# Quadrotor hoverboard

01 Dec 2019-

TL;DR: A control scheme that uses the center of gravity (CoG) variation caused by the tilt of the pilot standing on a quadrotor to maneuver it in the horizontal plane is proposed and simulation results show that it is possible to control the Quadrotor motion using CoG shifts caused by a pilot with moderate skills.

Abstract: Riding on a quadrotor in a standing position demands extreme piloting skills. However, niche tasks like certain inspection and rescue missions can be accomplished by doing so. In this paper, we propose a control scheme that uses the center of gravity (CoG) variation caused by the tilt of the pilot standing on a quadrotor to maneuver it in the horizontal plane. Keeping potential applications in mind, we design controllers for two modes of operation: a) Maneuver via leaning mode during which the quadrotor converts the forward CoG shift into a proportional forward speed, and the sideward CoG shift to a yaw rate, thus enabling a turn, and b) Remote control mode in which the quadrotor platform rejects all the disturbances including the pilot’s movements and maintains the desired speed and turn commands provided by the pilot using a hand-held remote control. We use a simplified model of a human standing on a quadrotor to test the proposed control laws using simulations. The simulation results show that it is possible to control the quadrotor motion using CoG shifts caused by a pilot with moderate skills.

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31 May 2023

TL;DR: In this paper , a concurrent learning adaptive controller is used to balance the inverted pendulum on a quadrotor with unknown length of the pendulum, where the control input cannot be used to cancel the uncertainty.

Abstract: Balancing an inverted pendulum on an unmanned aerial vehicle has been a topic of interest in recent literature. For example, a recent study [1] uses an LQR controller to balance the inverted pendulum on a quadrotor drone. However, these studies consider the length of the pendulum to be known a priori. Indeed, in certain applications this assumption might not hold true. For example, consider a quadrotor hoverboard being used by people of different heights. In such cases, an approach is required to estimate the length of the pendulum. This paper analyzes the linearized dynamics of the combined system of quadrotor and inverted pendulum. It is found that unknown length of pendulum causes the system to fall in the category of unmatched uncertain systems where the control input cannot be used to cancel the uncertainty. This paper formulates the problem in such a manner that the system is still controllable in presence of this unmatched uncertainty. A concurrent learning adaptive controller, which avoids the use of persistently exciting signals, is then utilized to estimate the unmatched uncertainty and hence the length of the pendulum. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the adaptive controller for the proposed problem.

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31 May 2023TL;DR: In this article , a concurrent learning adaptive controller is used to balance the inverted pendulum on a quadrotor with unknown length of the pendulum, where the control input cannot be used to cancel the uncertainty.

Abstract: Balancing an inverted pendulum on an unmanned aerial vehicle has been a topic of interest in recent literature. For example, a recent study [1] uses an LQR controller to balance the inverted pendulum on a quadrotor drone. However, these studies consider the length of the pendulum to be known a priori. Indeed, in certain applications this assumption might not hold true. For example, consider a quadrotor hoverboard being used by people of different heights. In such cases, an approach is required to estimate the length of the pendulum. This paper analyzes the linearized dynamics of the combined system of quadrotor and inverted pendulum. It is found that unknown length of pendulum causes the system to fall in the category of unmatched uncertain systems where the control input cannot be used to cancel the uncertainty. This paper formulates the problem in such a manner that the system is still controllable in presence of this unmatched uncertainty. A concurrent learning adaptive controller, which avoids the use of persistently exciting signals, is then utilized to estimate the unmatched uncertainty and hence the length of the pendulum. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the adaptive controller for the proposed problem.

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05 Nov 2015TL;DR: This paper proposes an inverse optimal stabilization law for the bilinear system, conducts the convergence analysis and gives the interpretation of the optimality, and shows the effectiveness of the vertical input by comparing with the linear quadratic control case.

Abstract: This paper tackles a 3D inverted pendulum stabilization problem, where the pendulum is attached on a quadrotor. We first derive the mathematical model of the quadrotor-pendulum system based on the Euler-Lagrange equation. Then, with hope for better control performance than traditional linear quadratic optimal control by efficiently using the vertical input, the bilinear approximation model is built by the second order Taylor expansion. We then propose an inverse optimal stabilization law for the bilinear system, conduct the convergence analysis and give the interpretation of the optimality. Finally, the validity of the present approach is demonstrated via simulations, where we explicitly show the effectiveness of the vertical input by comparing with the linear quadratic control case.

6 citations

### "Quadrotor hoverboard" refers background in this paper

...It has been the usual practice while deriving the governing equations for a quadrotor with an inverted pendulum to neglect the effects of the pendulum movements on the quadrotor dynamics [10]–[12]....

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01 Jul 2017TL;DR: The static and dynamical characteristic of the propulsion system is presented and its dependence on the fuel-air mixture is discussed, and the static throttle-speed and speed-thrust curves are determined.

Abstract: In this paper we present identification results of an internal combustion engine propulsion system. We aim to use this system in a large quadrotor designed to lift heavy objects with flight autonomy up to 60 minutes. In this paper we describe the testbed which we have built to perform the experiments. We present the static and dynamical characteristic of the propulsion system and discuss its dependence on the fuel-air mixture. In particular, we determine the static throttle-speed and speed-thrust curves. For dynamics analysis, we assume that the rotor dynamics can be represented by a PT 1 term and present its parameters for different engine regimes. Using the overall system transfer function we design a simple PI control of the rotor speed which assures setpoint tracking. Finally, we discuss if the achieved closed loop dynamics is suitable for attitude control of a large quadrotor.

6 citations

### "Quadrotor hoverboard" refers background in this paper

...However, recent advances in IC engine control has demonstrated the suitability of these engines as powerplants for large quadrotors [9]....

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