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Journal ArticleDOI

Pushing the limit: masticatory stress and adaptive plasticity in mammalian craniomandibular joints

15 Feb 2007-The Journal of Experimental Biology (J Exp Biol)-Vol. 210, Iss: 4, pp 628-641

TL;DR: It is argued that a critical component of current and future research on adaptive plasticity in the skull, and especially cranial joints, should employ a multifaceted characterization of a functional system, one that incorporates data on myriad tissues so as to evaluate the role of altered load versus differential tissue response on the anatomical, cellular and molecular processes that contribute to the strength of such composite structures.

AbstractExcessive, repetitive and altered loading have been implicated in the initiation of a series of soft- and hard-tissue responses or ;functional adaptations' of masticatory and locomotor elements. Such adaptive plasticity in tissue types appears designed to maintain a sufficient safety factor, and thus the integrity of given element or system, for a predominant loading environment(s). Employing a mammalian species for which considerable in vivo data on masticatory behaviors are available, genetically similar domestic white rabbits were raised on diets of different mechanical properties so as to develop an experimental model of joint function in a normal range of physiological loads. These integrative experiments are used to unravel the dynamic inter-relationships among mechanical loading, tissue adaptive plasticity, norms of reaction and performance in two cranial joint systems: the mandibular symphysis and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Here, we argue that a critical component of current and future research on adaptive plasticity in the skull, and especially cranial joints, should employ a multifaceted characterization of a functional system, one that incorporates data on myriad tissues so as to evaluate the role of altered load versus differential tissue response on the anatomical, cellular and molecular processes that contribute to the strength of such composite structures. Our study also suggests that the short-term duration of earlier analyses of cranial joint tissues may offer a limited notion of the complex process of developmental plasticity, especially as it relates to the effects of long-term variation in mechanical loads, when a joint is increasingly characterized by adaptive and degradative changes in tissue structure and composition. Indeed, it is likely that a component of the adaptive increases in rabbit TMJ and symphyseal proportions and biomineralization represent a compensatory mechanism to cartilage degradation that serves to maintain the overall functional integrity of each joint system. Therefore, while variation in cranial joint anatomy and performance among sister taxa is, in part, an epiphenomenon of interspecific differences in diet-induced masticatory stresses characterizing the individual ontogenies of the members of a species, this behavioral signal may be increasingly mitigated in over-loaded and perhaps older organisms by the interplay between adaptive and degradative tissue responses.

Topics: Developmental plasticity (51%)

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Citations
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TL;DR: Novel findings in biomedicine and developments in imaging and computer technologies are beginning to provide a vision of future innovations in the diagnostics and therapeutics of TMJ disorders, and the identification and use of local or systemic biomarkers to diagnose disease or monitor improvements in therapy.
Abstract: Because their etiologies and pathogenesis are poorly understood, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases are difficult to diagnose and manage. All current approaches to treatments of TMJ diseases are largely palliative. Definitive and rational diagnoses or treatments can only be achieved through a comprehensive understanding of the etiologies, predisposing factors, and pathogenesis of TMJ diseases. While much work remains to be done in this field, novel findings in biomedicine and developments in imaging and computer technologies are beginning to provide us with a vision of future innovations in the diagnostics and therapeutics of TMJ disorders. These advances include the identification and use of local or systemic biomarkers to diagnose disease or monitor improvements in therapy; the use of imaging technologies for earlier and more sensitive diagnostics; and the use of biomedicine, biomimetics, and imaging to design and manufacture bioengineered joints. Such advances are likely to help to customize and enhance the quality of care we provide to patients with TMJ disorders.

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Abstract: Myostatin (GDF-8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, and myostatin loss-of-function leads to doubling of skeletal muscle mass. Myostatin-deficient mice have been used as a model for studying muscle-bone interactions, and here we review the skeletal phenotype associated with altered myostatin signaling. It is now known that myostatin is a key regulator of mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and mice lacking the myostatin gene show decreased body fat and a generalized increase in bone density and strength. The increase in bone density is observed in most anatomical regions, including the limbs, spine, and jaw, and myostatin inhibitors have been observed to significantly increase bone formation. Myostatin is also expressed in the early phases of fracture healing, and myostatin deficiency leads to increased fracture callus size and strength. Together, these data suggest that myostatin has direct effects on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, and that myostatin antagonists and inhibitors are likely to enhance both muscle mass and bone strength.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head are presented to provide the anatomical foundation necessary for future analyses of skull function and evolution in an important vertebrate clade.
Abstract: Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in dinosaurs and provide the anatomical foundation necessary for future analyses of skull function and evolution in an important vertebrate clade.

129 citations


Cites background from "Pushing the limit: masticatory stre..."

  • ...Finally, feeding behavior and connective tissue adaptive plasticity are major factors involved in the structure and function of jaw muscles and the skull (Ravosa et al., 2007)....

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References
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4,556 citations


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"Pushing the limit: masticatory stre..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Using the NIST tabulation of mass attenuation coefficients (Hubbell and Selzer, 2001), the effective energy for Northwestern University’s Scanco MicroCT 40 operated at 70·kV is about 30·keV....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For thirty-two areas of cartilage from nine osteo-arthritic and four "normal" femoral heads a histologic-histochemical grade was assigned as an index of severity of the osteo -arthritic process.
Abstract: For thirty-two areas of cartilage from nine osteo-arthritic and four "normal" femoral heads a histologic-histochemical grade was assigned as an index of severity of the osteo-arthritic process. The DNA and hexosamine concentrations were determined as indicators of cell density and polysaccharide con

2,092 citations


"Pushing the limit: masticatory stre..." refers background in this paper

  • ...progressively deeper zones of TMJ articular cartilage are as follows: articular, filamentous network of elongate cells densely packed and tangentially arranged (high H2O, low proteoglycan, collagen rich); proliferative, ovoid or circular cells random in distribution (proteoglycan/protein production area); chondroblastic, large cell bundles arranged in columns (tidemark separates this from subjacent layer); hypertrophic chondrocyte/calcified, cells heavily encrusted in apatitic salts (Mankin et al., 1971; Newton and Nunamaker, 1985; Ostergaard et al., 1999)....

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  • ...Lower proteoglycan content throughout the FC pad and in the lower two layers of the condylar cartilage of O-diet rabbits mirrors findings for the articular surface of mammal limb elements, where age-related onset of cartilage degradation is linked to decreases in proteoglycan content (Mankin et al., 1971; Newton and Nunamaker, 1985; Haskin et al., 1995; Ostergaard et al., 1999)....

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  • ...…condylar cartilage of O-diet rabbits mirrors findings for the articular surface of mammal limb elements, where age-related onset of cartilage degradation is linked to decreases in proteoglycan content (Mankin et al., 1971; Newton and Nunamaker, 1985; Haskin et al., 1995; Ostergaard et al., 1999)....

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  • ...…(proteoglycan/protein production area); chondroblastic, large cell bundles arranged in columns (tidemark separates this from subjacent layer); hypertrophic chondrocyte/calcified, cells heavily encrusted in apatitic salts (Mankin et al., 1971; Newton and Nunamaker, 1985; Ostergaard et al., 1999)....

    [...]

  • ...…in cartilage composition reflect the early onset and progression of degenerative effects that compromise the structural integrity of a joint (Mankin et al., 1971; Newton and Nunamaker, 1985; Haskin et al., 1995; Kamelchuk and Major, 1995; Ishibashi et al., 1996; Ostergaard et al., 1999;…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that VEGF-mediated capillary invasion is an essential signal that regulates growth plate morphogenesis and triggers cartilage remodeling and VEGf is anessential coordinator of chondrocyte death, chondROclast function, extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and bone formation in the growth plate.
Abstract: Hypertrophic chondrocytes in the epiphyseal growth plate express the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To determine the role of VEGF in endochondral bone formation, we inactivated this factor through the systemic administration of a soluble receptor chimeric protein (Flt-(1-3)-IgG) to 24-day-old mice. Blood vessel invasion was almost completely suppressed, concomitant with impaired trabecular bone formation and expansion of hypertrophic chondrocyte zone. Recruitment and/or differentiation of chondroclasts, which express gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9, and resorption of terminal chondrocytes decreased. Although proliferation, differentiation and maturation of chondrocytes were apparently normal, resorption was inhibited. Cessation of the anti-VEGF treatment was followed by capillary invasion, restoration of bone growth, resorption of the hypertrophic cartilage and normalization of the growth plate architecture. These findings indicate that VEGF-mediated capillary invasion is an essential signal that regulates growth plate morphogenesis and triggers cartilage remodeling. Thus, VEGF is an essential coordinator of chondrocyte death, chondroclast function, extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and bone formation in the growth plate.

1,899 citations


"Pushing the limit: masticatory stre..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the growth plate of a joint, apoptosis is a normal terminal event for hypertrophic chondrocytes, and such cells express angiogenic factors initiating vascular invasion, erosion of mineralized cartilage and bone formation (Gerber et al., 1999)....

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Book
01 Jan 1976
TL;DR: This book reviews biological structural materials and systems and their mechanically important features and demonstrates that function at any particular level of biological integration is permitted and controlled by structure at lower levels of integration.
Abstract: This book deals with an interface between mechanical engineering and biology. Available for the first time in paperback, it reviews biological structural materials and systems and their mechanically important features and demonstrates that function at any particular level of biological integration is permitted and controlled by structure at lower levels of integration. Five chapters discuss the properties of materials in general and those of biomaterials in particular. The authors examine the design of skeletal elements and discuss animal and plant systems in terms of mechanical design. In a concluding chapter they investigate organisms in their environments and the insights gained from study of the mechanical aspects of their lives.

1,407 citations


"Pushing the limit: masticatory stre..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Material properties of experimental foods Using a portable food tester (Darvell et al., 1996; Lucas et al., 2001), the material properties of pellets and hay were assessed (Table·1) and were routinely monitored to ensure consistency (Wainright et al., 1976; Vincent, 1992; Lucas, 1994; Currey, 2002)....

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