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Journal ArticleDOI

Recent progress in inkjet-printed solar cells

11 Jun 2019-Journal of Materials Chemistry (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 7, Iss: 23, pp 13873-13902
TL;DR: In the past few decades, the fabrication of solar cells has been considered as one of the most promising ways to meet the increasing energy demands to support the development of modern society as well as to control the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of fossil fuels as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: In the past few decades, the fabrication of solar cells has been considered as one of the most promising ways to meet the increasing energy demands to support the development of modern society as well as to control the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of fossil fuels. A number of different types of solar cells, such as silicon solar cells (Si), Cu-based chalcogenides (Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4) thin film solar cells (TFSC), dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), organic solar cells (OSC), and perovskite solar cells (PVSC), have been implemented in the photovoltaic technology. However, the high manufacturing costs of solar cells is one of the major obstacles for their wide-scale application. In this regard, inkjet printing has attracted tremendous interest in both academic research and industrial applications among all the various kinds of fabrication techniques and is believed to be one of the most promising methods to meet these requirements. The great advantages of inkjet printing are that the process is contactless, maskless and has a high material utilization rate, and good scalability, and compatibility of the roll-to-roll process. Additionally, the maskless nature of inkjet printing allows for freedom of design, which enables multi-functional properties of solar cells (i.e., power source and artwork) to be realized. In this review, the recent advances in inkjet printing with the deposition of different layers of various types of solar cells are summarized in detail and prospectives for the future development of printed/flexible solar cells are covered.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of 4D printing of smart systems and their applications in sensors, actuators and biomedical devices were reviewed to provide a deeper understanding of the current development and the future outlook.

101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an overview about the research progress of flexible OSCs (F-OSCs), from the aspect of materials (including flexible electrodes, interfacial layers and photoactive layers), large-area fabrication techniques and potential applications.

75 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art and recent advances in the production of inkjet-printed metal halide perovskites (MHPs) for highly efficient and innovative optoelectronic devices is provided in this article.
Abstract: Inkjet printing (IJP) has evolved over the past 30 years into a reliable, versatile, and cost-effective industrial production technology in many areas from graphics to printed electronic applications. Intensive research efforts have led to the successful development of functional electronic inks to realize printed circuit boards, sensors, lighting, actuators, energy storage, and power generation devices. Recently, a promising solution-processable material class has entered the stage: metal halide perovskites (MHPs). Within just 10 years of research, the efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) on a laboratory scale increased to over 25%. Despite the complex nature of MHPs, significant progress has also been made in controlling film formation in terms of ink development, substrate wetting behavior, and crystallization processes of inkjet-printed MHPs. This results in highly efficient inkjet-printed PSCs with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of almost 21%, paving the way for cost-effective and highly efficient thin-film solar cell technology. In addition, the excellent optoelectronic properties of inkjet-printed MHPs achieve remarkable results in photodetectors, X-ray detectors, and illumination applications. Herein, a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art and recent advances in the production of inkjet-printed MHPs for highly efficient and innovative optoelectronic devices is provided. (Less)

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the use of solution-processed 2D materials in organic solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells is presented.
Abstract: In the ever-increasing energy demand scenario, the development of novel photovoltaic (PV) technologies is considered to be one of the key solutions to fulfil the energy request. In this context, graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials (GRMs), including nonlayered 2D materials and 2D perovskites, as well as their hybrid systems, are emerging as promising candidates to drive innovation in PV technologies. The mechanical, thermal, and optoelectronic properties of GRMs can be exploited in different active components of solar cells to design next-generation devices. These components include front (transparent) and back conductive electrodes, charge transporting layers, and interconnecting/recombination layers, as well as photoactive layers. The production and processing of GRMs in the liquid phase, coupled with the ability to “on-demand” tune their optoelectronic properties exploiting wet-chemical functionalization, enable their effective integration in advanced PV devices through scalable, reliable, and inexpensive printing/coating processes. Herein, we review the progresses in the use of solution-processed 2D materials in organic solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, quantum dot solar cells, and organic–inorganic hybrid solar cells, as well as in tandem systems. We first provide a brief introduction on the properties of 2D materials and their production methods by solution-processing routes. Then, we discuss the functionality of 2D materials for electrodes, photoactive layer components/additives, charge transporting layers, and interconnecting layers through figures of merit, which allow the performance of solar cells to be determined and compared with the state-of-the-art values. We finally outline the roadmap for the further exploitation of solution-processed 2D materials to boost the performance of PV devices.

57 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Oct 1991-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a photovoltaic cell, created from low-to medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency.
Abstract: THE large-scale use of photovoltaic devices for electricity generation is prohibitively expensive at present: generation from existing commercial devices costs about ten times more than conventional methods1. Here we describe a photovoltaic cell, created from low-to medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency. The device is based on a 10-µm-thick, optically transparent film of titanium dioxide particles a few nanometres in size, coated with a monolayer of a charge-transfer dye to sensitize the film for light harvesting. Because of the high surface area of the semiconductor film and the ideal spectral characteristics of the dye, the device harvests a high proportion of the incident solar energy flux (46%) and shows exceptionally high efficiencies for the conversion of incident photons to electrical current (more than 80%). The overall light-to-electric energy conversion yield is 7.1-7.9% in simulated solar light and 12% in diffuse daylight. The large current densities (greater than 12 mA cm-2) and exceptional stability (sustaining at least five million turnovers without decomposition), as well as the low cost, make practical applications feasible.

26,457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals were found to efficiently sensitize TiO(2) for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells, which exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors.
Abstract: Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3, were found to efficiently sensitize TiO2 for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO2 films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH3NH3PbI3-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH3NH3PbBr3-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.

16,634 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of p−n junction solar energy converters, called the detailed balance limit of efficiency, has been calculated for an ideal case in which the only recombination mechanism of holeelectron pairs is radiative as required by the principle of detailed balance.
Abstract: In order to find an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of p‐n junction solar energy converters, a limiting efficiency, called the detailed balance limit of efficiency, has been calculated for an ideal case in which the only recombination mechanism of hole‐electron pairs is radiative as required by the principle of detailed balance. The efficiency is also calculated for the case in which radiative recombination is only a fixed fraction fc of the total recombination, the rest being nonradiative. Efficiencies at the matched loads have been calculated with band gap and fc as parameters, the sun and cell being assumed to be blackbodies with temperatures of 6000°K and 300°K, respectively. The maximum efficiency is found to be 30% for an energy gap of 1.1 ev and fc = 1. Actual junctions do not obey the predicted current‐voltage relationship, and reasons for the difference and its relevance to efficiency are discussed.

11,071 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Nov 2012-Science
TL;DR: A low-cost, solution-processable solar cell, based on a highly crystalline perovskite absorber with intense visible to near-infrared absorptivity, that has a power conversion efficiency of 10.9% in a single-junction device under simulated full sunlight is reported.
Abstract: The energy costs associated with separating tightly bound excitons (photoinduced electron-hole pairs) and extracting free charges from highly disordered low-mobility networks represent fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic technologies. We report a low-cost, solution-processable solar cell, based on a highly crystalline perovskite absorber with intense visible to near-infrared absorptivity, that has a power conversion efficiency of 10.9% in a single-junction device under simulated full sunlight. This "meso-superstructured solar cell" exhibits exceptionally few fundamental energy losses; it can generate open-circuit photovoltages of more than 1.1 volts, despite the relatively narrow absorber band gap of 1.55 electron volts. The functionality arises from the use of mesoporous alumina as an inert scaffold that structures the absorber and forces electrons to reside in and be transported through the perovskite.

9,158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jul 2013-Nature
TL;DR: A sequential deposition method for the formation of the perovskite pigment within the porous metal oxide film that greatly increases the reproducibility of their performance and allows the fabrication of solid-state mesoscopic solar cells with unprecedented power conversion efficiencies and high stability.
Abstract: Following pioneering work, solution-processable organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites-such as CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I)-have attracted attention as light-harvesting materials for mesoscopic solar cells. So far, the perovskite pigment has been deposited in a single step onto mesoporous metal oxide films using a mixture of PbX2 and CH3NH3X in a common solvent. However, the uncontrolled precipitation of the perovskite produces large morphological variations, resulting in a wide spread of photovoltaic performance in the resulting devices, which hampers the prospects for practical applications. Here we describe a sequential deposition method for the formation of the perovskite pigment within the porous metal oxide film. PbI2 is first introduced from solution into a nanoporous titanium dioxide film and subsequently transformed into the perovskite by exposing it to a solution of CH3NH3I. We find that the conversion occurs within the nanoporous host as soon as the two components come into contact, permitting much better control over the perovskite morphology than is possible with the previously employed route. Using this technique for the fabrication of solid-state mesoscopic solar cells greatly increases the reproducibility of their performance and allows us to achieve a power conversion efficiency of approximately 15 per cent (measured under standard AM1.5G test conditions on solar zenith angle, solar light intensity and cell temperature). This two-step method should provide new opportunities for the fabrication of solution-processed photovoltaic cells with unprecedented power conversion efficiencies and high stability equal to or even greater than those of today's best thin-film photovoltaic devices.

8,427 citations