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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10643389.2020.1729073

Recent developments on recycling end-of-life flat panel displays: A comprehensive review focused on indium

04 Mar 2021-Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 51, Iss: 5, pp 429-456
Abstract: In this paper, a review of the most recent technologies for indium recovery from waste flat panel displays is provided. Differently from the other fractions obtained after primary dismantling (such...

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2021.110869
Pierre Gaffuri1, Elena Stolyarova1, Daniel Llerena1, Estelle Appert1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: White light emitting diodes (wLEDs) have become, in the last decade, the most efficient device for most lighting applications. They are mainly composed of indium and gallium for the blue emitting LED, and rare-earth elements for the phosphor producing the yellow component of the white light. Those elements are crucial to achieve the excellent lighting properties of wLEDs, but they are systematically ranked among the most critical materials. In the present review, the essential roles of indium, gallium and rare-earth elements in wLEDs are specified, and their criticality through the main criteria of supply shortage risk and economic importance is discussed in detail in the light of the wLED market. The opportunities and technological challenges of their reduction using nano-sized objects and substitution using non-critical materials are considered in relation to the resulting changes in the performance of wLEDs, but also to the stated preference of consumers of the final product, creating an opportunity for trade-offs between the performance and avoidance of critical materials in wLEDs. The economic value that a consumer could place in a critical material-free wLED is further estimated through a choice experiment conducted with 297 consumers. The results obtained show a positive, significant willingness to pay for critical material-free wLEDs. On average, consumers are ready to pay €2.82 more for a wLED sold at €10. The present approach addresses the transdisciplinary problem of the reduction and substitution of critical materials in functional devices intended for consumers, and can be generalized to other energy-related materials and devices.

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6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/2632-959X/ABDF2D
Adam P. Draude1, Ingo Dierking1Institutions (1)
22 Jan 2021-
Abstract: As display devices based on liquid crystals have matured over the last decades, liquid crystal research has shifted its priorities in slightly different directions, such as sensors, photonics, nanotechnology and even more biologically related fields like drug delivery. This implied a change of emphasis in the development of novel materials, of which a completely new class of liquid crystal based composites emerged, that of nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals. The underlying ideas were to add functionality, while maintaining switchability, and the exploitation of liquid crystal self-organisation to build hierarchical nanostructures. Of particular interest for applications are dispersions of carbon nanomaterials, such as fullerenes, nanotubes and the graphene variants, due to their interactions with conventional liquid crystals. While such systems have been investigated for the past two decades, we concentrate in this review on the effects of dimensionality of the dispersed carbon nanoparticles, which goes hand in hand with the more recent developments in this field. Examples are the doping of 0D fullerenes in liquid crystals and implications for Blue Phase stability, or 1D nanotubes in nematic and ferroelectric liquid crystals, questions of dispersibility and applications as alignment media in ITO-free devices. Graphene (2D) and especially graphene oxide are mainly investigated for their formation of lyotropic liquid crystals. We here discuss the more recent aspects of dispersion in thermotropics.

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Topics: Thermotropic crystal (79%), Liquid crystal (60%), Fullerene (54%) ... read more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/C6040080
10 Dec 2020-
Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free optoelectronic devices have been discussed for a number of years in the light of a possible indium shortage as demand rises. In particular, this is due to the largely increased number of flat panel displays and especially liquid crystal displays (LCDs) being produced for home entertainment TV and mobile technologies. While a shortage of primary indium seems far on the horizon, nevertheless, recycling has become an important issue, as has the development of ITO-free electrode materials, especially for flexible liquid crystal devices. The main contenders for new electrode technologies are discussed with an emphasis placed on carbon-based materials for LCDs, including composite approaches. At present, these already fulfil the technical specifications demanded from ITO with respect to transmittance and sheet resistance, albeit not in relation to cost and large-scale production. Advantages and disadvantages of ITO-free technologies are discussed, with application examples given. An outlook into the future suggests no immediate transition to carbon-based electrodes in the area of LCDs, while this may change in the future once flexible displays and environmentally friendly smart window solutions or energy harvesting building coverings become available.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13147881
14 Jul 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: With rapid development and deployment of clean energy technology, demand for certain minor metals has increased significantly. However, many such metals are by-products of various host metals and are economically infeasible to extract independently. Meanwhile, by-product metals present in the mined ores may not be extracted even if they are sent to smelters along with host metal concentrates if it is not economically favorable for the producers. This dependency poses potential supply risks to by-product metals. Indium is a typical by-product metal, mainly from zinc mining and refining, and is important for flat panel displays, high efficiency lighting, and emerging thin-film solar panel production. Current indium supply–demand forecast models tend to overlook the volatile and competitive nature of minor metal market and are mostly based on top-down approaches. Therefore, a bottom-up agent-based model can shed new light on the market dynamics and possible outcome of future indium supply–demand relationship. A multi-layered model would also be helpful for identifying possible bottlenecks of indium supply and finding solutions. This work takes indium as an example of minor metal market and sets up an agent-based model to predict future market situation and supply–demand balance. The market is modeled as a Cournot competition oligopolistic market by refineries with capacity restriction based on host metal production. The model maintains active Nash equilibrium each year to simulate competitions between suppliers. The model is validated and verified by historical data and sensitivity analysis. Several scenarios are also explored to illustrate possible uncertainties of the market.

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Topics: Minor metals (57%), Oligopoly (52%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJLEO.2021.167396
01 Oct 2021-Optik
Abstract: Tb3+-activated Sr2P2O7 phosphor samples were prepared via the co-precipitation route. The phase structure and vibrational characteristics of the synthesized phosphors were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The prepared phosphor exhibited green emission under VUV and UV excitation wavelengths of 147 nm, 172 nm, and 223 nm. The color-correlated temperature of the proposed phosphor suggested a cool greenish light. Based on our study results, we predict that these phosphors may be applied in green-emitting phosphors, optical display systems, white light-emitting diodes, and plasma display panels (PDP).

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Topics: Phosphor (54%), Photoluminescence (51%)
References
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68 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B006677J
Abstract: In contrast to a recently expressed, and widely cited, view that “Ionic liquids are starting to leave academic labs and find their way into a wide variety of industrial applications”, we demonstrate in this critical review that there have been parallel and collaborative exchanges between academic research and industrial developments since the materials were first reported in 1914 (148 references)

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4,415 Citations


OtherDOI: 10.3133/70180197
01 Jan 2017-
Abstract: Domestic Production and Use: In Virginia, one firm with integrated mining and processing operations produced kyanite from two hard-rock open pit mines and mullite by calcining kyanite. Two other companies, one in Alabama and another in Georgia, produced synthetic mullite from materials mined from four sites. Each company sourced materials from one site in Alabama and one site in Georgia; these data are withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. Commercially produced synthetic mullite is made by sintering or fusing such feedstock materials as kyanite or bauxitic kaolin. Natural mullite occurrences typically are rare and uneconomic to mine. Of the kyanitemullite output, 90% was estimated to have been used in refractories and 10% in other uses, including abrasive products such as motor vehicle brake shoes and pads and grinding and cutting wheels; ceramic products, such as electrical insulating porcelains, sanitaryware, and whiteware; foundry products and precision casting molds; and other products. An estimated 60% to 65% of the refractory usage was consumed by the iron and steel industries, and the remainder was used by industries that manufacture chemicals, glass, nonferrous metals, and other materials. Andalusite was commercially mined from an andalusite-pyrophyllite-sericite deposit in North Carolina and processed as a blend of primarily andalusite for use by producers of refractories in making firebrick.

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Topics: Commodity (Marxism) (54%)

415 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2014.01.028
Conny Bakker1, Feng Wang1, Feng Wang2, Jaco Huisman1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Product lifespans of electric and electronic products are in decline, with detrimental environmental consequences. This research maps the environmental impacts of refrigerators and laptops against their increasing energy efficiency over time, and finds that product life extension is the preferred strategy in both cases: refrigerators bought in 2011 should be used for 20 years instead of 14, and laptops for at least 7 years instead of 4. Designers however lack expertise to design for product life extension (through longer product life, refurbishment, remanufacturing) and product recycling. The paper explores a range of product life extension strategies and concludes that tailored approaches are needed. One of the main research challenges is to determine when to apply which product life extension strategy.

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Topics: Product management (64%), Product design (62%), New product development (61%) ... read more

378 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WASMAN.2016.08.004
Muammer Kaya1Institutions (1)
01 Nov 2016-Waste Management
Abstract: This paper reviews the existing and state of art knowledge for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling. Electrical and/or electronic devices which are unwanted, broken or discarded by their original users are known as e-waste. The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of e-waste problem, strategies of e-waste management and various physical, chemical and metallurgical e-waste recycling processes, their advantages and disadvantages towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with special attention towards extraction of both metallic values and nonmetallic substances. The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals Hg, Cd, Pb, etc., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. Due to the presence of these substances, e-waste is generally considered as hazardous waste and, if improperly managed, may pose significant human and environmental health risks. This review describes the potential hazards and economic opportunities of e-waste. Firstly, an overview of e-waste/printed circuit board (PCB) components is given. Current status and future perspectives of e-waste/PCB recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling methods, liberation and classification processes are also covered. Manual selective dismantling after desoldering and metal-nonmetal liberation at -150μm with two step crushing are seen to be the best techniques. After size reduction, mainly physical separation processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation, etc. have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and nonmetals, along with useful utilizations of the nonmetallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining. Suitable PCB recycling flowsheets for industrial applications are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives. Recycling technology aims to take today's waste and turn it into conflict-free, sustainable polymetallic secondary resources (i.e. Urban Mining) for tomorrow. Recycling technology must ensure that e-waste is processed in an environmentally friendly manner, with high efficiency and lowered carbon footprint, at a fraction of the costs involved with setting multibillion dollar smelting facilities. Taking into consideration our depleting natural resources, this Urban Mining approach offers quite a few benefits. This results in increased energy efficiency and lowers demand for mining of new raw materials.

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306 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2009.12.025
Seong-Rin Lim1, Julie M. Schoenung1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

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Topics: Waste disposal (55%)

151 Citations


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