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Book ChapterDOI

Public-key cryptosystems based on composite degree residuosity classes

02 May 1999-Vol. 1592, pp 223-238

TL;DR: A new trapdoor mechanism is proposed and three encryption schemes are derived : a trapdoor permutation and two homomorphic probabilistic encryption schemes computationally comparable to RSA, which are provably secure under appropriate assumptions in the standard model.
Abstract: This paper investigates a novel computational problem, namely the Composite Residuosity Class Problem, and its applications to public-key cryptography. We propose a new trapdoor mechanism and derive from this technique three encryption schemes : a trapdoor permutation and two homomorphic probabilistic encryption schemes computationally comparable to RSA. Our cryptosystems, based on usual modular arithmetics, are provably secure under appropriate assumptions in the standard model.
Topics: Probabilistic encryption (66%), Trapdoor function (65%), Paillier cryptosystem (58%), Cryptography (57%), Encryption (56%)
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Craig Gentry1Institutions (1)
31 May 2009-
TL;DR: This work proposes a fully homomorphic encryption scheme that allows one to evaluate circuits over encrypted data without being able to decrypt, and describes a public key encryption scheme using ideal lattices that is almost bootstrappable.
Abstract: We propose a fully homomorphic encryption scheme -- i.e., a scheme that allows one to evaluate circuits over encrypted data without being able to decrypt. Our solution comes in three steps. First, we provide a general result -- that, to construct an encryption scheme that permits evaluation of arbitrary circuits, it suffices to construct an encryption scheme that can evaluate (slightly augmented versions of) its own decryption circuit; we call a scheme that can evaluate its (augmented) decryption circuit bootstrappable.Next, we describe a public key encryption scheme using ideal lattices that is almost bootstrappable.Lattice-based cryptosystems typically have decryption algorithms with low circuit complexity, often dominated by an inner product computation that is in NC1. Also, ideal lattices provide both additive and multiplicative homomorphisms (modulo a public-key ideal in a polynomial ring that is represented as a lattice), as needed to evaluate general circuits.Unfortunately, our initial scheme is not quite bootstrappable -- i.e., the depth that the scheme can correctly evaluate can be logarithmic in the lattice dimension, just like the depth of the decryption circuit, but the latter is greater than the former. In the final step, we show how to modify the scheme to reduce the depth of the decryption circuit, and thereby obtain a bootstrappable encryption scheme, without reducing the depth that the scheme can evaluate. Abstractly, we accomplish this by enabling the encrypter to start the decryption process, leaving less work for the decrypter, much like the server leaves less work for the decrypter in a server-aided cryptosystem.

4,940 citations


Cites background from "Public-key cryptosystems based on c..."

  • ...Other additively homomorphic encryption schemes with proofs of semantic security are Benaloh [8], Naccache-Stern [42], Okamoto-Uchiyama [46], Paillier [ 47 ], and Damgard-Jurik [19]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Lindell1, Pinkas2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: This work considers a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information, and proposes a protocol that is considerably more efficient than generic solutions and demands both very few rounds of communication and reasonable bandwidth.
Abstract: In this paper we address the issue of privacy preserving data mining. Specifically, we consider a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information. Our work is motivated by the need both to protect privileged information and to enable its use for research or other purposes. The above problem is a specific example of secure multi-party computation and, as such, can be solved using known generic protocols. However, data mining algorithms are typically complex and, furthermore, the input usually consists of massive data sets. The generic protocols in such a case are of no practical use and therefore more efficient protocols are required. We focus on the problem of decision tree learning with the popular ID3 algorithm. Our protocol is considerably more efficient than generic solutions and demands both very few rounds of communication and reasonable bandwidth.

1,979 citations


Cites methods from "Public-key cryptosystems based on c..."

  • ...It can be converted to one which computes P (z) using the methods of Paillier [18], who presented a trapdoor for computing discrete logs....

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  • ...[18] P. Paillier, Public-Key Cryptosystems Based on Composite Degree Residuocity Classes....

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  • ...It can be converted to one which computes P (z) using the methodsof Paillier [18], who presented a trapdoor for computing discrete logs....

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Book ChapterDOI
Dan Boneh1, Eu-Jin Goh1, Kobbi Nissim2Institutions (2)
10 Feb 2005-
TL;DR: A homomorphic public key encryption scheme that allows the public evaluation of ψ given an encryption of the variables x1,...,xn and can evaluate quadratic multi-variate polynomials on ciphertexts provided the resulting value falls within a small set.
Abstract: Let ψ be a 2-DNF formula on boolean variables x1,...,xn ∈ {0,1}. We present a homomorphic public key encryption scheme that allows the public evaluation of ψ given an encryption of the variables x1,...,xn. In other words, given the encryption of the bits x1,...,xn, anyone can create the encryption of ψ(x1,...,xn). More generally, we can evaluate quadratic multi-variate polynomials on ciphertexts provided the resulting value falls within a small set. We present a number of applications of the system: In a database of size n, the total communication in the basic step of the Kushilevitz-Ostrovsky PIR protocol is reduced from $\sqrt{n}$ to $\sqrt[3]{n}$. An efficient election system based on homomorphic encryption where voters do not need to include non-interactive zero knowledge proofs that their ballots are valid. The election system is proved secure without random oracles but still efficient. A protocol for universally verifiable computation.

1,588 citations


Cites background or methods from "Public-key cryptosystems based on c..."

  • ...These interactive zero knowledge proofs of bit encryption are efficiently constructed (using zero knowledge identification protocols) for standard homomorphic encryption schemes such as ElGamal [13, 21], Pedersen [29, 10], or Paillier [28, 12]....

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  • ...Using a construction along the lines of Paillier [28], we obtain a system with an additive homomorphism....

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  • ...Current homomorphic public key systems [20, 13, 28] have limited homomorphic properties: given two ciphertexts Encrypt(PK, x) and Encrypt(PK, y), anyone can compute either the sum Encrypt(PK, x+y), or the product Encrypt(PK, xy), but not both....

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  • ...The system resembles the Paillier [28] and the Okamoto-Uchiyama [27] encryption schemes....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Oct 2011-
Abstract: We present a fully homomorphic encryption scheme that is based solely on the(standard) learning with errors (LWE) assumption. Applying known results on LWE, the security of our scheme is based on the worst-case hardness of ``short vector problems'' on arbitrary lattices. Our construction improves on previous works in two aspects:\begin{enumerate}\item We show that ``somewhat homomorphic'' encryption can be based on LWE, using a new {\em re-linearization} technique. In contrast, all previous schemes relied on complexity assumptions related to ideals in various rings. \item We deviate from the "squashing paradigm'' used in all previous works. We introduce a new {\em dimension-modulus reduction} technique, which shortens the cipher texts and reduces the decryption complexity of our scheme, {\em without introducing additional assumptions}. \end{enumerate}Our scheme has very short cipher texts and we therefore use it to construct an asymptotically efficient LWE-based single-server private information retrieval (PIR) protocol. The communication complexity of our protocol (in the public-key model) is $k \cdot \polylog(k)+\log \dbs$ bits per single-bit query (here, $k$ is a security parameter).

1,450 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Oct 2011-
TL;DR: The evaluation shows that CryptDB has low overhead, reducing throughput by 14.5% for phpBB, a web forum application, and by 26% for queries from TPC-C, compared to unmodified MySQL.
Abstract: Online applications are vulnerable to theft of sensitive information because adversaries can exploit software bugs to gain access to private data, and because curious or malicious administrators may capture and leak data. CryptDB is a system that provides practical and provable confidentiality in the face of these attacks for applications backed by SQL databases. It works by executing SQL queries over encrypted data using a collection of efficient SQL-aware encryption schemes. CryptDB can also chain encryption keys to user passwords, so that a data item can be decrypted only by using the password of one of the users with access to that data. As a result, a database administrator never gets access to decrypted data, and even if all servers are compromised, an adversary cannot decrypt the data of any user who is not logged in. An analysis of a trace of 126 million SQL queries from a production MySQL server shows that CryptDB can support operations over encrypted data for 99.5% of the 128,840 columns seen in the trace. Our evaluation shows that CryptDB has low overhead, reducing throughput by 14.5% for phpBB, a web forum application, and by 26% for queries from TPC-C, compared to unmodified MySQL. Chaining encryption keys to user passwords requires 11--13 unique schema annotations to secure more than 20 sensitive fields and 2--7 lines of source code changes for three multi-user web applications.

1,148 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key.
Abstract: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences: (1) Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered using an encryption key publicly revealed by the intented recipient. Only he can decipher the message, since only he knows the corresponding decryption key. (2) A message can be “signed” using a privately held decryption key. Anyone can verify this signature using the corresponding publicly revealed encryption key. Signatures cannot be forged, and a signer cannot later deny the validity of his signature. This has obvious applications in “electronic mail” and “electronic funds transfer” systems. A message is encrypted by representing it as a number M, raising M to a publicly specified power e, and then taking the remainder when the result is divided by the publicly specified product, n, of two large secret primer numbers p and q. Decryption is similar; only a different, secret, power d is used, where e * d ≡ 1(mod (p - 1) * (q - 1)). The security of the system rests in part on the difficulty of factoring the published divisor, n.

14,611 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Whitfield Diffie1, Martin E. Hellman1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This paper suggests ways to solve currently open problems in cryptography, and discusses how the theories of communication and computation are beginning to provide the tools to solve cryptographic problems of long standing.
Abstract: Two kinds of contemporary developments in cryptography are examined. Widening applications of teleprocessing have given rise to a need for new types of cryptographic systems, which minimize the need for secure key distribution channels and supply the equivalent of a written signature. This paper suggests ways to solve these currently open problems. It also discusses how the theories of communication and computation are beginning to provide the tools to solve cryptographic problems of long standing.

14,068 citations


"Public-key cryptosystems based on c..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Since the discovery of public-key cryptography by Die and Hellman [ 5 ], very few convincingly secure asymetric schemes have been discovered despite considerable research eorts....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Taher Elgamal1Institutions (1)
23 Aug 1985-
TL;DR: A new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the Diffie-Hellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem that relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields.
Abstract: A new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the Diffie-Hellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields.

6,871 citations


"Public-key cryptosystems based on c..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Another famous technique, related to Die-Hellman-type schemes (El Gamal [ 7 ], DSA, McCurley [14], etc.) combines the homomorphic properties of the modular exponentiation and the intractability of extracting discrete logarithms over nite groups....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Mihir Bellare1, Phillip Rogaway1Institutions (1)
01 Dec 1993-
TL;DR: It is argued that the random oracles model—where all parties have access to a public random oracle—provides a bridge between cryptographic theory and cryptographic practice, and yields protocols much more efficient than standard ones while retaining many of the advantages of provable security.
Abstract: We argue that the random oracle model—where all parties have access to a public random oracle—provides a bridge between cryptographic theory and cryptographic practice. In the paradigm we suggest, a practical protocol P is produced by first devising and proving correct a protocol PR for the random oracle model, and then replacing oracle accesses by the computation of an “appropriately chosen” function h. This paradigm yields protocols much more efficient than standard ones while retaining many of the advantages of provable security. We illustrate these gains for problems including encryption, signatures, and zero-knowledge proofs.

4,977 citations


"Public-key cryptosystems based on c..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Finally, denoting by h : N 7→ {0, 1}k ⊂ Zn2 a hash function see as a random oracle [2], we obtain a digital signature scheme as follows....

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