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Book

Qualitative research & evaluation methods

01 Jan 2002-Iss: 1

AbstractThis book explains clearly conceptual issues and themes on qualitative research and evaluaton methods including: qualitative data, triangulated inquiry, qualitative inquiry, constructivism, constructionism, Complexity (chaos) theory, qualitative designs and data collection, fieldwork strategies, interviewing, tape-recording, ethical issues, analysis, interpretation and reporting, observations vs. perceived impacts and utilisation-focused evaluation reporting.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this article, the authors describe how they used a hybrid process of inductive and deductive thematic analysis to interpret raw data in a doctoral study on the role of performance feedback in the self-assessment of nursing practice. The methodological approach integrated data-driven codes with theory-driven ones based on the tenets of social phenomenology. The authors present a detailed exemplar of the staged process of data coding and identification of themes. This process demonstrates how analysis of the raw data from interview transcripts and organizational documents progressed toward the identification of overarching themes that captured the phenomenon of performance feedback as described by participants in the study.

6,002 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This description of qualitative content analysis offers one approach that shows how the general principles of the method can be used and four distinct main stages are described: the decontextualisation, the recontextualization, the categorization, and the compilation.
Abstract: This paper describes the research process – from planning to presentation, with the emphasis on credibility throughout the whole process – when the methodology of qualitative content analysis is chosen in a qualitative study. The groundwork for the credibility initiates when the planning of the study begins. External and internal resources have to be identified, and the researcher must consider his or her experience of the phenomenon to be studied in order to minimize any bias of his/her own influence. The purpose of content analysis is to organize and elicit meaning from the data collected and to draw realistic conclusions from it. The researcher must choose whether the analysis should be of a broad surface structure ( a manifest analysis ) or of a deep structure ( a latent analysis). Four distinct main stages are described in this paper: the decontextualisation, the recontextualisation, the categorization, and the compilation. This description of qualitative content analysis offers one approach that shows how the general principles of the method can be used.

1,485 citations


Cites background or methods from "Qualitative research & evaluation m..."

  • ...This approach affects the researcher's interpretation of the informants' story and the conclusions given in the result (Morse & Richards, 2002; Patton, 2002)....

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  • ...However, the sample size should be determined on the basis of informational needs so that the research question can be answered with sufficient confidence (Krippendorff, 2004; Patton, 2002)....

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  • ...Nevertheless, the researcher must still decide what constitutes the themes and what conclusions can be drawn from the results (Flick, 2002; Patton, 2002)....

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  • ...In general, the researchers are more interested in depth understanding of a specific issue and in showing different perspectives rather than aiming at singular truth and generalization (Patton, 2002; Rolfe, 2006)....

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  • ...In some way, the researcher attempts to “stay true” to the text and to achieve nder the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). trustworthiness (Downe-Wambolt, 1992; Morse & Richards, 2002; Patton, 2002; Silverman, 2001)....

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Journal Article
Abstract: During the past decade, design-based research has demonstrated its potential as a methodology suitable to both research and design of technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs). In this paper, we define and identify characteristics of design-based research, describe the importance of design-based research for the development of TELEs, propose principles for implementing design-based research with TELEs, and discuss future challenges of using this methodology. (http://www.springerlink.com/content/a582109091287128/)

1,393 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The importance of design- based research for the development of TELEs is described, principles for implementing design-based research withTELEs are proposed, and future challenges of using this methodology are discussed.
Abstract: During the past decade, design-based research has demonstrated its potential as a methodology suitable to both research and design of technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs). In this paper, we define and identify characteristics of design-based research, describe the importance of design-based research for the development of TELEs, propose principles for implementing design-based research with TELEs, and discuss future challenges of using this methodology.

1,369 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Little or no rigor for justifying sample size was shown for virtually all of the IS studies in this dataset, implying the subjective nature of sample size in qualitative IS studies.
Abstract: This study examines 83 IS qualitative studies in leading IS journals for the following purposes: (a) identifying the extent to which IS qualitative studies employ best practices of justifying sample size; (b) identifying optimal ranges of interviews for various types of qualitative research; and (c) identifying the extent to which cultural factors (such as journal of publication, number of authors, world region) impact sample size of interviews. Little or no rigor for justifying sample size was shown for virtually all of the IS studies in this dataset. Furthermore, the number of interviews conducted for qualitative studies is correlated with cultural factors, implying the subjective nature of sample size in qualitative IS studies. Recommendations are provided for minimally acceptable practices of justifying sample size of interviews in qualitative IS studies.

1,279 citations


Cites background from "Qualitative research & evaluation m..."

  • ...…saturation (developed originally for grounded theory studies but applicable to all qualitative research that employs interviews as the primary data source) “entails bringing new participants continually into the study until the data set is complete, as indicated by data replication or redundancy....

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  • ...Therefore, qualitative researchers need to mold research design, analysis, and reporting to get political support....

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  • ...For example, in the Sample Size section of his work on qualitative research methodology, Patton [31] explains, Qualitative inquiry is rife with ambiguities....

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  • ...There have even been conferences devoted to qualitative IS research (i.e., the Qualitative Research in IT conference in New Zealand) and WebPages sponsored by IS academic organizations that supply qualitative methodological resources on their websites (i.e., the Association of Information System’s…...

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