the nanotube structure cause substantial increases in the resistivity.

980 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new approach for preparing graphitic carbon nanofiber and nanotube ensembles was developed, which entails chemical vapor deposition (CVD) based synthesis of carbon within the pores of an alumina template membrane with or without a Ni catalyst.
Abstract: We have developed a new approach for preparing graphitic carbon nanofiber and nanotube ensembles. This approach entails chemical vapor deposition (CVD) based synthesis of carbon within the pores of an alumina template membrane with or without a Ni catalyst. Ethylene or pyrene was used in the CVD process with reactor temperatures of 545 °C for Ni-catalyzed CVD and 900 °C for the uncatalyzed process. The resultant carbon nanostructures were uniform hollow tubes with open ends. Increasing the deposition time converted the carbon nanotubes into carbon nanofibers. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction data show the as deposited graphitic carbon nanofibers synthesized with the Ni catalyst were not highly ordered. Heating the carbon-containing membrane at 500 °C for 36 h, however, converts the carbon nanofibers into highly ordered graphite. The electron diffraction data show a spotted diffraction pattern characteristic of single-crystal graphite with the graphitic planes parallel to the long ...

719 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a colloid method was used to synthesize polymetallic PEM catalysts for anodic anodic oxidation of H2 containing 150ppm CO and of methanol.

449 citations