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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CMI.2021.02.019

Pulmonary long-term consequences of COVID-19 infections after hospital discharge.

02 Mar 2021-Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Elsevier)-Vol. 27, Iss: 6, pp 892-896
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors are reporting residual abnormalities after discharge from hospital. Limited information is available about this stage of recovery or the lingering effects of the virus on pulmonary function and inflammation. This study aimed to describe lung function in patients recovering from COVID-19 hospitalization and to identify biomarkers in serum and induced sputum samples from these patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to Spanish hospitals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection by a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were recruited for this study. Each hospital screened their lists of discharged patients at least 45 days after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were divided into mild/moderate and severe disease groups according to the severity of their symptoms during hospitalization. Patients' epidemiological and medical histories, comorbidities, chronic treatments, and laboratory parameters were evaluated. Pulmonary function tests, the standardized 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and chest computed tomography (CT) were also performed. The levels of proteases, their inhibitors, and shed receptors were measured in serum and induced sputum samples. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients with respiratory function tests were included in this study. The median number of days after the onset of symptoms was 104 (IQR 89.25, 126.75). COVID-19 was severe in 47% of patients (47/100). CT was normal in 48% of patients (48/100). Lung function was normal forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) ≥80%, forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥80%, FEV1/FVC ≥0.7, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≥80% in 92% (92/100), 94% (94/100), 100% (100/100) and 48% (48/100) of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a DLCO <80% (OR 5.92; 95%CI 2.28-15.37; p < 0.0001) and a lower serum lactate dehydrogenase level (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.97-0.99) were associated with the severe disease group of SARS-CoV-2 cases during hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: A diffusion deficit (DLCO <80%) was still present after hospital discharge and was associated with the most severe SARS-CoV-2 cases.

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Topics: Pulmonary function testing (58%), Respiratory function (57%), Diffusing capacity (57%) ... read more
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10 results found


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.12.08.20246025
Melina Michelen1, Melina Michelen2, Vincent Cheng3, Lakshmi Manoharan2  +19 moreInstitutions (8)
09 Dec 2020-medRxiv
Abstract: Background: While it is now apparent clinical sequelae (often called Long Covid) may persist after acute Covid-19, their nature, frequency, and aetiology are poorly characterised. This study aims to regularly synthesise evidence on Long Covid characteristics, to inform clinical management, rehabilitation, and interventional studies to improve long term outcomes. Methods: A living systematic review. Medline, CINAHL (EBSCO), Global Health (Ovid), WHO Global Research Database on Covid-19, LitCOVID, and Google Scholar were searched up to 17th March 2021. Published studies including at least 100 people with confirmed or clinically suspected Covid-19 at 12 weeks or more post-onset were included. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and meta-analyses to estimate prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Thirty-nine studies were included: 32 cohort, six cross-sectional, and one case-control. Most showed high or moderate risk of bias. None were set in low-income countries, limited studies included children. Studies reported on 10,951 people (48% female) in 12 countries. Most followed-up post hospital discharge (78%, 8520/10951). The longest mean follow-up was 221.7 (SD: 10.9) days post Covid-19 onset. An extensive range of symptoms with wide prevalence was reported, most commonly weakness (41%; 95% CI 25% to 59%), malaise (33%; 95% CI 15% to 57%), fatigue (31%; 95% CI 24% to 39%), concentration impairment (26%; 95% CI 21% to 32%), and breathlessness (25%; 95% CI 18% to 34%). Other frequent symptoms included musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychological. 37% (95% CI 18% to 60%) of people reported reduced quality of life. Conclusion: Long Covid is a complex condition with heterogeneous symptoms. The nature of the studies precludes a precise case definition or evaluation of risk factors. There is an urgent need for prospective, robust, standardised controlled studies into aetiology, risk factors, and biomarkers to characterise Long Covid in different at-risk populations and settings. Systematic review registration: The protocol was prospectively registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42020211131).

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30 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01755-4
Lixue Huang1, Qun Yao2, Xiaoying Gu3, Qiongya Wang2  +24 moreInstitutions (4)
28 Aug 2021-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background The full range of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in patients who are discharged from hospital is largely unclear. The aim of our study was to comprehensively compare consequences between 6 months and 12 months after symptom onset among hospital survivors with COVID-19. Methods We undertook an ambidirectional cohort study of COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit, survivors were interviewed with questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and received a physical examination, a 6-min walking test, and laboratory tests. They were required to report their health-care use after discharge and work status at the 12-month visit. Survivors who had completed pulmonary function tests or had lung radiographic abnormality at 6 months were given the corresponding tests at 12 months. Non-COVID-19 participants (controls) matched for age, sex, and comorbidities were interviewed and completed questionnaires to assess prevalent symptoms and HRQoL. The primary outcomes were symptoms, modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, HRQoL, and distance walked in 6 min (6MWD). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors of 12-month outcomes. Findings 1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0–67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0–198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0–361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p Interpretation Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, the China Evergrande Group, Jack Ma Foundation, Sino Biopharmaceutical, Ping An Insurance (Group), and New Sunshine Charity Foundation.

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Topics: Cohort study (55%), Cohort (53%), Quality of life (50%)

20 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJGH-2021-005427
01 Sep 2021-BMJ Global Health
Abstract: Background: While it is now apparent clinical sequelae (often called Long Covid) may persist after acute Covid-19, their nature, frequency, and aetiology are poorly characterised. This study aims to regularly synthesise evidence on Long Covid characteristics, to inform clinical management, rehabilitation, and interventional studies to improve long term outcomes. Methods: A living systematic review. Medline, CINAHL (EBSCO), Global Health (Ovid), WHO Global Research Database on Covid-19, LitCOVID, and Google Scholar were searched up to 17th March 2021. Published studies including at least 100 people with confirmed or clinically suspected Covid-19 at 12 weeks or more post-onset were included. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and meta-analyses to estimate prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Thirty-nine studies were included: 32 cohort, six cross-sectional, and one case-control. Most showed high or moderate risk of bias. None were set in low-income countries, limited studies included children. Studies reported on 10,951 people (48% female) in 12 countries. Most followed-up post hospital discharge (78%, 8520/10951). The longest mean follow-up was 221.7 (SD: 10.9) days post Covid-19 onset. An extensive range of symptoms with wide prevalence was reported, most commonly weakness (41%; 95% CI 25% to 59%), malaise (33%; 95% CI 15% to 57%), fatigue (31%; 95% CI 24% to 39%), concentration impairment (26%; 95% CI 21% to 32%), and breathlessness (25%; 95% CI 18% to 34%). Other frequent symptoms included musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychological. 37% (95% CI 18% to 60%) of people reported reduced quality of life. Conclusion: Long Covid is a complex condition with heterogeneous symptoms. The nature of the studies precludes a precise case definition or evaluation of risk factors. There is an urgent need for prospective, robust, standardised controlled studies into aetiology, risk factors, and biomarkers to characterise Long Covid in different at-risk populations and settings. Systematic review registration: The protocol was prospectively registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42020211131).

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6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RESINV.2021.05.005
Abstract: Background The long-term repercussions of critical COVID-19 on pulmonary function and imaging studies remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated the pulmonary function and computed tomography (CT) findings of critical COVID-19 patients approximately 100 days after symptom onset. Methods We retrospectively extracted data on critical COVID-19 patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation during hospitalization from April to December 2020 and evaluated their pulmonary function, residual respiratory symptoms and radiographic abnormalities on CT. Results We extracted 17 patients whose median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR], 59–67) years. The median lengths of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation were 23 (IQR, 18–38) and 9 (IQR, 6–13) days, respectively. At 100 days after symptom onset, the following pulmonary function abnormalities were noted in 8 (47%) patients: a diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (%DLCO) of Conclusions Over 90% of the critical COVID-19 patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation continued presenting with abnormal imaging studies and 47% of the patients presented with abnormal pulmonary function 100 days after symptom onset. The extent of the residual CT findings might be associated with the degree of abnormal pulmonary function in critical COVID-19 survivors.

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Topics: Pulmonary function testing (61%), Interquartile range (54%), Mechanical ventilation (53%) ... read more

4 Citations



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34 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Puja Mehta1, Daniel F. McAuley2, Michael Brown3, Emilie Sanchez3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Published online March 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 1 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/ thelancet/ However, in hyperinflammation, immunosuppression is likely to be beneficial. Re-analysis of data from a phase 3 randomised controlled trial of IL-1 blockade (anakinra) in sepsis, showed significant survival benefit in patients with hyperinflammation, without increased adverse events. A multicentre, randomised con trolled trial of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor blockade, licensed for cytokine release syndrome), has been approved in patients with COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

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5,489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1183/09031936.05.00035205
Abstract: SERIES “ATS/ERS TASK FORCE: STANDARDISATION OF LUNG FUNCTION TESTING” Edited by V. Brusasco, R. Crapo and G. Viegi Number 5 in this Series This section is written to provide guidance in interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFTs) to medical directors of hospital-based laboratories that perform PFTs, and physicians who are responsible for interpreting the results of PFTs most commonly ordered for clinical purposes. Specifically, this section addresses the interpretation of spirometry, bronchodilator response, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity ( D L,CO) and lung volumes. The sources of variation in lung function testing and technical aspects of spirometry, lung volume measurements and D L,CO measurement have been considered in other documents published in this series of Task Force reports 1–4 and in the American Thoracic Society (ATS) interpretative strategies document 5. An interpretation begins with a review and comment on test quality. Tests that are less than optimal may still contain useful information, but interpreters should identify the problems and the direction and magnitude of the potential errors. Omitting the quality review and relying only on numerical results for clinical decision making is a common mistake, which is more easily made by those who are dependent upon computer interpretations. Once quality has been assured, the next steps involve a series of comparisons 6 that include comparisons of test results with reference values based on healthy subjects 5, comparisons with known disease or abnormal physiological patterns ( i.e. obstruction and restriction), and comparisons with self, a rather formal term for evaluating change in an individual patient. A final step in the lung function report is to answer the clinical question that prompted the test. Poor choices made during these preparatory steps increase the risk of misclassification, i.e. a falsely negative or falsely positive interpretation for a lung function abnormality or a change …

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4,507 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2015432
Abstract: Background Progressive respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Despite widespread interest in the pathophysiology of the dise...

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2,538 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.M1091
Tao Chen1, Di Wu1, Huilong Chen1, Weiming Yan1  +17 moreInstitutions (1)
26 Mar 2020-BMJ
Abstract: Objective To delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Participants Among a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020. Main outcome measures Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms. Results The median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83; 73%) than in recovered patients (88; 55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113; 100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35; 51%), sepsis (113; 100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94; 77%), heart failure (41/83; 49%), alkalosis (14/35; 40%), hyperkalaemia (42; 37%), acute kidney injury (28; 25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23; 20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients. Conclusion Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.

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Topics: Exacerbation (52%), Respiratory failure (52%), Heart failure (52%) ... read more

2,470 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30232-2
Yang Liu1, Li Meng Yan2, Lagen Wan2, Tian Xin Xiang1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: www.thelancet.com/infection Published online March 19, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30232-2 1 day of disease onset at the time of sampling. The DCt values of severe cases remained significantly lower for the first 12 days after onset than those of corresponding mild cases (figure A). We also studied serial samples from 21 mild and ten severe cases (figure B). Mild cases were found to have an early viral clearance, with 90% of these patients repeatedly testing negative on RT-PCR by day 10 post-onset. By contrast, all severe cases still tested positive at or beyond day 10 postonset. Overall, our data indicate that, similar to SARS in 2002–03, Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19

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Topics: Viral shedding (60%), Viral load (59%), Pneumonia (53%)

1,118 Citations