# Rayleigh–Benard convection in water-based alumina nanofluid: A numerical study

05 Jan 2017-Numerical Heat Transfer Part A-applications (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 71, Iss: 2, pp 202-214

TL;DR: In this article, the effect of nanoparticles on the onset of instability in R-B convection in water-based alumina (Al2O3) nanofluid is analyzed based on a single component non-homogeneous volume fraction model (SCNHM) using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM).

Abstract: Rayleigh–Benard (R-B) convection in water-based alumina (Al2O3) nanofluid is analyzed based on a single-component non-homogeneous volume fraction model (SCNHM) using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The present model accounts for the slip mechanisms such as Brownian and thermophoresis between the nanoparticle and the base fluid. The average Nusselt number at the bottom wall for pure water is compared to the previous numerical data for natural convection in a cavity and a good agreement is obtained. The parameters considered in this study include the Rayleigh number of the nanofluid, the volume fraction of alumina nanoparticle and the aspect ratio of the cavity. For the Al2O3/water nanofluid, it is found that heat transfer rate decreases with an increase of the volume fraction of the nanoparticle. The results are demonstrated and explained with average Nusselt number, isotherms, streamlines, heat lines, and nanoparticle distribution. The effect of nanoparticles on the onset of instability in R-B...

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28 Jan 2005TL;DR: The Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K), thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m /s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K).

Abstract: Geometry: shape, size, aspect ratio and orientation Flow Type: forced, natural, laminar, turbulent, internal, external Boundary: isothermal (Tw = constant) or isoflux (q̇w = constant) Fluid Type: viscous oil, water, gases or liquid metals Properties: all properties determined at film temperature Tf = (Tw + T∞)/2 Note: ρ and ν ∝ 1/Patm ⇒ see Q12-40 density: ρ ((kg/m) specific heat: Cp (J/kg ·K) dynamic viscosity: μ, (N · s/m) kinematic viscosity: ν ≡ μ/ρ (m/s) thermal conductivity: k, (W/m ·K) thermal diffusivity: α, ≡ k/(ρ · Cp) (m/s) Prandtl number: Pr, ≡ ν/α (−−) volumetric compressibility: β, (1/K)

636 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the electro-thermo-hydrodynamic stability of a dielectric nanofluid is investigated under the influence of a perpendicularly applied alternating electric field, in which the effects of thermophoretic and Brownian diffusions are incorporated explicitly in the governing equations.

Abstract: The main aim of the present analysis is to examine the electroconvection phenomenon that takes place in a dielectric nanofluid under the influence of a perpendicularly applied alternating electric field. In this investigation, we assume that the nanofluid has a Newtonian rheological behavior and verifies the Buongiorno’s mathematical model, in which the effects of thermophoretic and Brownian diffusions are incorporated explicitly in the governing equations. Moreover, the nanofluid layer is taken to be confined horizontally between two parallel plate electrodes, heated from below and cooled from above. In a fast pulse electric field, the onset of electroconvection is due principally to the buoyancy forces and the dielectrophoretic forces. Within the framework of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation and the linear stability theory, the governing stability equations are solved semi-analytically by means of the power series method for isothermal, no-slip and non-penetrability conditions. In addition, the computational implementation with the impermeability condition implies that there exists no nanoparticles mass flux on the electrodes. On the other hand, the obtained analytical solutions are validated by comparing them to those available in the literature for the limiting case of dielectric fluids. In order to check the accuracy of our semi-analytical results obtained for the case of dielectric nanofluids, we perform further numerical and semi-analytical computations by means of the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto spectral method, the Galerkin weighted residuals technique, the polynomial collocation method and the Wakif-Galerkin weighted residuals technique. In this analysis, the electro-thermo-hydrodynamic stability of the studied nanofluid is controlled through the critical AC electric Rayleigh number R ec , whose value depends on several physical parameters. Furthermore, the effects of various pertinent parameters on the electro-thermo-hydrodynamic stability of the nanofluidic system are discussed in more detail through graphical and tabular illustrations.

89 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effect of a uniform external magnetic field on the onset of convection in an electrically conducting nanofluid layer is examined numerically based on non-homogeneous two-phase model (i.e., classical Buongiorno's mathematical model) which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis of nanoparticles in the thermal transport mechanism.

Abstract: The effect of a uniform external magnetic field on the onset of convection in an electrically conducting nanofluid layer is examined numerically based on non-homogeneous two-phase model (i.e., classical Buongiorno’s mathematical model) which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis of nanoparticles in the thermal transport mechanism of nanofluids. In this investigation, we consider that the nanofluid is Newtonian, heated from below and confined horizontally in a Darcy-Brinkman porous medium between two infinite rigid boundaries, with different nanoparticle configurations at the horizontal boundaries (i.e., top heavy and bottom heavy nanoparticle distributions). The linear stability theory has been wisely used to obtain a set of linear differential equations which are transformed to an eigenvalue problem, so that the thermal Rayleigh number Ra is the corresponding eigenvalue. The thermal Rayleigh number Ra and its corresponding wave number a are found numerically using the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto collocation method for each set of fixed nanofluid parameters. The marginal instability threshold (Rac, ac) characterizing the onset of stationary convection is computed accurately for wide ranges of the modified magnetic Chandrasekhar number Q, the modified specific heat increment NB, the nanoparticle Rayleigh number RN, the modified Lewis number Le, the modified diffusivity ratio NA and the Darcy number Da. Based on these control parameters and the notions of streamlines, isotherms and iso-nanoconcentrations, the stability characteristics of the system and the development of complex dynamics at the critical state are discussed in detail for both nanoparticle distributions.

80 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, two separate particle distribution functions (i.e. double distribution functions) are employed to obtain the flow- and temperature-fields, which are intrinsically coupled by considering the effect of density difference in the buoyancy term and neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and compression work due to pressure.

19 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors make linear and nonlinear stability analyses of Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Newtonian nanoliquid-saturated high-porosity medium.

Abstract: In the paper, we make linear and nonlinear stability analyses of Rayleigh–Benard convection in a Newtonian nanoliquid-saturated high-porosity medium. Single-phase model is used for nanoliquids, and values of thermophysical quantities concerning ethylene glycol–copper nanoliquid-saturated porous medium are calculated using mixture theory or phenomenological relations. The study is carried out for free-free, rigid-rigid and rigid-free isothermal boundaries. Boundary effects on onset of convection are shown to conform to classical predictions. The addition of copper nanoparticles to ethylene glycol is shown to lead to advanced onset of convection in the porous medium and thereby to a substantial increase in heat transport. Theoretical explanation is provided for the enhanced heat transfer situation in the medium. With suitable scaling in quantities, the result concerning heat transfer in ethylene glycol–copper nanoliquid-saturated porous medium is shown to be obtainable from those of ethylene glycol-saturated porous medium without copper nanoparticles. Nanoparticles serve the purpose of cooling and porous matrix retains the heat, thereby meaning that residence time of heat in the system can be regulated by using nanoparticles and porous matrix.

16 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered seven slip mechanisms that can produce a relative velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid and concluded that only Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis are important slip mechanisms in nanofluids.

Abstract: Nanofluids are engineered colloids made of a base fluid and nanoparticles (1-100 nm) Nanofluids have higher thermal conductivity' and single-phase heat transfer coefficients than their base fluids In particular the heat transfer coefficient increases appear to go beyond the mere thermal-conductivity effect, and cannot be predicted by traditional pure-fluid correlations such as Dittus-Boelter's In the nanofluid literature this behavior is generally attributed to thermal dispersion and intensified turbulence, brought about by nanoparticle motion To test the validity of this assumption, we have considered seven slip mechanisms that can produce a relative velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid These are inertia, Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, diffusioplwresis, Magnus effect, fluid drainage, and gravity We concluded that, of these seven, only Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis are important slip mechanisms in nanofluids Based on this finding, we developed a two-component four-equation nonhomogeneous equilibrium model for mass, momentum, and heat transport in nanofluids A nondimensional analysis of the equations suggests that energy transfer by nanoparticle dispersion is negligible, and thus cannot explain the abnormal heat transfer coefficient increases Furthermore, a comparison of the nanoparticle and turbulent eddy time and length scales clearly indicates that the nanoparticles move homogeneously with the fluid in the presence of turbulent eddies so an effect on turbulence intensity is also doubtful Thus, we propose an alternative explanation for the abnormal heat transfer coefficient increases: the nanofluid properties may vary significantly within the boundary layer because of the effect of the temperature gradient and thermophoresis For a heated fluid, these effects can result in a significant decrease of viscosity within the boundary layer, thus leading to heat transfer enhancement A correlation structure that captures these effects is proposed

5,329 citations

### "Rayleigh–Benard convection in water..." refers background in this paper

...A few of the researchers incorporated the effect of non-homogeneity in the nanofluid by considering the slip mechanisms like Brownian motion and thermophoresis proposed by Buongiorno [16] and they are discussed below....

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...The above equations are referred from Buongiorno [16]....

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01 Jan 1984

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a transition from Laminar boundary layer flow to Turbulent Boundary Layer flow with change of phase Mass Transfer Convection in Porous Media.

Abstract: Fundamental Principles Laminar Boundary Layer Flow Laminar Duct Flow External Natural Convection Internal Natural Convection Transition to Turbulence Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Turbulent Duct Flow Free Turbulent Flows Convection with Change of Phase Mass Transfer Convection in Porous Media.

4,067 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a model is developed to analyze heat transfer performance of nanofluids inside an enclosure taking into account the solid particle dispersion, where the transport equations are solved numerically using the finite-volume approach along with the alternating direct implicit procedure.

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TL;DR: In this article, a similarity solution is presented which depends on the Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion number Nb and thermophoresis number Nt.

1,565 citations