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Journal ArticleDOI

Pushing the Limits of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry: Beyond Fungal Species Identification

16 Oct 2015-Journal of Fungi (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 1, Iss: 3, pp 367-383

AbstractMatrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) is a powerful analytical tool that has revolutionized microbial identification. Routinely used for bacterial identification, MALDI-TOF has recently been applied to both yeast and filamentous fungi, confirming its pivotal role in the rapid and reliable diagnosis of infections. Subspecies-level identification holds an important role in epidemiological investigations aimed at tracing virulent or drug resistant clones. This review focuses on present and future applications of this versatile tool in the clinical mycology laboratory.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current and future molecular technologies used for fungal identification, and some of the problems associated with development and implementation of these technologies in today’s clinical microbiology laboratories are discussed.
Abstract: Diagnosing fungal infections poses a number of unique problems, including a decline in expertise needed for identifying fungi, and a reduced number of instruments and assays specific for fungal identification compared to that of bacteria and viruses.These problems are exacerbated by the fact that patients with fungal infections are often immunosuppressed, which predisposes to infections from both commonly and rarely seen fungi. In this review, we discuss current and future molecular technologies used for fungal identification, and some of the problems associated with development and implementation of these technologies in today's clinical microbiology laboratories.

49 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This minireview aims to provide an overview of currently available online databases for the taxonomy and identification of human and animal-pathogenic fungi and calls for the establishment of a cloud-based dynamic data network platform.
Abstract: The increase in public online databases dedicated to fungal identification is noteworthy. This can be attributed to improved access to molecular approaches to characterize fungi, as well as to delineate species within specific fungal groups in the last 2 decades, leading to an ever-increasing complexity of taxonomic assortments and nomenclatural reassignments. Thus, well-curated fungal databases with substantial accurate sequence data play a pivotal role for further research and diagnostics in the field of mycology. This minireview aims to provide an overview of currently available online databases for the taxonomy and identification of human and animal-pathogenic fungi and calls for the establishment of a cloud-based dynamic data network platform.

27 citations


Cites background from "Pushing the Limits of MALDI-TOF Mas..."

  • ...complex and requires access to validated purpose-built databases of reference spectra (6, 7)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New molecular-based approaches for detecting triazole resistance to Aspergillus, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect mutations to the Cyp51A protein, have been developed which are able to detect mostTriazole-resistant A. fumigatus strains in patients with invasive aspergillosis.
Abstract: The incidence of invasive aspergillosis has increased substantially over the past few decades, accompanied by a change in susceptibility patterns of Aspergillus fumigatus with increasing resistance observed against triazole antifungals, including voriconazole and isavuconazole, the most commonly used antifungal agents for the disease. Culture-based methods for determining triazole resistance are still the gold standard but are time consuming and lack sensitivity. We sought to provide an update on non-culture-based methods for detecting resistance patterns to Aspergillus. New molecular-based approaches for detecting triazole resistance to Aspergillus, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect mutations to the Cyp51A protein, have been developed which are able to detect most triazole-resistant A. fumigatus strains in patients with invasive aspergillosis. Over the last few years, a number of non-culture-based methods for molecular detection of Aspergillus triazole resistance have been developed that may overcome some of the limitations of culture. These molecular methods are therefore of high epidemiological and clinical relevance, mainly in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies, where culture has particularly limited sensitivity. These assays are now able to detect most triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. Given that resistance rates vary, clinical utility for these assays still depends on regional resistance patterns.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fast, accurate and inexpensive molecular mass determination and the possibility of automation make MALDI-TOF-MS a real alternative to conventional morphological and molecular methods for AMF identification.
Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) are mutualistic symbionts associated with majority of land plants. These fungi play an important role in plant growth, but their taxonomic identification remains a challenge for academic research, culture collections and inoculum producers who need to certify their products. Identification of these fungi was traditionally performed based on their spore morphology. DNA sequence data have successfully been used to study the evolutionary relationships of AMF, develop molecular identification tools and assess their diversity in the environment. However, these methods require considerable expertise and are not well-adapted for “routine” quality control of culture collections and inoculum production. Here, we show that Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry proteomic-based biotyping is a highly efficient approach for AMF identification. Nineteen isolates belonging to fourteen species, seven genera and five families were clearly differentiated by MALDI biotyping at the species level, and intraspecific differentiation was achieved for the majority. AMF identification by MALDI biotyping could be highly useful, not only for research but also in agricultural and environmental applications. Fast, accurate and inexpensive molecular mass determination and the possibility of automation make MALDI-TOF-MS a real alternative to conventional morphological and molecular methods for AMF identification.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for species identification; in particular with respect to DNA-based identification methods is discussed, and the value of custom-made reference spectra for MalDI biotyping is highlighted.
Abstract: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; MALDI biotyping) has become a standard tool for the accurate, rapid, and economical identification of pathogens in the clinical diagnostics laboratory. The method is continuously being improved, and new applications for distinguishing strains, identifying metabolites or functional characteristics (e.g., antibiotic resistance), and detecting microbes directly in patient samples have been developed. Adopting these methods in other disciplines than clinical diagnostics, for example, in agriculture, food safety and quality testing, or ecology, will open up new opportunities for diagnostics and research. This review focuses on MALDI-TOF MS approaches for the identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi. In contrast to bacterial diagnostics, MALDI biotyping of fungi is more challenging and less established. We thus start by discussing the role of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for species identification; in particular with respect to DNA-based identification methods. The review then highlights the value of custom-made reference spectra for MALDI biotyping and points out recent advancements of MALDI-TOF MS, mainly from the field of clinical diagnostics that may be adopted and used for fungal diagnostic challenges. The overview ends with a summary of MALDI-TOF MS studies of yeasts and filamentous fungi of agricultural relevance.

12 citations


Cites background from "Pushing the Limits of MALDI-TOF Mas..."

  • ...Consequently, the majority of MALDI-TOF analyses of fungi so far have dealt with clinical isolates [33]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry accurately identifies both selected bacteria and bacteria in select clinical situations. It has not been evaluated for routine use in the clinic. Methods. We prospectively analyzed routine MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification in parallel with conventional phenotypic identification of bacteria regardless of phylum or source of isolation. Discrepancies were resolved by 16S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene sequence-based molecular identification. Colonies (4 spots per isolate directly deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate) were analyzed using an Autoflex II Bruker Daltonik mass spectrometer. Peptidic spectra were compared with the Bruker BioTyper database, version 2.0, and the identification score was noted. Delays and costs of identification were measured. Results. Of 1660 bacterial isolates analyzed, 95.4% were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; 84.1% were identified at the species level, and 11.3% were identified at the genus level. In most cases, absence of identification (2.8% of isolates) and erroneous identification (1.7% of isolates) were due to improper database entries. Accurate MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification was significantly correlated with having 10 reference spectra in the database (P = .01). The mean time required for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification of 1 isolate was 6 minutes for an estimated 22%-32% cost of current methods of identification. Conclusions. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is a cost-effective, accurate method for routine identification of bacterial isolates in <1 h using a database comprising ≥10 reference spectra per bacterial species and a ≥1.9 identification score (Brucker system). It may replace Gram staining and biochemical identification in the near future.

1,568 citations


"Pushing the Limits of MALDI-TOF Mas..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the past few years matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) has revolutionized medical microbiology [8], enabling rapid and accurate bacterial species identification (within a few minutes) with simple and reliable procedures [9]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs is discussed.
Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.

1,557 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The application of MALDI mass spectrometry to desorb protein biomarkers from intact viruses, bacteria, fungus, and spores is the focus of this review.
Abstract: The application of MALDI mass spectrometry to desorb protein biomarkers from intact viruses, bacteria, fungus, and spores is the focus of this review. Instrumentation, sample collection, sample preparation, and algorithms for data analysis are summarized. Optimally these analyses should be carried out in less than five minutes. Successful applications are discussed from biotechnology, cell biology, and the pharmaceutical industry.

772 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prognosis is poor and is determined largely by degree of immunosuppression and extent of infection, with virtually a 100% death rate among persistently neutropenic patients with disseminated disease.
Abstract: Fusarium species cause a broad spectrum of infections in humans, including superficial, locally invasive, and disseminated infections. The clinical form of fusariosis depends largely on the immune status of the host and the portal of entry, with superficial and localized disease occurring mostly in immunocompetent patients and invasive and disseminated disease affecting immunocompromised patients. Risk factors for severe fusariosis include prolonged neutropenia and T-cell immunodeficiency, especially in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with severe graft-versus-host disease. The most frequent presentation of disseminated fusariosis is a combination of characteristic cutaneous lesions and positive blood cultures, with or without lung or sinus involvement. The prognosis is poor and is determined largely by degree of immunosuppression and extent of infection, with virtually a 100% death rate among persistently neutropenic patients with disseminated disease. These infections may be clinically suspected on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy. Treatment options include the lipid formulations of amphotericin B, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Prevention of fusarial infection among high-risk patients should be considered.

722 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: MALDI-TOF MS has been used successfully for microbial typing and identification at the subspecies level, demonstrating that this technology is a potential efficient tool for epidemiological studies and for taxonomical classification.
Abstract: Until recently, microbial identification in clinical diagnostic laboratories has mainly relied on conventional phenotypic and gene sequencing identification techniques. The development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) devices has revolutionized the routine identification of microorganisms in clinical microbiology laboratories by introducing an easy, rapid, high throughput, low-cost, and efficient identification technique. This technology has been adapted to the constraint of clinical diagnostic laboratories and has the potential to replace and/or complement conventional identification techniques for both bacterial and fungal strains. Using standardized procedures, the resolution of MALDI-TOF MS allows accurate identification at the species level of most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains with the exception of a few difficult strains that require more attention and further development of the method. Similarly, the routine identification by MALDI-TOF MS of yeast isolates is reliable and much quicker than conventional techniques. Recent studies have shown that MALDI-TOF MS has also the potential to accurately identify filamentous fungi and dermatophytes, providing that specific standardized procedures are established for these microorganisms. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS has been used successfully for microbial typing and identification at the subspecies level, demonstrating that this technology is a potential efficient tool for epidemiological studies and for taxonomical classification.

619 citations


"Pushing the Limits of MALDI-TOF Mas..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the past few years matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) has revolutionized medical microbiology [8], enabling rapid and accurate bacterial species identification (within a few minutes) with simple and reliable procedures [9]....

    [...]