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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Quo Vadis, Action Recognition? A New Model and the Kinetics Dataset

21 Jul 2017-pp 4724-4733

Abstract: The paucity of videos in current action classification datasets (UCF-101 and HMDB-51) has made it difficult to identify good video architectures, as most methods obtain similar performance on existing small-scale benchmarks. This paper re-evaluates state-of-the-art architectures in light of the new Kinetics Human Action Video dataset. Kinetics has two orders of magnitude more data, with 400 human action classes and over 400 clips per class, and is collected from realistic, challenging YouTube videos. We provide an analysis on how current architectures fare on the task of action classification on this dataset and how much performance improves on the smaller benchmark datasets after pre-training on Kinetics. We also introduce a new Two-Stream Inflated 3D ConvNet (I3D) that is based on 2D ConvNet inflation: filters and pooling kernels of very deep image classification ConvNets are expanded into 3D, making it possible to learn seamless spatio-temporal feature extractors from video while leveraging successful ImageNet architecture designs and even their parameters. We show that, after pre-training on Kinetics, I3D models considerably improve upon the state-of-the-art in action classification, reaching 80.2% on HMDB-51 and 97.9% on UCF-101.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
18 Jun 2018-
Abstract: Both convolutional and recurrent operations are building blocks that process one local neighborhood at a time. In this paper, we present non-local operations as a generic family of building blocks for capturing long-range dependencies. Inspired by the classical non-local means method [4] in computer vision, our non-local operation computes the response at a position as a weighted sum of the features at all positions. This building block can be plugged into many computer vision architectures. On the task of video classification, even without any bells and whistles, our nonlocal models can compete or outperform current competition winners on both Kinetics and Charades datasets. In static image recognition, our non-local models improve object detection/segmentation and pose estimation on the COCO suite of tasks. Code will be made available.

4,077 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Du Tran1, Heng Wang1, Lorenzo Torresani1, Jamie Ray2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
12 Apr 2018-
Abstract: In this paper we discuss several forms of spatiotemporal convolutions for video analysis and study their effects on action recognition. Our motivation stems from the observation that 2D CNNs applied to individual frames of the video have remained solid performers in action recognition. In this work we empirically demonstrate the accuracy advantages of 3D CNNs over 2D CNNs within the framework of residual learning. Furthermore, we show that factorizing the 3D convolutional filters into separate spatial and temporal components yields significantly gains in accuracy. Our empirical study leads to the design of a new spatiotemporal convolutional block "R(2+1)D" which produces CNNs that achieve results comparable or superior to the state-of-the-art on Sports-1M, Kinetics, UCF101, and HMDB51.

1,230 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
18 Jun 2018-
TL;DR: Whether current video datasets have sufficient data for training very deep convolutional neural networks with spatio-temporal three-dimensional (3D) kernels is determined and it is believed that using deep 3D CNNs together with Kinetics will retrace the successful history of 2DCNNs and ImageNet, and stimulate advances in computer vision for videos.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine whether current video datasets have sufficient data for training very deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with spatio-temporal three-dimensional (3D) kernels. Recently, the performance levels of 3D CNNs in the field of action recognition have improved significantly. However, to date, conventional research has only explored relatively shallow 3D architectures. We examine the architectures of various 3D CNNs from relatively shallow to very deep ones on current video datasets. Based on the results of those experiments, the following conclusions could be obtained: (i) ResNet-18 training resulted in significant overfitting for UCF-101, HMDB-51, and ActivityNet but not for Kinetics. (ii) The Kinetics dataset has sufficient data for training of deep 3D CNNs, and enables training of up to 152 ResNets layers, interestingly similar to 2D ResNets on ImageNet. ResNeXt-101 achieved 78.4% average accuracy on the Kinetics test set. (iii) Kinetics pretrained simple 3D architectures outperforms complex 2D architectures, and the pretrained ResNeXt-101 achieved 94.5% and 70.2% on UCF-101 and HMDB-51, respectively. The use of 2D CNNs trained on ImageNet has produced significant progress in various tasks in image. We believe that using deep 3D CNNs together with Kinetics will retrace the successful history of 2D CNNs and ImageNet, and stimulate advances in computer vision for videos. The codes and pretrained models used in this study are publicly available1.

1,085 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Alexander Mathis1, Pranav Mamidanna1, Kevin M. Cury2, Taiga Abe2  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: Using a deep learning approach to track user-defined body parts during various behaviors across multiple species, the authors show that their toolbox, called DeepLabCut, can achieve human accuracy with only a few hundred frames of training data.
Abstract: Quantifying behavior is crucial for many applications in neuroscience. Videography provides easy methods for the observation and recording of animal behavior in diverse settings, yet extracting particular aspects of a behavior for further analysis can be highly time consuming. In motor control studies, humans or other animals are often marked with reflective markers to assist with computer-based tracking, but markers are intrusive, and the number and location of the markers must be determined a priori. Here we present an efficient method for markerless pose estimation based on transfer learning with deep neural networks that achieves excellent results with minimal training data. We demonstrate the versatility of this framework by tracking various body parts in multiple species across a broad collection of behaviors. Remarkably, even when only a small number of frames are labeled (~200), the algorithm achieves excellent tracking performance on test frames that is comparable to human accuracy.

1,057 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: The center point based approach, CenterNet, is end-to-end differentiable, simpler, faster, and more accurate than corresponding bounding box based detectors and performs competitively with sophisticated multi-stage methods and runs in real-time.
Abstract: Detection identifies objects as axis-aligned boxes in an image. Most successful object detectors enumerate a nearly exhaustive list of potential object locations and classify each. This is wasteful, inefficient, and requires additional post-processing. In this paper, we take a different approach. We model an object as a single point --- the center point of its bounding box. Our detector uses keypoint estimation to find center points and regresses to all other object properties, such as size, 3D location, orientation, and even pose. Our center point based approach, CenterNet, is end-to-end differentiable, simpler, faster, and more accurate than corresponding bounding box based detectors. CenterNet achieves the best speed-accuracy trade-off on the MS COCO dataset, with 28.1% AP at 142 FPS, 37.4% AP at 52 FPS, and 45.1% AP with multi-scale testing at 1.4 FPS. We use the same approach to estimate 3D bounding box in the KITTI benchmark and human pose on the COCO keypoint dataset. Our method performs competitively with sophisticated multi-stage methods and runs in real-time.

935 citations


References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Kaiming He1, Xiangyu Zhang1, Shaoqing Ren1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

93,356 citations


Proceedings Article
Karen Simonyan1, Andrew Zisserman1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2015-
Abstract: In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth using an architecture with very small (3x3) convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively. We also show that our representations generalise well to other datasets, where they achieve state-of-the-art results. We have made our two best-performing ConvNet models publicly available to facilitate further research on the use of deep visual representations in computer vision.

49,857 citations


Posted Content
Sergey Ioffe1, Christian Szegedy1Institutions (1)
11 Feb 2015-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training mini-batch. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and be less careful about initialization. It also acts as a regularizer, in some cases eliminating the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.9% top-5 validation error (and 4.8% test error), exceeding the accuracy of human raters.

17,151 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2014-
Abstract: Object detection performance, as measured on the canonical PASCAL VOC dataset, has plateaued in the last few years. The best-performing methods are complex ensemble systems that typically combine multiple low-level image features with high-level context. In this paper, we propose a simple and scalable detection algorithm that improves mean average precision (mAP) by more than 30% relative to the previous best result on VOC 2012 -- achieving a mAP of 53.3%. Our approach combines two key insights: (1) one can apply high-capacity convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to bottom-up region proposals in order to localize and segment objects and (2) when labeled training data is scarce, supervised pre-training for an auxiliary task, followed by domain-specific fine-tuning, yields a significant performance boost. Since we combine region proposals with CNNs, we call our method R-CNN: Regions with CNN features. We also present experiments that provide insight into what the network learns, revealing a rich hierarchy of image features. Source code for the complete system is available at http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~rbg/rcnn.

15,107 citations


Proceedings Article
Shaoqing Ren1, Kaiming He1, Ross Girshick1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
07 Dec 2015-
Abstract: State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [7] and Fast R-CNN [5] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully-convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. RPNs are trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. With a simple alternating optimization, RPN and Fast R-CNN can be trained to share convolutional features. For the very deep VGG-16 model [19], our detection system has a frame rate of 5fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007 (73.2% mAP) and 2012 (70.4% mAP) using 300 proposals per image. Code is available at https://github.com/ShaoqingRen/faster_rcnn.

13,622 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20228
20211,341
20201,164
2019767
2018341
201729