# Quantized electric multipole insulators

07 Jul 2017-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 357, Iss: 6346, pp 61-66

TL;DR: This work introduces a paradigm in which “nested” Wilson loops give rise to topological invariants that have been overlooked and opens a venue for the expansion of the classification of topological phases of matter.

Abstract: The Berry phase provides a modern formulation of electric polarization in crystals. We extend this concept to higher electric multipole moments and determine the necessary conditions and minimal models for which the quadrupole and octupole moments are topologically quantized electromagnetic observables. Such systems exhibit gapped boundaries that are themselves lower-dimensional topological phases. Furthermore, they host topologically protected corner states carrying fractional charge, exhibiting fractionalization at the boundary of the boundary. To characterize these insulating phases of matter, we introduce a paradigm in which “nested” Wilson loops give rise to topological invariants that have been overlooked. We propose three realistic experimental implementations of this topological behavior that can be immediately tested. Our work opens a venue for the expansion of the classification of topological phases of matter.

Topics: Topological order (65%), Topological quantum number (63%), Symmetry protected topological order (63%), Multipole expansion (55%), Boundary (topology) (53%)

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Barry Bradlyn

^{1}, Luis Elcoro^{2}, Jennifer Cano^{1}, Maia G. Vergniory^{3}+6 more•Institutions (4)TL;DR: A complete electronic band theory is proposed, which builds on the conventional band theory of electrons, highlighting the link between the topology and local chemical bonding and can be used to predict many more topological insulators.

Abstract: Since the discovery of topological insulators and semimetals, there has been much research into predicting and experimentally discovering distinct classes of these materials, in which the topology of electronic states leads to robust surface states and electromagnetic responses. This apparent success, however, masks a fundamental shortcoming: topological insulators represent only a few hundred of the 200,000 stoichiometric compounds in material databases. However, it is unclear whether this low number is indicative of the esoteric nature of topological insulators or of a fundamental problem with the current approaches to finding them. Here we propose a complete electronic band theory, which builds on the conventional band theory of electrons, highlighting the link between the topology and local chemical bonding. This theory of topological quantum chemistry provides a description of the universal (across materials), global properties of all possible band structures and (weakly correlated) materials, consisting of a graph-theoretic description of momentum (reciprocal) space and a complementary group-theoretic description in real space. For all 230 crystal symmetry groups, we classify the possible band structures that arise from local atomic orbitals, and show which are topologically non-trivial. Our electronic band theory sheds new light on known topological insulators, and can be used to predict many more.

752 citations

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Frank Schindler

^{1}, A. M. Cook^{1}, Maia G. Vergniory^{2}, Maia G. Vergniory^{3}+6 more•Institutions (6)Abstract: Three-dimensional topological (crystalline) insulators are materials with an insulating bulk but conducting surface states that are topologically protected by time-reversal (or spatial) symmetries. We extend the notion of three-dimensional topological insulators to systems that host no gapless surface states but exhibit topologically protected gapless hinge states. Their topological character is protected by spatiotemporal symmetries of which we present two cases: (i) Chiral higher-order topological insulators protected by the combination of time-reversal and a fourfold rotation symmetry. Their hinge states are chiral modes, and the bulk topology is Z 2 -classified. (ii) Helical higher-order topological insulators protected by time-reversal and mirror symmetries. Their hinge states come in Kramers pairs, and the bulk topology is Z -classified. We provide the topological invariants for both cases. Furthermore, we show that SnTe as well as surface-modified Bi2TeI, BiSe, and BiTe are helical higher-order topological insulators and propose a realistic experimental setup to detect the hinge states.

720 citations

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Stefan Imhof

^{1}, Christian Berger^{1}, Florian Bayer^{1}, Johannes Brehm^{1}+8 more•Institutions (4)Abstract: Quantized electric quadrupole insulators have recently been proposed as novel quantum states of matter in two spatial dimensions. Gapped otherwise, they can feature zero-dimensional topological corner mid-gap states protected by the bulk spectral gap, reflection symmetries and a spectral symmetry. Here we introduce a topolectrical circuit design for realizing such corner modes experimentally and report measurements in which the modes appear as topological boundary resonances in the corner impedance profile of the circuit. Whereas the quantized bulk quadrupole moment of an electronic crystal does not have a direct analogue in the classical topolectrical-circuit framework, the corner modes inherit the identical form from the quantum case. Due to the flexibility and tunability of electrical circuits, they are an ideal platform for studying the reflection symmetry-protected character of corner modes in detail. Our work therefore establishes an instance where topolectrical circuitry is employed to bridge the gap between quantum theoretical modelling and the experimental realization of topological band structures.

581 citations

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Marc Serra-Garcia

^{1}, Valerio Peri^{1}, Roman Süsstrunk^{1}, Osama R. Bilal^{1}+4 more•Institutions (3)TL;DR: Measurements of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator are reported and topological corner states are found that are an important stepping stone to the experimental realization of topologically protected wave guides in higher dimensions, and thereby open up a new path for the design of metamaterials.

Abstract: The modern theory of charge polarization in solids is based on a generalization of Berry’s phase. The possibility of the quantization of this phase arising from parallel transport in momentum space is essential to our understanding of systems with topological band structures. Although based on the concept of charge polarization, this same theory can also be used to characterize the Bloch bands of neutral bosonic systems such as photonic or phononic crystals. The theory of this quantized polarization has recently been extended from the dipole moment to higher multipole moments. In particular, a two-dimensional quantized quadrupole insulator is predicted to have gapped yet topological one-dimensional edge modes, which stabilize zero-dimensional in-gap corner states. However, such a state of matter has not previously been observed experimentally. Here we report measurements of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator. We experimentally characterize the bulk, edge and corner physics of a mechanical metamaterial (a material with tailored mechanical properties) and find the predicted gapped edge and in-gap corner states. We corroborate our findings by comparing the mechanical properties of a topologically non-trivial system to samples in other phases that are predicted by the quadrupole theory. These topological corner states are an important stepping stone to the experimental realization of topologically protected wave guides in higher dimensions, and thereby open up a new path for the design of metamaterials.

553 citations

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TL;DR: Fourfold rotation-invariant gapped topological systems with time-reversal symmetry in two and three dimensions with strongly interacting systems through the explicit construction of microscopic models having robust (d-2)-dimensional edge states are studied.

Abstract: Theorists have discovered topological insulators that are insulating in their interior and on their surfaces but have conducting channels at corners or along edges.

545 citations

##### References

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Abstract: Measurements of the Hall voltage of a two-dimensional electron gas, realized with a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, show that the Hall resistance at particular, experimentally well-defined surface carrier concentrations has fixed values which depend only on the fine-structure constant and speed of light, and is insensitive to the geometry of the device. Preliminary data are reported.

4,931 citations

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Abstract: The Hall conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas has been studied in a uniform magnetic field and a periodic substrate potential $U$. The Kubo formula is written in a form that makes apparent the quantization when the Fermi energy lies in a gap. Explicit expressions have been obtained for the Hall conductance for both large and small $\frac{U}{\ensuremath{\hbar}{\ensuremath{\omega}}_{c}}$.

3,954 citations

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TL;DR: A two-dimensional condensed-matter lattice model is presented which exhibits a nonzero quantization of the Hall conductance in the absence of an external magnetic field, and exhibits the so-called "parity anomaly" of (2+1)-dimensional field theories.

Abstract: A two-dimensional condensed-matter lattice model is presented which exhibits a nonzero quantization of the Hall conductance ${\ensuremath{\sigma}}^{\mathrm{xy}}$ in the absence of an external magnetic field. Massless fermions without spectral doubling occur at critical values of the model parameters, and exhibit the so-called "parity anomaly" of (2+1)-dimensional field theories.

3,679 citations

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Abstract: We discuss a method for determining the optimally localized set of generalized Wannier functions associated with a set of Bloch bands in a crystalline solid. By ''generalized Wannier functions'' we mean a set of localized orthonormal orbitals spanning the same space as the specified set of Bloch bands. Although we minimize a functional that represents the total spread Sigma(n)(r(2))(n) - (r)(n)(2) of the Wannier functions in real space, our method proceeds directly from the Bloch functions as represented on a mesh of k points, and carries out the minimization in a space of unitary matrices U-mn((k)) describing the rotation among the Bloch bands at each k point. The method is thus suitable for use in connection with conventional electronic-structure codes. The procedure also returns the total electric polarization as well as the location of each Wannier center. Sample results for Si, GaAs, molecular C2H4, and LiCl will be presented.

2,942 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that physically $\ensuremath{\Delta}P can be interpreted as a displacement of the center of charge of the Wannier functions.

Abstract: We consider the change in polarization \ensuremath{\Delta}P which occurs upon making an adiabatic change in the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian of the solid. A simple expression for \ensuremath{\Delta}P is derived in terms of the valence-band wave functions of the initial and final Hamiltonians. We show that physically \ensuremath{\Delta}P can be interpreted as a displacement of the center of charge of the Wannier functions. The formulation is successfully applied to compute the piezoelectric tensor of GaAs in a first-principles pseudopotential calculation.

2,645 citations