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Journal ArticleDOI

Quorum‐sensing autoinducer molecules produced by members of a multispecies biofilm promote horizontal gene transfer to Vibrio cholerae

01 Sep 2011-Fems Microbiology Letters (FEMS Microbiol Lett)-Vol. 322, Iss: 1, pp 68-76

TL;DR: It is demonstrated that comEA transcription and the horizontal acquisition of DNA by V. cholerae are induced in response to purified CAI-1 and AI-2, and also by autoinducers derived from other Vibrios co-cultured with V. Cholerae within a mixed-species biofilm, suggesting that autoinducer communication within a consortium may promote DNA exchange among VibRIos.

AbstractVibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera and a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments, regulates numerous behaviors using a quorum-sensing (QS) system conserved among many members of the marine genus Vibrio. The Vibrio QS response is mediated by two extracellular autoinducer (AI) molecules: CAI-I, which is produced only by Vibrios, and AI-2, which is produced by many bacteria. In marine biofilms on chitinous surfaces, QS-proficient V. cholerae become naturally competent to take up extracellular DNA. Because the direct role of AIs in this environmental behavior had not been determined, we sought to define the contribution of CAI-1 and AI-2 in controlling transcription of the competence gene, comEA, and in DNA uptake. In this study we demonstrated that comEA transcription and the horizontal acquisition of DNA by V. cholerae are induced in response to purified CAI-1 and AI-2, and also by autoinducers derived from other Vibrios co-cultured with V. cholerae within a mixed-species biofilm. These results suggest that autoinducer communication within a consortium may promote DNA exchange among Vibrios, perhaps contributing to the evolution of these bacterial pathogens.

Topics: Vibrio cholerae (63%), Autoinducer (62%), Vibrio (56%), Quorum sensing (55%), Biofilm (53%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed and questions are posed for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features to advance understanding ofsurface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities.
Abstract: SUMMARY Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration.

496 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...cholerae in multispecies biofilms (558)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that the lack of environment-facing mitigation actions included in existing AMR action plans is likely a function of the authors' poor fundamental understanding of many of the key issues and the science to inform policy is lacking and this needs to be addressed.
Abstract: The environment is increasingly being recognised for the role it might play in the global spread of clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance. Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals into the environment (e.g., antimicrobials, metals, biocides). Hence, environmental regulators should be contributing significantly to the development of global and national antimicrobial resistance (AMR) action plans. It is argued that the lack of environment-facing mitigation actions included in existing AMR action plans is likely a function of our poor fundamental understanding of many of the key issues. Here, we aim to present the problem with AMR in the environment through the lens of an environmental regulator, using the Environment Agency (England’s regulator) as an example from which parallels can be drawn globally. The issues that are pertinent to environmental regulators are drawn out to answer: What are the drivers and pathways of AMR? How do these relate to the normal work, powers and duties of environmental regulators? What are the knowledge gaps that hinder the delivery of environmental protection from AMR? We offer several thought experiments for how different mitigation strategies might proceed. We conclude that: 1) AMR Action Plans do not tackle all the potentially relevant pathways and drivers of AMR in the environment; and 2) AMR Action Plans are deficient, in part, because the science to inform policy is lacking and this needs to be addressed.

361 citations


Cites background from "Quorum‐sensing autoinducer molecule..."

  • ...Many additional drivers (e.g., chemical and environmental) of HGT have been identified (Hastings et al., 2004; Antonova and Hammer, 2011), including abiotic sources (Warnes et al., 2012; Kotnik, 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the discovery and early characterization of AI-2, current developments in signal detection, transduction and regulation, and the major studies investigating the phenotypes regulated by this molecule is presented.
Abstract: Success in nature depends upon an ability to perceive and adapt to the surrounding environment. Bacteria are not an exception; they recognize and constantly adjust to changing situations by sensing environmental and self-produced signals, altering gene expression accordingly. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a signal molecule produced by LuxS, an enzyme found in many bacterial species and thus proposed to enable interspecies communication. Two classes of AI-2 receptors and many layers and interactions involved in downstream signalling have been identified so far. Although AI-2 has been implicated in the regulation of numerous niche-specific behaviours across the bacterial kingdom, interpretation of these results is complicated by the dual role of LuxS in signalling and the activated methyl cycle, a crucial central metabolic pathway. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the discovery and early characterization of AI-2, current developments in signal detection, transduction and regulation, and the major studies investigating the phenotypes regulated by this molecule. The development of novel tools should help to resolve many of the remaining questions in the field; we highlight how these advances might be exploited in AI-2 quorum quenching, treatment of diseases, and the manipulation of beneficial behaviours caused by polyspecies communities.

333 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The recent focus on complex bacterial communities has led to the recognition of interactions across species boundaries, particularly pronounced in multispecies biofilms, where synergistic interactions impact the bacterial distribution and overall biomass produced.
Abstract: The recent focus on complex bacterial communities has led to the recognition of interactions across species boundaries. This is particularly pronounced in multispecies biofilms, where synergistic interactions impact the bacterial distribution and overall biomass produced. Importantly, in a number of settings, the interactions in a multispecies biofilm affect its overall function, physiology, or surroundings, by resulting in enhanced resistance, virulence, or degradation of pollutants, which is of significant importance to human health and activities. The underlying mechanisms causing these synergistic effects are to some extent characterized at the molecular and evolutionary levels, and further exploration is now possible due to the enhanced resolution and higher throughput of available techniques.

321 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of QS and how it relates to biofilms in engineered water and wastewater treatment systems and identifies needs for future research is provided.
Abstract: Bacteria have their own form of “twitter” communication, described as quorum sensing (QS), where bacteria emit and sense chemical signal molecules as a means to gauge population density and control gene expression. Many QS-controlled genes relate to biofilm formation and function and may be important for some water and wastewater treatment biofilms. There is a need to better understand bacterial QS, the bacteria biofilm aspects influenced by QS in engineered reactors, and to assess how designs and operations might be improved by taking this signaling into account. This paper provides a critical review of QS and how it relates to biofilms in engineered water and wastewater treatment systems and identifies needs for future research.

197 citations


References
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Abstract: Molecular Cloning has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential. Molecular Cloning, Fourth Edition, by the celebrated founding author Joe Sambrook and new co-author, the distinguished HHMI investigator Michael Green, preserves the highly praised detail and clarity of previous editions and includes specific chapters and protocols commissioned for the book from expert practitioners at Yale, U Mass, Rockefeller University, Texas Tech, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Washington University, and other leading institutions. The theoretical and historical underpinnings of techniques are prominent features of the presentation throughout, information that does much to help trouble-shoot experimental problems. For the fourth edition of this classic work, the content has been entirely recast to include nucleic-acid based methods selected as the most widely used and valuable in molecular and cellular biology laboratories. Core chapters from the third edition have been revised to feature current strategies and approaches to the preparation and cloning of nucleic acids, gene transfer, and expression analysis. They are augmented by 12 new chapters which show how DNA, RNA, and proteins should be prepared, evaluated, and manipulated, and how data generation and analysis can be handled. The new content includes methods for studying interactions between cellular components, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing technologies, RNA interference, and epigenetic analysis using DNA methylation techniques and chromatin immunoprecipitation. To make sense of the wealth of data produced by these techniques, a bioinformatics chapter describes the use of analytical tools for comparing sequences of genes and proteins and identifying common expression patterns among sets of genes. Building on thirty years of trust, reliability, and authority, the fourth edition of Mol

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5,415 citations


"Quorum‐sensing autoinducer molecule..." refers background in this paper

  • ...We reasoned that a mixed-species consortium may more closely reflect conditions in environmental biofilms that are unlikely to be mono-species in composition (Hall-Stoodley et al., 2004; Wintermute & Silver, 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The evolution of quorum sensing systems in bacteria could, therefore, have been one of the early steps in the development of multicellularity.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold stimulatory concentration of an autoinducer leads to an alteration in gene expression. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing communication circuits to regulate a diverse array of physiological activities. These processes include symbiosis, virulence, competence, conjugation, antibiotic production, motility, sporulation, and biofilm formation. In general, Gram-negative bacteria use acylated homoserine lactones as autoinducers, and Gram-positive bacteria use processed oligo-peptides to communicate. Recent advances in the field indicate that cell-cell communication via autoinducers occurs both within and between bacterial species. Furthermore, there is mounting data suggesting that ba...

4,006 citations


"Quorum‐sensing autoinducer molecule..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…molecules has been studied in many laboratory systems that relied exclusively on cell-free culture fluids or monocultures (Bassler et al., 1997; Miller & Bassler, 2001; Henke & Bassler, 2004a), single-species co-cultures (Hammer & Bassler, 2007), or cocultures of Vibrios with other bacteria…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How the marine luminescent bacterium V. fischeri uses the LuxR and LuxI proteins for intercellular communication is reviewed and a newly discovered family of LuxRand LuxI homologs in diverse bacterial species is described.
Abstract: It has long been appreciated that certain groups of bacteria exhibit cooperative behavioral patterns. For example, feeding and sporulation of both myxobacteria and actinomycetes seem optimized for large populations of cells behaving almost as a single multicellular organism. The swarming motility of microorganisms such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Proteus mirabilis provides another excellent example of multicellular behavior among bacteria (2). Intercellular communication likewise has been appreciated for several years in Vibrio fischeri, Myxococcus xanthus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces spp., the eukaryotic slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and other species (44). Here we first review how the marine luminescent bacterium V. fischeri uses the LuxR and LuxI proteins for intercellular communication and then describe a newly discovered family of LuxR and LuxI homologs in diverse bacterial species.

2,495 citations


"Quorum‐sensing autoinducer molecule..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…bacterium and the causative agent of the disease cholera, produces and then responds to extracellular small molecules called autoinducers (AIs) to collectively control gene expression and coordinate group behaviors, a process called quorum sensing (QS) (Fuqua et al., 1994; Ng & Bassler, 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jun 1996-Science
TL;DR: The emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression, and is shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXΦ), which is related to coliphage M13.
Abstract: Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The structural genes for CT are shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXphi), which is related to coliphage M13. The CTXphi genome chromosomally integrated or replicated as a plasmid. CTXphi used TCP as its receptor and infected V. cholerae cells within the gastrointestinal tracts of mice more efficiently than under laboratory conditions. Thus, the emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression.

1,635 citations


"Quorum‐sensing autoinducer molecule..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Transduction of the cholera toxin genes encoded within a filamentous phage (CTXF) permits exchange of virulence factors among V. cholerae (Waldor & Mekalanos, 1996)....

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