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Journal ArticleDOI

Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-oil: A Critical Review

10 Mar 2006-Energy & Fuels (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 20, Iss: 3, pp 848-889

AbstractFast pyrolysis utilizes biomass to produce a product that is used both as an energy source and a feedstock for chemical production. Considerable efforts have been made to convert wood biomass to liquid fuels and chemicals since the oil crisis in mid-1970s. This review focuses on the recent developments in the wood pyrolysis and reports the characteristics of the resulting bio-oils, which are the main products of fast wood pyrolysis. Virtually any form of biomass can be considered for fast pyrolysis. Most work has been performed on wood, because of its consistency and comparability between tests. However, nearly 100 types of biomass have been tested, ranging from agricultural wastes such as straw, olive pits, and nut shells to energy crops such as miscanthus and sorghum. Forestry wastes such as bark and thinnings and other solid wastes, including sewage sludge and leather wastes, have also been studied. In this review, the main (although not exclusive) emphasis has been given to wood. The literature on woo...

Topics: Pyrolysis oil (61%), Biomass to liquid (58%), Biomass (57%), Energy source (53%), Raw material (52%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056 4.1.
Abstract: 1.0. Introduction 4044 2.0. Biomass Chemistry and Growth Rates 4047 2.1. Lignocellulose and Starch-Based Plants 4047 2.2. Triglyceride-Producing Plants 4049 2.3. Algae 4050 2.4. Terpenes and Rubber-Producing Plants 4052 3.0. Biomass Gasification 4052 3.1. Gasification Chemistry 4052 3.2. Gasification Reactors 4054 3.3. Supercritical Gasification 4054 3.4. Solar Gasification 4055 3.5. Gas Conditioning 4055 4.0. Syn-Gas Utilization 4056 4.1. Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056

6,454 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper provides an updated review on fast pyrolysis of biomass for production of a liquid usually referred to as bio-oil. The technology of fast pyrolysis is described including the major reaction systems. The primary liquid product is characterised by reference to the many properties that impact on its use. These properties have caused increasingly extensive research to be undertaken to address properties that need modification and this area is reviewed in terms of physical, catalytic and chemical upgrading. Of particular note is the increasing diversity of methods and catalysts and particularly the complexity and sophistication of multi-functional catalyst systems. It is also important to see more companies involved in this technology area and increased take-up of evolving upgrading processes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

3,221 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biomass is an important feedstock for the renewable production of fuels, chemicals, and energy, and it recently surpassed hydroelectric energy as the largest domestic source of renewable energy.
Abstract: Biomass is an important feedstock for the renewable production of fuels, chemicals, and energy. As of 2005, over 3% of the total energy consumption in the United States was supplied by biomass, and it recently surpassed hydroelectric energy as the largest domestic source of renewable energy. Similarly, the European Union received 66.1% of its renewable energy from biomass, which thus surpassed the total combined contribution from hydropower, wind power, geothermal energy, and solar power. In addition to energy, the production of chemicals from biomass is also essential; indeed, the only renewable source of liquid transportation fuels is currently obtained from biomass.

3,137 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates, and some commercial adsorbents which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior.
Abstract: Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th-21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Mexico, Argentina, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Japan and India. Among 21 countries in different parts of the world affected by groundwater arsenic contamination, the largest population at risk is in Bangladesh followed by West Bengal in India. Existing overviews of arsenic removal include technologies that have traditionally been used (oxidation, precipitation/coagulation/membrane separation) with far less attention paid to adsorption. No previous review is available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of both available and developed sorbents used for arsenic remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on arsenic remediation by adsorption ( approximately 600 references). Existing purification methods for drinking water; wastewater; industrial effluents, and technological solutions for arsenic have been listed. Arsenic sorption by commercially available carbons and other low-cost adsorbents are surveyed and critically reviewed and their sorption efficiencies are compared. Arsenic adsorption behavior in presence of other impurities has been discussed. Some commercially available adsorbents are also surveyed. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. Some low-cost adsorbents are superior including treated slags, carbons developed from agricultural waste (char carbons and coconut husk carbons), biosorbents (immobilized biomass, orange juice residue), goethite and some commercial adsorbents, which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior. Immobilized biomass adsorbents offered outstanding performances. Desorption of arsenic followed by regeneration of sorbents has been discussed. Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates. Arsenic concentrate treatment and disposal obtained is briefly addressed. This issue is very important but much less discussed.

2,842 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. For the future re-arrangement of a sustainable economy to biological raw materials, completely new approaches in research and development, production, and economy are necessary. The ‘first-generation’ biofuels appear unsustainable because of the potential stress that their production places on food commodities. For organic chemicals and materials these needs to follow a biorefinery model under environmentally sustainable conditions. Where these operate at present, their product range is largely limited to simple materials (i.e. cellulose, ethanol, and biofuels). Second generation biorefineries need to build on the need for sustainable chemical products through modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing including pyrolysis, Fisher Tropsch, and other catalytic processes in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. This review focus on cost effective technologies and the processes to convert biomass into useful liquid biofuels and bioproducts, with particular focus on some biorefinery concepts based on different feedstocks aiming at the integral utilization of these feedstocks for the production of value added chemicals.

2,473 citations


Cites background from "Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-o..."

  • ...Its use as feedstocks for refineries is also being considered [35,38]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We report here initial results that demonstrate that cellulose can be dissolved without activation or pretreatment in, and regenerated from, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and other hydrophilic ionic liquids. This may enable the application of ionic liquids as alternatives to environmentally undesirable solvents currently used for dissolution of this important bioresource.

3,942 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potential of a restored landfill site to act as a biomass source, providing fuel to supplement landfill gas-fuelled power stations, is examined, together with a comparison of the economics of power production from purpose-grown biomass versus waste-biomass.
Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary, if we are to achieve the changes required to address the impacts of global warming. Biomass is the most common form of renewable energy, widely used in the third world but until recently, less so in the Western world. Latterly much attention has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The type of biomass required is largely determined by the energy conversion process and the form in which the energy is required. In the first of three papers, the background to biomass production (in a European climate) and plant properties is examined. In the second paper, energy conversion technologies are reviewed, with emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to generate electricity. The potential of a restored landfill site to act as a biomass source, providing fuel to supplement landfill gas-fuelled power stations, is examined, together with a comparison of the economics of power production from purpose-grown biomass versus waste-biomass. The third paper considers particular gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification.

3,744 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one of the most recent renewable energy processes to have been introduced. It offers the advantages of a liquid product, bio-oil that can be readily stored and transported. Bio-oil is a renewable liquid fuel and can also be used for production of chemicals. Fast pyrolysis has now achieved a commercial success for production of chemicals and is being actively developed for producing liquid fuels. Bio-oils have been successfully tested in engines, turbines, and boilers, and have been upgraded to high-quality hydrocarbon fuels, although at a presently unacceptable energetic and financial cost. The paper critically reviews scientific and technical developments in applications of bio-oil to date and concludes with some suggestions for research and strategic developments.

2,477 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A brief review of the main conversion processes is presented, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition gas engines.
Abstract: The use of biomass to provide energy has been fundamental to the development of civilisation. In recent times pressures on the global environment have led to calls for an increased use of renewable energy sources, in lieu of fossil fuels. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. A brief review of the main conversion processes is presented, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition gas engines.

1,758 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Bio-energy is now accepted as having the potential to provide the major part of the projected renewable energy provisions of the future. There are three main routes to providing these bio-fuels—biological conversion, physical conversion and thermal conversion—all of which employ a range of chemical reactors configurations and designs. This review concentrates on thermal conversion processes and particularly the reactors that have been developed to provide the necessary conditions to optimise performance. A number of primary and secondary products can be derived as gas, liquid and solid fuels and electricity as well as a considerable number of chemicals. The basic conversion processes are summarised with their products and the main technical and non-technical barriers to implementation are identified.

1,621 citations