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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/DIA.2020.0649

Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic and Its Impact on Time in Range.

02 Mar 2021-Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA)-Vol. 23
Abstract: Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the lives of people with diabetes. Use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) helped manage diabetes effectively. Some of these disruptions may be reflected in population-scale changes to metrics of glycemic control, such as time-in-range (TIR). Methods: We examined data from 65,067 U.S.-based users of the G6 rtCGM System (Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) who had uploaded data before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Users associated with three counties that included the cities of Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York or with five regions designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were compared. Public data were used to associate regions with prepandemic and intrapandemic glycemic parameters, COVID-19 mortality, and median household income. Results: Compared with an 8-week prepandemic interval before stay-at-home orders (January 6, 2020, to March 1, 2020), overall mean (standard deviation) TIR improved from 59.0 (20.1)% to 61.0 (20.4)% during the early pandemic period (April 20, 2020 to June 14, 2020, P < 0.001). TIR improvements were noted in all three counties and in all five CDC-designated regions. Higher COVID-19 mortality was associated with higher proportions of individuals experiencing TIR improvements of ≥5 percentage points. Users in economically wealthier zip codes had higher pre- and intrapandemic TIR values and greater relative improvements in TIR. TIR and pandemic-related improvements in TIR varied across CDC-designated regions. Conclusions: Population-level rtCGM data may be used to monitor changes in glycemic control with temporal and geographic specificity. The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with improvements in TIR, which were not evenly distributed across the United States.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/DIA.2020.0656
Sandip Garg1, Gregory J. NormanInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed vulnerabilities and placed tremendous financial pressure on nearly all aspects of the U.S. health care system. Diabetes care is an example of the confluence of the pandemic and heightened importance of technology in changing care delivery. It has been estimated the added total direct U.S. medical cost burden due to COVID-19 to range between $160B (20% of the population infected) and $650B (80% of the population infected) over the course of the pandemic. The corresponding range for the population with diabetes is between $16B and $65B, representing between 5% and 20% of overall diabetes expenditure in the United States. We examine the evidence to support allocating part of this added spend to infrastructure capabilities to accelerate remote monitoring and management of diabetes. Methods and Results: We reviewed recent topical literature and COVID-19-related analyses in the public health, health technology, and health economics fields in addition to databases and surveys from government sources and the private sector. We summarized findings on use cases for real-time continuous glucose monitoring in the community, for telehealth, and in the hospital setting to highlight the successes and challenges of accelerating the adoption of a digital technology out of necessity during the pandemic and beyond. Conclusions: One critical and lasting consequence of the pandemic will be the accelerated adoption of digital technology in health care delivery. We conclude by discussing ways in which the changes wrought by COVID-19 from a health care, policy, and economics perspective can add value and are likely to endure postpandemic.

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Topics: Health care (64%), Health economics (57%), Public health (57%) ... show more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/DIA.2020.0666
Abstract: Background: Initiating continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can affect hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and patients' relationship with their diabetes. We used real-world HbA1c data to quantify short-t...

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Topics: Diabetes mellitus (57%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13300-021-01132-9
14 Aug 2021-Diabetes Therapy
Abstract: Telemedicine in diabetes care has been evolving over several years, particularly since the advent of cloud-connected technologies for diabetes management, such as glucose monitoring devices, including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, that facilitate sharing of glucose data between people with diabetes and their healthcare professionals in near-real time. Extreme social distancing and shielding in place for vulnerable patients during the COVID-19 pandemic has created both the challenge and the opportunity to provide care at a distance on a large scale. Available evidence suggests that glucose control has in fact improved during this period for people with diabetes who are able to use CGM devices for remote glucose monitoring. The development of telemedicine as part of the standard of care in diabetes faces significant challenges in the European context, particularly in terms of providing consistent and effective care at a distance to large populations of patients while using robust systems that can be supported by large regional and national healthcare services. These challenges include a fragmented approach to healthcare technology assessment and reimbursement, lack of eHealth education and literacy, particularly amongst healthcare professionals, lack of data integration, as well as concerns about electronic health records, patient consent and privacy. Here we review the benefits of and challenges to wider application of telemedicine and telemonitoring in the post-pandemic future, with the aim to ensure that the value of these eHealth services is provided to patients, healthcare providers and health systems.

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Topics: eHealth (60%), Health care (55%), Telemedicine (55%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10051022
Urszula Abramczyk, Aleksandra Kuzan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: For almost a year, the major medical problem has been the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. People with diabetes who contract COVID-19 are likely to experience more serious symptoms than patients without diabetes. This article presents new research about the epidemiology of COVID-19 in a group of patients with diabetes. It details the mortality and prognosis in such patients, as well as the relationship between COVID-19 and the diseases most often coexisting with diabetes: obesity, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased risk for infection. It also details how the virus infects and affects patients with hyperglycemia. The context of glycation and receptors for advanced glycation products (RAGE) seems to be of particular importance here. We also present a hypothesis related to the cause-and-effect axis-it turns out that diabetes can be both the cause of the more difficult course of COVID-19 and the result of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The last part of this article discusses the impact of antihyperglycemic drugs on the development of COVID-19 and other pharmacological implications, including which non-classical antihyperglycemic drugs seem to be effective in both the treatment of coronavirus infection and glucose homeostasis, and what strategies related to RAGE and glycation should be considered.

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Topics: Glucose homeostasis (54%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13300-021-01114-X
02 Aug 2021-Diabetes Therapy
Abstract: People with diabetes are at greater risk for negative outcomes from COVID-19. Though this risk is multifactorial, poor glycaemic control before and during admission to hospital for COVID-19 is likely to contribute to the increased risk. The COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions on mobility and interaction can also be expected to impact on daily glucose management of people with diabetes. Telemonitoring of glucose metrics has been widely used during the pandemic in people with diabetes, including adults and children with T1D, allowing an exploration of the impact of COVID-19 inside and outside the hospital setting on glycaemic control. To date, 27 studies including 69,294 individuals with T1D have reported the effect of glycaemic control during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite restricted access to diabetes clinics, glycaemic control has not deteriorated for 25/27 cohorts and improved in 23/27 study groups. Significantly, time in range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL (3.9-10 mmol/L) increased across 19/27 cohorts with a median 3.3% (- 6.0% to 11.2%) change. Thirty per cent of the cohorts with TIR data reported an average clinically significant TIR improvement of 5% or more, possibly as a consequence of more accurate glucose monitoring and improved connectivity through telemedicine. Periodic consultations using telemedicine enables care of people with diabetes while limiting the need for in-person attendance at diabetes clinics. Reports that sustained hyperglycaemia and early-stage diabetic ketoacidosis may go untreated because of the lockdown and concerns about potential exposure to the risk of infection argue for wider access to glucose telemonitoring. Therefore, in this paper we have critically reviewed reports concerning use of telemonitoring in the acute hospitalized setting as well as during daily diabetes management. Furthermore, we discuss the indications and implications of adopting telemonitoring and telemedicine in the present challenging time, as well as their potential for the future.

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Topics: Diabetes risk (65%), Diabetes management (58%)

2 Citations


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22 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2337/DCI19-0028
01 Aug 2019-Diabetes Care
Abstract: Improvements in sensor accuracy, greater convenience and ease of use, and expanding reimbursement have led to growing adoption of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). However, successful utilization of CGM technology in routine clinical practice remains relatively low. This may be due in part to the lack of clear and agreed-upon glycemic targets that both diabetes teams and people with diabetes can work toward. Although unified recommendations for use of key CGM metrics have been established in three separate peer-reviewed articles, formal adoption by diabetes professional organizations and guidance in the practical application of these metrics in clinical practice have been lacking. In February 2019, the Advanced Technologies & Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) Congress convened an international panel of physicians, researchers, and individuals with diabetes who are expert in CGM technologies to address this issue. This article summarizes the ATTD consensus recommendations for relevant aspects of CGM data utilization and reporting among the various diabetes populations.

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851 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CMET.2020.04.021
Lihua Zhu1, Zhi-Gang She1, Xu Cheng1, Juan Juan Qin1  +40 moreInstitutions (7)
02 Jun 2020-Cell Metabolism
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major comorbidity of COVID-19. However, the impact of blood glucose (BG) control on the degree of required medical interventions and on mortality in patients with COVID-19 and T2D remains uncertain. Thus, we performed a retrospective, multi-centered study of 7,337 cases of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 952 had pre-existing T2D. We found that subjects with T2D required more medical interventions and had a significantly higher mortality (7.8% versus 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49) and multiple organ injury than the non-diabetic individuals. Further, we found that well-controlled BG (glycemic variability within 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L) was associated with markedly lower mortality compared to individuals with poorly controlled BG (upper limit of glycemic variability exceeding 10.0 mmol/L) (adjusted HR, 0.14) during hospitalization. These findings provide clinical evidence correlating improved glycemic control with better outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D.

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Topics: Glycemic (61%), Type 2 diabetes (53%), Hazard ratio (52%) ... show more

734 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DIABRES.2020.108142
Abstract: Aims We aimed to briefly review the general characteristics of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and provide a better understanding of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in people with diabetes, and its management. Methods We searched for articles in PubMed and Google Scholar databases till 02 April 2020, with the following keywords: “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “infection”, “pathogenesis”, “incubation period”, “transmission”, “clinical features”, “diagnosis”, “treatment”, “diabetes”, with interposition of the Boolean operator “AND”. Results The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is heterogeneous, ranging from mild flu-like symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and death. Older age, diabetes and other comorbidities are reported as significant predictors of morbidity and mortality. Chronic inflammation, increased coagulation activity, immune response impairment, and potential direct pancreatic damage by SARS-CoV-2 might be among the underlying mechanisms of the association between diabetes and COVID-19. No conclusive evidence exists to support the discontinuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers or thiazolidinediones because of COVID-19 in people with diabetes. Caution should be taken to potential hypoglycemic events with the use of chloroquine in these subjects. Patient tailored therapeutic strategies, rigorous glucose monitoring and careful consideration of drug interactions might reduce adverse outcomes. Conclusions Suggestions are made on the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of the relationship between diabetes and COVID-19, and its management. No definite conclusions can be made based on current limited evidence. Further research regarding this relationship and its clinical management is warranted.

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Topics: Diabetes mellitus (54%), Disease (52%)

381 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/1932296820924469
Abstract: Introduction:Diabetes has emerged as an important risk factor for severe illness and death from COVID-19. There is a paucity of information on glycemic control among hospitalized COVID-19 patients ...

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Topics: Glycemic (64%), Risk factor (51%)

313 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2337/DC18-1581
01 Nov 2018-Diabetes Care
Abstract: While A1C is well established as an important risk marker for diabetes complications, with the increasing use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to help facilitate safe and effective diabetes management, it is important to understand how CGM metrics, such as mean glucose, and A1C correlate. Estimated A1C (eA1C) is a measure converting the mean glucose from CGM or self-monitored blood glucose readings, using a formula derived from glucose readings from a population of individuals, into an estimate of a simultaneously measured laboratory A1C. Many patients and clinicians find the eA1C to be a helpful educational tool, but others are often confused or even frustrated if the eA1C and laboratory-measured A1C do not agree. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration determined that the nomenclature of eA1C needed to change. This led the authors to work toward a multipart solution to facilitate the retention of such a metric, which includes renaming the eA1C the glucose management indicator (GMI) and generating a new formula for converting CGM-derived mean glucose to GMI based on recent clinical trials using the most accurate CGM systems available. The final aspect of ensuring a smooth transition from the old eA1C to the new GMI is providing new CGM analyses and explanations to further understand how to interpret GMI and use it most effectively in clinical practice. This Perspective will address why a new name for eA1C was needed, why GMI was selected as the new name, how GMI is calculated, and how to understand and explain GMI if one chooses to use GMI as a tool in diabetes education or management.

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Topics: Population (51%)

186 Citations


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