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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.STEM.2021.02.001

Reconstructing the Lineage Histories and Differentiation Trajectories of Individual Cancer Cells in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

04 Mar 2021-Cell Stem Cell (Cell Press)-Vol. 28, Iss: 3
Abstract: Summary Some cancers originate from a single mutation event in a single cell. Blood cancers known as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are thought to originate when a driver mutation is acquired by a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). However, when the mutation first occurs in individuals and how it affects the behavior of HSCs in their native context is not known. Here we quantified the effect of the JAK2-V617F mutation on the self-renewal and differentiation dynamics of HSCs in treatment-naive individuals with MPNs and reconstructed lineage histories of individual HSCs using somatic mutation patterns. We found that JAK2-V617F mutations occurred in a single HSC several decades before MPN diagnosis—at age 9 ± 2 years in a 34-year-old individual and at age 19 ± 3 years in a 63-year-old individual—and found that mutant HSCs have a selective advantage in both individuals. These results highlight the potential of harnessing somatic mutations to reconstruct cancer lineages.

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Topics: Germline mutation (60%), Lineage (genetic) (53%), Myeloproliferative neoplasm (52%) ... read more
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28 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41576-021-00356-6
Abstract: Clonal haematopoiesis (CH) is a common, age-related expansion of blood cells with somatic mutations that is associated with an increased risk of haematological malignancies, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. CH may be caused by point mutations in genes associated with myeloid neoplasms, chromosomal copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity events. How inherited and environmental factors shape the incidence of CH is incompletely understood. Even though the several varieties of CH may have distinct phenotypic consequences, recent research points to an underlying genetic architecture that is highly overlapping. Moreover, there are numerous commonalities between the inherited variation associated with CH and that which has been linked to age-associated biomarkers and diseases. In this Review, we synthesize what is currently known about how inherited variation shapes the risk of CH and how this genetic architecture intersects with the biology of diseases that occur with ageing.

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Topics: Loss of heterozygosity (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13061203
10 Mar 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Both chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia evade the immune response during their development and disease progression. As myeloid leukemia cells modify their bone marrow microenvironment, they lead to dysfunction of cytotoxic cells, such as CD8+ T cells or NK cells, simultaneously promoting development of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells and suppressive myeloid cells. This facilitates disease progression, spreading of leukemic blasts outside the bone marrow niche and therapy resistance. The following review focuses on main immunosuppressive features of myeloid leukemias. Firstly, factors derived directly from leukemic cells - inhibitory receptors, soluble factors and extracellular vesicles, are described. Further, we outline function, properties and origin of main immunosuppressive cells - regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells and macrophages. Finally, we analyze interplay between recovery of effector immunity and therapeutic modalities, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and chemotherapy.

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Topics: Myeloid leukemia (73%), Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell (67%), Myeloid (66%) ... read more

5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1084/JEM.20201544
Abstract: With a growing aged population, there is an imminent need to develop new therapeutic strategies to ameliorate disorders of hematopoietic aging, including clonal hematopoiesis and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Cell-intrinsic dysregulation of innate immune- and inflammatory-related pathways as well as systemic inflammation have been implicated in hematopoietic defects associated with aging, clonal hematopoiesis, and MDS. Here, we review and discuss the role of dysregulated innate immune and inflammatory signaling that contribute to the competitive advantage and clonal dominance of preleukemic and MDS-derived hematopoietic cells. We also propose how emerging concepts will further reveal critical biology and novel therapeutic opportunities.

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Topics: Innate immune system (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/HS9.0000000000000578
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Driver mutations occur in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), and calreticulin (CALR) in BCR-ABL1 negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). From mutations leading to one amino acid substitution in JAK2 or MPL, to frameshift mutations in CALR resulting in a protein with a different C-terminus, all the mutated proteins lead to pathologic and persistent JAK2-STAT5 activation. The most prevalent mutation, JAK2 V617F, is associated with the 3 entities polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF), while CALR and MPL mutations are associated only with ET and MF. Triple negative ET and MF patients may harbor noncanonical mutations in JAK2 or MPL. One major fundamental question is whether the conformations of JAK2 V617F, MPL W515K/L/A, or CALR mutants differ from those of their wild type counterparts so that a specific treatment could target the clone carrying the mutated driver and spare physiological hematopoiesis. Of great interest, a set of epigenetic mutations can co-exist with the phenotypic driver mutations in 35%-40% of MPNs. These epigenetic mutations, such as TET2, EZH2, ASXL1, or DNMT3A mutations, promote clonal hematopoiesis and increased fitness of aged hematopoietic stem cells in both clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) and MPNs. Importantly, the main MPN driver mutation JAK2 V617F is also associated with CHIP. Accumulation of several epigenetic and splicing mutations favors progression of MPNs to secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Another major fundamental question is how epigenetic rewiring due to these mutations interacts with persistent JAK2-STAT5 signaling. Answers to these questions are required for better therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing progression of ET and PV to MF, and transformation of these MPNs in secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

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Topics: Thrombopoietin receptor (56%), Myelofibrosis (54%), Mutation (52%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.683401
Abstract: Myeloid neoplasms, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), feature clonal dominance and remodeling of the bone marrow niche in a manner that promotes malignant over non-malignant hematopoiesis. This take-over of hematopoiesis by the malignant clone is hypothesized to include hyperactivation of inflammatory signaling and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. In the Ph-negative MPNs, inflammatory cytokines are considered to be responsible for a highly deleterious pathophysiologic process: the phenotypic transformation of polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET) to secondary myelofibrosis (MF), and the equivalent emergence of primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Bone marrow fibrosis itself is thought to be mediated heavily by the cytokine TGF-β, and possibly other cytokines produced as a result of hyperactivated JAK2 kinase in the malignant clone. MF also features extramedullary hematopoiesis and progression to bone marrow failure, both of which may be mediated in part by responses to cytokines. In MF, elevated levels of individual cytokines in plasma are adverse prognostic indicators: elevated IL-8/CXCL8, in particular, predicts risk of transformation of MF to secondary AML (sAML). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, also known as TNFα), may underlie malignant clonal dominance, based on results from mouse models. Human PV and ET, as well as MF, harbor overproduction of multiple cytokines, above what is observed in normal aging, which can lead to cellular signaling abnormalities separate from those directly mediated by hyperactivated JAK2 or MPL kinases. Evidence that NFκB pathway signaling is frequently hyperactivated in a pan-hematopoietic pattern in MPNs, including in cells outside the malignant clone, emphasizes that MPNs are pan-hematopoietic diseases, which remodel the bone marrow milieu to favor persistence of the malignancy. Clinical evidence that JAK2 inhibition by ruxolitinib in MF neither reliably reduces malignant clonal burden nor eliminates cytokine elevations, suggests targeting cytokine mediated signaling as a therapeutic strategy, which is being pursued in new clinical trials. Greater knowledge of inflammatory pathophysiology in MPNs can therefore contribute to the development of more effective therapy.

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Topics: Myelofibrosis (57%), Proinflammatory cytokine (55%), Essential thrombocythemia (55%) ... read more

3 Citations


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62 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NG.806
Mark A. DePristo1, Eric Banks1, Ryan Poplin1, Kiran V. Garimella1  +19 moreInstitutions (3)
01 May 2011-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Recent advances in sequencing technology make it possible to comprehensively catalogue genetic variation in population samples, creating a foundation for understanding human disease, ancestry and evolution. The amounts of raw data produced are prodigious and many computational steps are required to translate this output into high-quality variant calls. We present a unified analytic framework to discover and genotype variation among multiple samples simultaneously that achieves sensitive and specific results across five sequencing technologies and three distinct, canonical experimental designs. Our process includes (1) initial read mapping; (2) local realignment around indels; (3) base quality score recalibration; (4) SNP discovery and genotyping to find all potential variants; and (5) machine learning to separate true segregating variation from machine artifacts common to next-generation sequencing technologies. We discuss the application of these tools, instantiated in the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), to deep whole-genome, whole-exome capture, and multi-sample low-pass (~4×) 1000 Genomes Project datasets.

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Topics: DNA sequencing theory (61%), Variant Call Format (58%), 1000 Genomes Project (55%) ... read more

8,715 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1983-
Abstract: Motoo Kimura, as founder of the neutral theory, is uniquely placed to write this book. He first proposed the theory in 1968 to explain the unexpectedly high rate of evolutionary change and very large amount of intraspecific variability at the molecular level that had been uncovered by new techniques in molecular biology. The theory - which asserts that the great majority of evolutionary changes at the molecular level are caused not by Darwinian selection but by random drift of selectively neutral mutants - has caused controversy ever since. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of this subject and the author synthesises a wealth of material - ranging from a historical perspective, through recent molecular discoveries, to sophisticated mathematical arguments - all presented in a most lucid manner.

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7,833 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GENETICS/16.2.97
Sewall Wright1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 1931-Genetics
Abstract: Page 108, last line of text, for "P/P″" read "P′/P″." Page 120, last line, for "δ v " read "δ y ." Page 123, line 10, for "4Nn" read "4Nu." Page 125, line 1, for "q" read "q." Page 126, line 12, for "q" read "q." Page 135, line 5 from bottom, for "y4Nsq" read "e4Nsq." Page 141, lines 8

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7,511 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.963153.V1
16 Mar 2013-arXiv: Genomics
Abstract: Summary: BWA-MEM is a new alignment algorithm for aligning sequence reads or long query sequences against a large reference genome such as human. It automatically chooses between local and end-to-end alignments, supports paired-end reads and performs chimeric alignment. The algorithm is robust to sequencing errors and applicable to a wide range of sequence lengths from 70bp to a few megabases. For mapping 100bp sequences, BWA-MEM shows better performance than several state-of-art read aligners to date. Availability and implementation: BWA-MEM is implemented as a component of BWA, which is available at this http URL. Contact: hengli@broadinstitute.org

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Topics: Sequence assembly (59%), Reference genome (52%)

6,090 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2019.05.031
13 Jun 2019-Cell
Abstract: Single-cell transcriptomics has transformed our ability to characterize cell states, but deep biological understanding requires more than a taxonomic listing of clusters. As new methods arise to measure distinct cellular modalities, a key analytical challenge is to integrate these datasets to better understand cellular identity and function. Here, we develop a strategy to "anchor" diverse datasets together, enabling us to integrate single-cell measurements not only across scRNA-seq technologies, but also across different modalities. After demonstrating improvement over existing methods for integrating scRNA-seq data, we anchor scRNA-seq experiments with scATAC-seq to explore chromatin differences in closely related interneuron subsets and project protein expression measurements onto a bone marrow atlas to characterize lymphocyte populations. Lastly, we harmonize in situ gene expression and scRNA-seq datasets, allowing transcriptome-wide imputation of spatial gene expression patterns. Our work presents a strategy for the assembly of harmonized references and transfer of information across datasets.

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3,853 Citations


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