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Journal ArticleDOI

Realistic wave generation and active wave absorption for Navier–Stokes models: Application to OpenFOAM®

01 Jan 2013-Coastal Engineering (Elsevier)-Vol. 71, pp 102-118
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce OpenFOAM® as a tool to consider for coastal engineering applications as it solves 3D domains and considers two-phase flow, and demonstrate that active wave absorption is found to enhance stability by decreasing the energy of the system and correcting the increasing water level on long simulations.
About: This article is published in Coastal Engineering.The article was published on 2013-01-01. It has received 482 citations till now.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the OpenFOAM® newly developed wave generation and active absorption boundary condition presented in the companion paper (Higuera et al., submitted for publication) is validated.

268 citations


Cites background or methods from "Realistic wave generation and activ..."

  • ...The generation procedure is the one explained in the part I of this paper (Higuera et al., 2013-this issue)....

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  • ...This is one of the advances presented in part I of this paper (Higuera et al., 2013-this issue), without which this simulation could not be so accurate....

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  • ...In conclusion, OpenFOAM® is a promising set of solvers and utilities that can now be used to successfully simulate some of the most relevant cases of coastal engineering, thanks to the boundary conditions and validation presented in the companion paper (Higuera et al., 2013-this issue)....

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  • ...Some of them were introduced in the first part of this paper (Higuera et al., 2013-this issue), from which Lubin et al. (2003), Li et al. (2004), Wang et al. (2009) or Lara et al. (2012) and del Jesus et al. (2012) are remarked....

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  • ...The specific implementation of such model capabilities is presented in the companion paper (Higuera et al., 2013-this issue)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new solver, called IHFOAM, is programmed to overcome the limitations and errors in the original OpenFOAM® code, having a rigorous implementation of the equations.

211 citations


Cites background or methods from "Realistic wave generation and activ..."

  • ...This paper is focused inVolume-averagedReynolds-averagedNavier–Stokes (VARANS) equations Hsu and Liu (2002), but time-averaged volume-averaged methods also exist, as presented in de Lemos (2006)....

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  • ...Some examples of CFD codes applied to coastal engineering include IH-2VOF Lara et al. (2006), IH-3VOF Lara et al. (2012), COMFLOW Luppes et al. (2010), VOFbreak Troch and De Rouck (1999) or OpenFOAM® Higuera et al. (2013b)....

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  • ...For further reference regarding the governing equations and the solving procedures see Rusche (2002) and Higuera et al. (2013a)....

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  • ...%) reported by Guanche et al. (2009), the boundary conditions presented by Higuera et al. (2013a) have been used to generate and absorb waves....

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  • ...From the results of the first gauges, it can be seen that thewave generation and absorption boundary conditions presented in Higuera et al.'s (2013a) work adequately, as they manage to generate the target wave while absorbing the reflected energy, as the AWACS does in the laboratory....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Lifen Chen1, Jun Zang1, Andrew Hillis1, Gerald Morgan, Andrew Plummer1 
TL;DR: In this article, OpenFOAM is applied to non-linear wave interactions with offshore structures for ranges of wave conditions, and the numerical results for wave interaction with a vertical surface piercing cylinder have been compared with physical experiments performed at Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI).

175 citations


Cites background or methods from "Realistic wave generation and activ..."

  • ...(2012) and Higuera et al. (2013). For the model presented in this paper, the volume fraction is determined based on the location of the face center relative to wave elevation η and calculated by equation (7), whereas the volume fraction of the model presented by Jacobsen et al....

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  • ...Higuera et al. (2013) introduces a specific module to replicate laboratory wavemaker velocity profiles....

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  • ...Higuera et al. (2013a, 2013b) have implemented specific boundary conditions for realistic wave generation and active absorption....

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  • ...(2012) and Higuera et al. (2013). For the model presented in this paper, the volume fraction is determined based on the location of the face center relative to wave elevation η and calculated by equation (7), whereas the volume fraction of the model presented by Jacobsen et al. (2012) is specified as Aw/Af, where Aw is the area of the wet sides of the boundary face and Af is the area of the boundary face....

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  • ...(2012) and Higuera et al. (2013). For the model presented in this paper, the volume fraction is determined based on the location of the face center relative to wave elevation η and calculated by equation (7), whereas the volume fraction of the model presented by Jacobsen et al. (2012) is specified as Aw/Af, where Aw is the area of the wet sides of the boundary face and Af is the area of the boundary face. The time series of wave elevation at x =1.0 m from the model presented by Jacobsen et al. (2012) and the model presented in this paper are shown in Figure 1....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a fully comprehensive implementation of wave generation and active wave absorption for second-order longcrested monochromatic and random waves in a WCSPH-based (Weakly Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) model.

171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new three-dimensional numerical wave tank is developed for the calculation of wave propagation and wave hydrodynamics by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

163 citations


Cites methods from "Realistic wave generation and activ..."

  • ...In both cases [24] [20], algorithms for the wave generation and absorption were implemented, resulting in a three-dimensional numerical wave tank....

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References
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Book
01 Sep 1983
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an introduction to classical water wave theory for the college senior or first year graduate student, with a set of homework problems exercising and sometimes extending the material presented in the chapter.
Abstract: This book is intended as an introduction to classical water wave theory for the college senior or first year graduate student. The material is self-contained; almost all mathematical and engineering concepts are presented or derived in the text, thus making the book accessible to practicing engineers as well.The book commences with a review of fluid mechanics and basic vector concepts. The formulation and solution of the governing boundary value problem for small amplitude waves are developed and the kinematic and pressure fields for short and long waves are explored. The transformation of waves due to variations in depth and their interactions with structures are derived. Wavemaker theories and the statistics of ocean waves are reviewed. The application of the water particle motions and pressure fields are applied to the calculation of wave forces on small and large objects. Extension of the linear theory results to several nonlinear wave properties is presented. Each chapter concludes with a set of homework problems exercising and sometimes extending the material presented in the chapter. An appendix provides a description of nine experiments which can be performed, with little additional equipment, in most wave tank facilities.

2,339 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: An automatic error-controlled adaptive mesh refinement algorithm is set up in order to automatically produce a solution of pre-determined accuracy, based on a new stabilised and bounded second-order differencing scheme proposed.
Abstract: The accuracy of numerical simulation algorithms is one of main concerns in modern Computational Fluid Dynamics. Development of new and more accurate mathematical models requires an insight into the problem of numerical errors. In order to construct an estimate of the solution error in Finite Volume calculations, it is first necessary to examine its sources. Discretisation errors can be divided into two groups: errors caused by the discretisation of the solution domain and equation discretisation errors. The first group includes insufficient mesh resolution, mesh skewness and non-orthogonality. In the case of the second order Finite Volume method, equation discretisation errors are represented through numerical diffusion. Numerical diffusion coefficients from the discretisation of the convection term and the temporal derivative are derived. In an attempt to reduce numerical diffusion from the convection term, a new stabilised and bounded second-order differencing scheme is proposed. Three new methods of error estimation are presented. The Direct Taylor Series Error estimate is based on the Taylor series truncation error analysis. It is set up to enable single-mesh single-run error estimation. The Moment Error estimate derives the solution error from the cell imbalance in higher moments of the solution. A suitable normalisation is used to estimate the error magnitude. The Residual Error estimate is based on the local inconsistency between face interpolation and volume integration. Extensions of the method to transient flows and the Local Residual Problem error estimate are also given. Finally, an automatic error-controlled adaptive mesh refinement algorithm is set up in order to automatically produce a solution of pre-determined accuracy. It uses mesh refinement and unrefinement to control the local error magnitude. The method is tested on several characteristic flow situations, ranging from incompressible to supersonic flows, for both steady-state and transient problems.

1,418 citations


"Realistic wave generation and activ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Both algorithms are thoroughly explained and applied for VOF in Jasak (1996). A detailed flow chart, Fig....

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  • ...Both algorithms are thoroughly explained and applied for VOF in Jasak (1996)....

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  • ...Originally the solving algorithm was PISO (pressure implicit with splitting of operators), for a detailed description of the numerical solution of the equations see Kissling et al. (2010). More recent versions of the code have improvements....

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Dissertation
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the development and validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for the simulation of dispersed two-phase flows, which employs averaged mass and momentum conservation equations to describe the time-dependent motion of both phases.
Abstract: This study describes the development and validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for the simulation of dispersed two-phase flows. A two-fluid (Euler-Euler) methodology previously developed at Imperial College is adapted to high phase fractions. It employs averaged mass and momentum conservation equations to describe the time-dependent motion of both phases and, due to the averaging process, requires additional models for the inter-phase momentum transfer and turbulence for closure. The continuous phase turbulence is represented using a two-equation k − ε−turbulence model which contains additional terms to account for the effects of the dispersed on the continuous phase turbulence. The Reynolds stresses of the dispersed phase are calculated by relating them to those of the continuous phase through a turbulence response function. The inter-phase momentum transfer is determined from the instantaneous forces acting on the dispersed phase, comprising drag, lift and virtual mass. These forces are phase fraction dependent and in this work revised modelling is put forward in order to capture the phase fraction dependency of drag and lift. Furthermore, a correlation for the effect of the phase fraction on the turbulence response function is proposed. The revised modelling is based on an extensive survey of the existing literature. The conservation equations are discretised using the finite-volume method and solved in a solution procedure, which is loosely based on the PISO algorithm, adapted to the solution of the two-fluid model. Special techniques are employed to ensure the stability of the procedure when the phase fraction is high or changing rapidely. Finally, assessment of the methodology is made with reference to experimental data for gas-liquid bubbly flow in a sudden enlargement of a circular pipe and in a plane mixing layer. Additionally, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are performed using an interface-capturing methodology in order to gain insight into the dynamics of free rising bubbles, with a view towards use in the longer term as an aid in the development of inter-phase momentum transfer models for the two-fluid methodology. The direct numerical simulation employs the mass and momentum conservation equations in their unaveraged form and the topology of the interface between the two phases is determined as part of the solution. A novel solution procedure, similar to that used for the two-fluid model, is used for the interface-capturing methodology, which allows calculation of air bubbles in water. Two situations are investigated: bubbles rising in a stagnant liquid and in a shear flow. Again, experimental data are used to verify the computational results.

968 citations


"Realistic wave generation and activ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...For further reference regarding the governing equations see Rusche (2002)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: OpenFoam as discussed by the authors is a CFD library for solving free surface Newtonian flows using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a volume of fluid method.
Abstract: SUMMARY The open-source CFD library OpenFoam® contains a method for solving free surface Newtonian flows using the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations coupled with a volume of fluid method. In this paper, it is demonstrated how this has been extended with a generic wave generation and absorption method termed ‘wave relaxation zones’, on which a detailed account is given. The ability to use OpenFoam for the modelling of waves is demonstrated using two benchmark test cases, which show the ability to model wave propagation and wave breaking. Furthermore, the reflection coefficient from outlet relaxation zones is considered for a range of parameters. The toolbox is implemented in C++, and the flexibility in deriving new relaxation methods and implementing new wave theories along with other shapes of the relaxation zone is outlined. Subsequent to the publication of this paper, the toolbox has been made freely available through the OpenFoam-Extend Community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

852 citations


"Realistic wave generation and activ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Both algorithms are thoroughly explained and applied for VOF in Jasak (1996)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Jan 1980
TL;DR: In this article, a least square method to separate the incident and reflected spectra from the measured coexisting spectra is presented, which requires a simultaneous measurement of the waves at three positions in the flume which are in reasonable proximity to each other and are on a line parallel to the direction of wave propagation.
Abstract: A least squares method to separate the incident and reflected spectra from the measured co-existing spectra is presented. This method requires a simultaneous measurement of the waves at three positions in the flume which are in reasonable proximity to each other and are on a line parallel to the direction of wave propagation. Experimental investigations have shown that there is good agreement between the incident spectra calculated by the least squares method and the incident spectra measured concurrently in a side channel.

712 citations


"Realistic wave generation and activ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Following Mansard and Funke (1980) methodology, the distances between the gauges are calculated based on the wave length in order to obtain a stable solution. The first gauge is always placed at 7.50 m. The distance between the first and second gauges is fixed: X12 1⁄4 L 10 : The distance between the first and third one is bounded: L 6 b X13 b L 3 while X13≠ L 5 and X13≠ 3L 10 : To fulfil these restrictions, X13 1⁄4 L 4 has been chosen. For each of the wave periods there is an associated wave length, calculated using the dispersion relationship. In Table 3 wave lengths and distance between gauges for each wave period are given. All the cases have been simulated for 120 s using 1 core (2.93 GHz). The mean elapsed time is greater than double, compared with the previous case, as larger velocities inherent to the waves are present throughout all the simulation. The simulations were completed in less than 4 h. The reflection analysis is carried out using waveLab® 3 software, using the signal of the 3 gauges as input, and eliminating the first 5 waves to start with a more or less steady state. The calculations of Mansard and Funke (1980) plus an inverse FFT in order to obtain the reflection coefficients in both the frequency and temporal domains are carried out....

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  • ...The calculations of Mansard and Funke (1980) plus an inverse FFT in order to obtain the reflection coefficients in both the frequency and temporal domains are carried out....

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  • ...Following Mansard and Funke (1980) methodology, the distances between the gauges are calculated based on the wave length in order to obtain a stable solution....

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