Realizing Wireless Communication Through Software-Defined HyperSurface Environments
12 Jun 2018-pp 14-15
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a new paradigm, where indoor scattering becomes software-defined and, subsequently, optimizable across wide frequency ranges, where a central server calculates and deploys the optimal electromagnetic interaction per tile, to the benefit of communicating devices.
Abstract: Wireless communication environments are unaware of the ongoing data exchange efforts within them. Moreover, their effect on the communication quality is intractable in all but the simplest cases. The present work proposes a new paradigm, where indoor scattering becomes software-defined and, subsequently, optimizable across wide frequency ranges. Moreover, the controlled scattering can surpass natural behavior, exemplary overriding Snell's law, reflecting waves towards any custom angle (including negative ones). Thus, path loss and multi-path fading effects can be controlled and mitigated. The core technology of this new paradigm are metasurfaces, planar artificial structures whose effect on impinging electromagnetic waves is fully defined by their macro-structure. The present study contributes the software-programmable wireless environment model, consisting of several HyperSurface tiles controlled by a central, environment configuration server. HyperSurfaces are a novel class of metasurfaces whose structure and, hence, electromagnetic behavior can be altered and controlled via a software interface. Multiple networked tiles coat indoor objects, allowing fine-grained, customizable reflection, absorption or polarization overall. A central server calculates and deploys the optimal electromagnetic interaction per tile, to the benefit of communicating devices. Realistic simulations using full 3D ray-tracing demonstrate the groundbreaking potential of the proposed approach in 2.4GHz and 60GHz frequencies.
TL;DR: A literature review on recent applications and design aspects of the intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) in the future wireless networks, and the joint optimization of the IRS’s phase control and the transceivers’ transmission control in different network design problems, e.g., rate maximization and power minimization problems.
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review on recent applications and design aspects of the intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) in the future wireless networks. Conventionally, the network optimization has been limited to transmission control at two endpoints, i.e., end users and network controller. The fading wireless channel is uncontrollable and becomes one of the main limiting factors for performance improvement. The IRS is composed of a large array of scattering elements, which can be individually configured to generate additional phase shifts to the signal reflections. Hence, it can actively control the signal propagation properties in favor of signal reception, and thus realize the notion of a smart radio environment. As such, the IRS’s phase control, combined with the conventional transmission control, can potentially bring performance gain compared to wireless networks without IRS. In this survey, we first introduce basic concepts of the IRS and the realizations of its reconfigurability. Then, we focus on applications of the IRS in wireless communications. We overview different performance metrics and analytical approaches to characterize the performance improvement of IRS-assisted wireless networks. To exploit the performance gain, we discuss the joint optimization of the IRS’s phase control and the transceivers’ transmission control in different network design problems, e.g., rate maximization and power minimization problems. Furthermore, we extend the discussion of IRS-assisted wireless networks to some emerging use cases. Finally, we highlight important practical challenges and future research directions for realizing IRS-assisted wireless networks in beyond 5G communications.
TL;DR: The fundamental differences with other technologies, the most important open research issues to tackle, and the reasons why the use of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces necessitates to rethink the communication-theoretic models currently employed in wireless networks are elaborated.
Abstract: The future of mobile communications looks exciting with the potential new use cases and challenging requirements of future 6th generation (6G) and beyond wireless networks. Since the beginning of the modern era of wireless communications, the propagation medium has been perceived as a randomly behaving entity between the transmitter and the receiver, which degrades the quality of the received signal due to the uncontrollable interactions of the transmitted radio waves with the surrounding objects. The recent advent of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces in wireless communications enables, on the other hand, network operators to control the scattering, reflection, and refraction characteristics of the radio waves, by overcoming the negative effects of natural wireless propagation. Recent results have revealed that reconfigurable intelligent surfaces can effectively control the wavefront, e.g., the phase, amplitude, frequency, and even polarization, of the impinging signals without the need of complex decoding, encoding, and radio frequency processing operations. Motivated by the potential of this emerging technology, the present article is aimed to provide the readers with a detailed overview and historical perspective on state-of-the-art solutions, and to elaborate on the fundamental differences with other technologies, the most important open research issues to tackle, and the reasons why the use of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces necessitates to rethink the communication-theoretic models currently employed in wireless networks. This article also explores theoretical performance limits of reconfigurable intelligent surface-assisted communication systems using mathematical techniques and elaborates on the potential use cases of intelligent surfaces in 6G and beyond wireless networks.
TL;DR: It will be shown that the data-driven approaches should not replace, but rather complement, traditional design techniques based on mathematical models in future wireless communication networks.
Abstract: This paper deals with the use of emerging deep learning techniques in future wireless communication networks. It will be shown that the data-driven approaches should not replace, but rather complement, traditional design techniques based on mathematical models. Extensive motivation is given for why deep learning based on artificial neural networks will be an indispensable tool for the design and operation of future wireless communication networks, and our vision of how artificial neural networks should be integrated into the architecture of future wireless communication networks is presented. A thorough description of deep learning methodologies is provided, starting with the general machine learning paradigm, followed by a more in-depth discussion about deep learning and artificial neural networks, covering the most widely used artificial neural network architectures and their training methods. Deep learning will also be connected to other major learning frameworks, such as reinforcement learning and transfer learning. A thorough survey of the literature on deep learning for wireless communication networks is provided, followed by a detailed description of several novel case studies wherein the use of deep learning proves extremely useful for network design. For each case study, it will be shown how the use of (even approximate) mathematical models can significantly reduce the amount of live data that needs to be acquired/measured to implement the data-driven approaches. Finally, concluding remarks describe those that, in our opinion, are the major directions for future research in this field.
TL;DR: A prototype of quadrature phase‐shift keying (QPSK) wireless communication based on time‐domain digital coding metasurface, whose reflection properties can be varied within different time slots by changing the biasing voltages of varactor diodes in specially designed meta‐atoms is developed here.
TL;DR: This paper systematically surveys recent advances in EH-IoTs from several perspectives, including methods that enable the use of energy harvesting hardware as a proxy for conventional sensors to detect contexts in energy efficient manner and the advancements in efficient checkpointing and timekeeping for intermittently powered IoT devices.
Abstract: With the growing number of deployments of Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure for a wide variety of applications, the battery maintenance has become a major limitation for the sustainability of such infrastructure. To overcome this problem, energy harvesting offers a viable alternative to autonomously power IoT devices, resulting in a number of battery-less energy harvesting IoTs (or EH-IoTs) appearing in the market in recent years. Standards activities are also underway, which involve wireless protocol design suitable for EH-IoTs as well as testing procedures for various energy harvesting methods. Despite the early commercial and standards activities, IoT sensing, computing and communications under unpredictable power supply still face significant research challenges. This paper systematically surveys recent advances in EH-IoTs from several perspectives. First, it reviews the recent commercial developments for EH-IoT in terms of both products and services, followed by initial standards activities in this space. Then it surveys methods that enable the use of energy harvesting hardware as a proxy for conventional sensors to detect contexts in energy efficient manner. Next it reviews the advancements in efficient checkpointing and timekeeping for intermittently powered IoT devices. We also survey recent research in novel wireless communication techniques for EH-IoTs, such as the applications of reinforcement learning to optimize power allocations on-the-fly under unpredictable energy productions, and packet-less IoT communications and backscatter communication techniques for energy impoverished environments. The paper is concluded with a discussion of future research directions.
30 Nov 1993
TL;DR: Details of Element Pattern and Mutual Impedance Effects for Phased Arrays and Special Array Feeds for Limited Field of View and Wideband Arrays are presented.
Abstract: Phased Arrays in Radar and Communication Systems. Pattern Characteristics and Synthesis of Linear and Planar Arrays. Patterns of Nonplanar Arrays. Elements, Transmission Lines, and Feed Architectures for Phased Arrays. Summary of Element Pattern and Mutual Impedance Effects. Array Error Effects. Special Array Feeds for Limited Field of View and Wideband Arrays.
TL;DR: Metamaterials are typically engineered by arranging a set of small scatterers or apertures in a regular array throughout a region of space, thus obtaining some desirable bulk electromagnetic behavior as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Metamaterials are typically engineered by arranging a set of small scatterers or apertures in a regular array throughout a region of space, thus obtaining some desirable bulk electromagnetic behavior. The desired property is often one that is not normally found naturally (negative refractive index, near-zero index, etc.). Over the past ten years, metamaterials have moved from being simply a theoretical concept to a field with developed and marketed applications. Three-dimensional metamaterials can be extended by arranging electrically small scatterers or holes into a two-dimensional pattern at a surface or interface. This surface version of a metamaterial has been given the name metasurface (the term metafilm has also been employed for certain structures). For many applications, metasurfaces can be used in place of metamaterials. Metasurfaces have the advantage of taking up less physical space than do full three-dimensional metamaterial structures; consequently, metasurfaces offer the possibility of less-lossy structures. In this overview paper, we discuss the theoretical basis by which metasurfaces should be characterized, and discuss their various applications. We will see how metasurfaces are distinguished from conventional frequency-selective surfaces. Metasurfaces have a wide range of potential applications in electromagnetics (ranging from low microwave to optical frequencies), including: (1) controllable “smart” surfaces, (2) miniaturized cavity resonators, (3) novel wave-guiding structures, (4) angular-independent surfaces, (5) absorbers, (6) biomedical devices, (7) terahertz switches, and (8) fluid-tunable frequency-agile materials, to name only a few. In this review, we will see that the development in recent years of such materials and/or surfaces is bringing us closer to realizing the exciting speculations made over one hundred years ago by the work of Lamb, Schuster, and Pocklington, and later by Mandel'shtam and Veselago.
TL;DR: Recent progress in the physics of metasurfaces operating at wavelengths ranging from microwave to visible is reviewed, with opinions of opportunities and challenges in this rapidly developing research field.
Abstract: Metamaterials are composed of periodic subwavelength metal/dielectric structures that resonantly couple to the electric and/or magnetic components of the incident electromagnetic fields, exhibiting properties that are not found in nature. This class of micro- and nano-structured artificial media have attracted great interest during the past 15 years and yielded ground-breaking electromagnetic and photonic phenomena. However, the high losses and strong dispersion associated with the resonant responses and the use of metallic structures, as well as the difficulty in fabricating the micro- and nanoscale 3D structures, have hindered practical applications of metamaterials. Planar metamaterials with subwavelength thickness, or metasurfaces, consisting of single-layer or few-layer stacks of planar structures, can be readily fabricated using lithography and nanoprinting methods, and the ultrathin thickness in the wave propagation direction can greatly suppress the undesirable losses. Metasurfaces enable a spatially varying optical response (e.g. scattering amplitude, phase, and polarization), mold optical wavefronts into shapes that can be designed at will, and facilitate the integration of functional materials to accomplish active control and greatly enhanced nonlinear response. This paper reviews recent progress in the physics of metasurfaces operating at wavelengths ranging from microwave to visible. We provide an overview of key metasurface concepts such as anomalous reflection and refraction, and introduce metasurfaces based on the Pancharatnam-Berry phase and Huygens' metasurfaces, as well as their use in wavefront shaping and beam forming applications, followed by a discussion of polarization conversion in few-layer metasurfaces and their related properties. An overview of dielectric metasurfaces reveals their ability to realize unique functionalities coupled with Mie resonances and their low ohmic losses. We also describe metasurfaces for wave guidance and radiation control, as well as active and nonlinear metasurfaces. Finally, we conclude by providing our opinions of opportunities and challenges in this rapidly developing research field.
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art in nano-machines, including architectural aspects, expected features of future nano-MACHines, and current developments are presented for a better understanding of nanonetwork scenarios and nanonetworks features and components are explained and compared with traditional communication networks.
Abstract: Nanotechnologies promise new solutions for several applications in biomedical, industrial and military fields. At nano-scale, a nano-machine can be considered as the most basic functional unit. Nano-machines are tiny components consisting of an arranged set of molecules, which are able to perform very simple tasks. Nanonetworks. i.e., the interconnection of nano-machines are expected to expand the capabilities of single nano-machines by allowing them to cooperate and share information. Traditional communication technologies are not suitable for nanonetworks mainly due to the size and power consumption of transceivers, receivers and other components. The use of molecules, instead of electromagnetic or acoustic waves, to encode and transmit the information represents a new communication paradigm that demands novel solutions such as molecular transceivers, channel models or protocols for nanonetworks. In this paper, first the state-of-the-art in nano-machines, including architectural aspects, expected features of future nano-machines, and current developments are presented for a better understanding of nanonetwork scenarios. Moreover, nanonetworks features and components are explained and compared with traditional communication networks. Also some interesting and important applications for nanonetworks are highlighted to motivate the communication needs between the nano-machines. Furthermore, nanonetworks for short-range communication based on calcium signaling and molecular motors as well as for long-range communication based on pheromones are explained in detail. Finally, open research challenges, such as the development of network components, molecular communication theory, and the development of new architectures and protocols, are presented which need to be solved in order to pave the way for the development and deployment of nanonetworks within the next couple of decades.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that substantial gate-induced persistent switching and linear modulation of terahertz waves can be achieved in a two-dimensional metamaterial, into which an atomically thin, gated two- dimensional graphene layer is integrated.
Abstract: The extraordinary electronic properties of graphene provided the main thrusts for the rapid advance of graphene electronics In photonics, the gate-controllable electronic properties of graphene provide a route to efficiently manipulate the interaction of photons with graphene, which has recently sparked keen interest in graphene plasmonics However, the electro-optic tuning capability of unpatterned graphene alone is still not strong enough for practical optoelectronic applications owing to its non-resonant Drude-like behaviour Here, we demonstrate that substantial gate-induced persistent switching and linear modulation of terahertz waves can be achieved in a two-dimensional metamaterial, into which an atomically thin, gated two-dimensional graphene layer is integrated The gate-controllable light-matter interaction in the graphene layer can be greatly enhanced by the strong resonances of the metamaterial Although the thickness of the embedded single-layer graphene is more than six orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength (<λ/1,000,000), the one-atom-thick layer, in conjunction with the metamaterial, can modulate both the amplitude of the transmitted wave by up to 47% and its phase by 322° at room temperature More interestingly, the gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials show hysteretic behaviour in the transmission of terahertz waves, which is indicative of persistent photonic memory effects