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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2020.12.026

R-2-hydroxyglutarate attenuates aerobic glycolysis in leukemia by targeting the FTO/m6A/PFKP/LDHB axis.

04 Mar 2021-Molecular Cell (Cell Press)-Vol. 81, Iss: 5
Abstract: Summary R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), a metabolite produced by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs), was recently reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity. However, its effect on cancer metabolism remains largely elusive. Here we show that R-2HG effectively attenuates aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of cancer metabolism, in (R-2HG-sensitive) leukemia cells. Mechanistically, R-2HG abrogates fat-mass- and obesity-associated protein (FTO)/N6-methyladenosine (m6A)/YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2)-mediated post-transcriptional upregulation of phosphofructokinase platelet (PFKP) and lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) (two critical glycolytic genes) expression and thereby suppresses aerobic glycolysis. Knockdown of FTO, PFKP, or LDHB recapitulates R-2HG-induced glycolytic inhibition in (R-2HG-sensitive) leukemia cells, but not in normal CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and inhibits leukemogenesis in vivo; conversely, their overexpression reverses R-2HG-induced effects. R-2HG also suppresses glycolysis and downregulates FTO/PFKP/LDHB expression in human primary IDH-wild-type acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, demonstrating the clinical relevance. Collectively, our study reveals previously unrecognized effects of R-2HG and RNA modification on aerobic glycolysis in leukemia, highlighting the therapeutic potential of targeting cancer epitranscriptomics and metabolism.

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Topics: PFKP (70%), Anaerobic glycolysis (56%), Phosphofructokinase (53%) ... show more
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32 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.654337
Rui Ma1, Yinsheng Wu1, Shanshan Li1, Shanshan Li2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Cancer cells reprogram glucose metabolism to meet their malignant proliferation needs and survival under a variety of stress conditions. The prominent metabolic reprogram is aerobic glycolysis, which can help cells accumulate precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules. In addition to glycolysis, recent studies show that gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle play important roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we provide a comprehensive review about the role of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and TCA cycle in tumorigenesis with an emphasis on revealing the novel functions of the relevant enzymes and metabolites. These functions include regulation of cell metabolism, gene expression, cell apoptosis and autophagy. We also summarize the effect of glucose metabolism on chromatin modifications and how this relationship leads to cancer development. Understanding the link between cancer cell metabolism and chromatin modifications will help develop more effective cancer treatments.

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Topics: Anaerobic glycolysis (58%), Cell metabolism (57%), Chromatin (54%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9060690
Sunil Kumar1, Ravinder Nagpal2, Amit Kumar, Muhammad Umer Ashraf1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
18 Jun 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: Epigenetic alterations have contributed greatly to human carcinogenesis. Conventional epigenetic studies have been predominantly focused on DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodelling. Epitranscriptomics is an emerging field that encompasses the study of RNA modifications that do not affect the RNA sequence but affect functionality via a series of RNA binding proteins called writer, reader and eraser. Several kinds of epi-RNA modifications are known, such as 6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytidine (m5C), and 1-methyladenosine. M6A modification is the most studied and has large therapeutic implications. In this review, we have summarised the therapeutic potential of m6A-modifiers in controlling haematological disorders, especially acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). AML is a type of blood cancer affecting specific subsets of blood-forming hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), which proliferate rapidly and acquire self-renewal capacities with impaired terminal cell-differentiation and apoptosis leading to abnormal accumulation of white blood cells, and thus, an alternative therapeutic approach is required urgently. Here, we have described how RNA m6A-modification machineries EEE (Editor/writer: Mettl3, Mettl14; Eraser/remover: FTO, ALKBH5, and Effector/reader: YTHDF-1/2) could be reformed into potential druggable candidates or as RNA-modifying drugs (RMD) to treat leukaemia. Moreover, we have shed light on the role of microRNAs and suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) in increasing anti-tumour immunity towards leukaemia. We anticipate, our investigation will provide fundamental knowledge in nurturing the potential of RNA modifiers in discovering novel therapeutics or immunotherapeutic procedures.

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Topics: Epitranscriptomics (54%), Epigenetics (52%), microRNA (52%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13045-021-01124-Z
Rui-Chao Chai1, Yu-Zhou Chang1, Xin Chang1, Bo Pang1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The prognosis for diffuse gliomas is very poor and the mechanism underlying their malignant progression remains unclear. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role and mechanism of the RNA N6,2′-O-dimethyladenosine (m6A) reader, YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), in regulating the malignant progression of gliomas. YTHDF2 mRNA levels and functions were assessed using several independent datasets. Western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression levels of YTHDF2 and other molecules in human and mouse tumor tissues and cells. Knockdown and overexpression were used to evaluate the effects of YTHDF2, methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3), and UBX domain protein 1 (UBXN1) on glioma malignancy in cell and orthotopic xenograft models. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), methylated RIP, and RNA stability experiments were performed to study the mechanisms underlying the oncogenic role of YTHDF2. YTHDF2 expression was positively associated with a higher malignant grade and molecular subtype of glioma and poorer prognosis. YTHDF2 promoted the malignant progression of gliomas in both in vitro and in vivo models. Mechanistically, YTHDF2 accelerated UBXN1 mRNA degradation via METTL3-mediated m6A, which, in turn, promoted NF-κB activation. We further revealed that UBXN1 overexpression attenuated the oncogenic effect of YTHDF2 overexpression and was associated with better survival in patients with elevated YTHDF2 expression. Our findings confirmed that YTHDF2 promotes the malignant progression of gliomas and revealed important insight into the upstream regulatory mechanism of NF-κB activation via UBXN1 with a primary focus on m6A modification.

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Topics: Gene knockdown (55%), Glioma (55%), RNA-binding protein (53%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.683254
Feng-Yang Jing1, Li-Ming Zhou1, Yu-Jie Ning1, Xiao-Juan Wang1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying its onset and development have not yet been fully elucidated. Indeed, an in-depth understanding of the potential molecular mechanisms underlying HNSCC oncogenesis may aid the development of better treatment strategies. Recent epigenetic studies have revealed that the m6A RNA modification plays important roles in HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the role of m6A modification in various types of HNSCC, including thyroid, nasopharyngeal, hypopharyngeal squamous cell, and oral carcinoma. In addition, we discuss the regulatory roles of m6A in immune cells within the tumor microenvironment, as well as the potential molecular mechanisms. Finally, we review the development of potential targets for treating cancer based on the regulatory functions of m6A, with an aim to improving targeted therapies for HNSCC. Together, this review highlights the important roles that m6A modification plays in RNA synthesis, transport, and translation, and demonstrates that the regulation of m6A-related proteins can indirectly affect mRNA and ncRNA function, thus providing a novel strategy for reengineering intrinsic cell activity and developing simpler interventions to treat HNSCC.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.OMTO.2021.04.011
Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents one of the primary causes of cancer-related mortality all over the world. Following our initial finding of the upregulated expression of E2F transcription factor-1 (E2F1) in the NSCLC-related microarray, this study aimed to explore the regulatory role of E2F1 and underlying mechanism in NSCLC development. NSCLC cell viability, migration, and invasion were evaluated utilizing Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8), 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), wound-healing, and Transwell assays. Loss- and gain-function assays were performed to determine the effects of the fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO)/E2F1/neural epidermal growth factor-like 2 (NELL2) axis on NSCLC cell behaviors in vitro and NSCLC tumor growth in vivo. E2F1 was highly expressed in both NSCLC tissues and cells. E2F1 augmented the viability, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells, which was attributable to E2F1 transcriptionally activating NELL2. FTO upregulated the expression of E2F1 by inhibiting the m6A modification of E2F1. The FTO/E2F1/NELL2 axis modulated NSCLC cell viability, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as affected NSCLC tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The FTO/E2F1/NELL2 axis may impart pro-tumorigenic effects on the cell behavior of NSCLC cells and thus accelerate NSCLC progression.

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Topics: Cell (51%)

2 Citations


References
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96 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2011.02.013
Douglas Hanahan1, Robert A. Weinberg2Institutions (2)
04 Mar 2011-Cell
Abstract: The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

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42,275 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81683-9
Douglas Hanahan1, Robert A. Weinberg2Institutions (2)
07 Jan 2000-Cell
Abstract: We wish to thank Terry Schoop of Biomed Arts Associates, San Francisco, for preparation of the figures, Cori Bargmann and Zena Werb for insightful comments on the manuscript, and Normita Santore for editorial assistance. In addition, we are indebted to Joe Harford and Richard Klausner, who allowed us to adapt and expand their depiction of the cell signaling network, and we appreciate suggestions on signaling pathways from Randy Watnick, Brian Elenbas, Bill Lundberg, Dave Morgan, and Henry Bourne. R. A. W. is a Ludwig Foundation and American Cancer Society Professor of Biology. His work has been supported by the Department of the Army and the National Institutes of Health. D. H. acknowledges the support and encouragement of the National Cancer Institute. Editorial policy has rendered the citations illustrative but not comprehensive.

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26,950 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0506580102
Abstract: Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.

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26,320 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTS635
01 Jan 2013-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation Accurate alignment of high-throughput RNA-seq data is a challenging and yet unsolved problem because of the non-contiguous transcript structure, relatively short read lengths and constantly increasing throughput of the sequencing technologies. Currently available RNA-seq aligners suffer from high mapping error rates, low mapping speed, read length limitation and mapping biases. Results To align our large (>80 billon reads) ENCODE Transcriptome RNA-seq dataset, we developed the Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) software based on a previously undescribed RNA-seq alignment algorithm that uses sequential maximum mappable seed search in uncompressed suffix arrays followed by seed clustering and stitching procedure. STAR outperforms other aligners by a factor of >50 in mapping speed, aligning to the human genome 550 million 2 × 76 bp paired-end reads per hour on a modest 12-core server, while at the same time improving alignment sensitivity and precision. In addition to unbiased de novo detection of canonical junctions, STAR can discover non-canonical splices and chimeric (fusion) transcripts, and is also capable of mapping full-length RNA sequences. Using Roche 454 sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplicons, we experimentally validated 1960 novel intergenic splice junctions with an 80-90% success rate, corroborating the high precision of the STAR mapping strategy. Availability and implementation STAR is implemented as a standalone C++ code. STAR is free open source software distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/rna-star/.

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (57%)

20,172 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/28.1.27
Minoru Kanehisa1, Susumu Goto1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway information is also represented by the ortholog group tables summarizing orthologous and paralogous gene groups among different organisms. KEGG maintains the GENES database for the gene catalogs of all organisms with complete genomes and selected organisms with partial genomes, which are continuously re-annotated, as well as the LIGAND database for chemical compounds and enzymes. Each gene catalog is associated with the graphical genome map for chromosomal locations that is represented by Java applet. In addition to the data collection efforts, KEGG develops and provides various computational tools, such as for reconstructing biochemical pathways from the complete genome sequence and for predicting gene regulatory networks from the gene expression profiles. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

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Topics: KEGG (70%), Paralogous Gene (53%), Genome (53%) ... show more

19,643 Citations


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