02 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 502, Iss: 3, pp 3800-3813

Abstract: We present a study of the 21-cm signal bispectrum (which quantifies the non-Gaussianity in the signal) from the Cosmic Dawn (CD). For our analysis, we have simulated the 21-cm signal using radiative transfer code GRIZZLY, while considering two types of sources (mini-QSOs and HMXBs) for Ly$\alpha$ coupling and the X-ray heating of the IGM. Using this simulated signal, we have, for the first time, estimated the CD 21-cm bispectra for all unique $k$-triangles and for a range of $k$ modes. We observe that the redshift evolution of the bispectra magnitude and sign follow a generic trend for both source models. However, the redshifts at which the bispectra magnitude reach their maximum and minimum values and show their sign reversal depends on the source model. When the Ly$\alpha$ coupling and the X-ray heating of the IGM occur simultaneously, we observe two consecutive sign reversals in the bispectra for small $k$-triangles (irrespective of the source models). One arising at the beginning of the IGM heating and the other at the end of Ly$\alpha$ coupling saturation. This feature can be used in principle to constrain the CD history and/or to identify the specific CD scenarios. We also quantify the impact of the spin temperature ($T_{\rm S}$) fluctuations on the bispectra. We find that $T_{\rm S}$ fluctuations have maximum impact on the bispectra magnitude for small $k$-triangles and at the stage when Ly$\alpha$ coupling reaches saturation. Furthermore, we are also the first to quantify the impact of redshift space distortions (RSD), on the CD bispectra. We find that the impact of RSD on the CD 21-cm bispectra is significant ($> 20\%$) and the level depends on the stages of the CD and the $k$-triangles for which the bispectra are being estimated.

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Topics: Redshift-space distortions (50%)

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5 results found

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Raghunath Ghara^{1}, Raghunath Ghara^{2}, Sambit K. Giri^{3}, Benedetta Ciardi^{4} +4 more•Institutions (6)

Abstract: The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) team has derived new upper limits on the spherically averaged power spectrum of the 21-cm signal at six redshifts in the range z approximate to 6.5-8.7. We use t ...

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Topics: Murchison Widefield Array (67%), Reionization (58%)

8 Citations

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Steven Cunnington^{1}, Catherine A. Watkinson^{1}, Alkistis Pourtsidou^{1}, Alkistis Pourtsidou^{2}•Institutions (2)

Abstract: The bispectrum is a 3-point statistic with the potential to provide additional information beyond power spectra analyses of survey datasets. Radio telescopes which broadly survey the 21cm emission from neutral hydrogen (HI) are a promising way to probe LSS and in this work we present an investigation into the HI intensity mapping (IM) bispectrum using simulations. We present a model of the redshift space HI IM bispectrum including observational effects from the radio telescope beam and 21cm foreground contamination. We validate our modelling prescriptions with measurements from robust IM simulations, inclusive of these observational effects. Our foreground simulations include polarisation leakage, on which we use a Principal Component Analysis cleaning method. We also investigate the effects from a non-Gaussian beam including side-lobes. For a MeerKAT-like single-dish IM survey at $z=0.39$, we find that foreground removal causes a 8% reduction in the equilateral bispectrum's signal-to-noise ratio $S/N$, whereas the beam reduces it by 62%. We find our models perform well, generally providing $\chi^2_\text{dof}\sim 1$, indicating a good fit to the data. Whilst our focus is on post-reionisation, single-dish IM, our modelling of observational effects, especially foreground removal, can also be relevant to interferometers and reionisation studies.

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Topics: Bispectrum (64%), Intensity mapping (51%)

5 Citations

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Rajesh Mondal^{1}, Garrelt Mellema^{1}, Abinash Kumar Shaw^{2}, Mohd Kamran^{3} +2 more•Institutions (4)

Abstract: We study the spherically averaged bispectrum of the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). This metric provides a quantitative measurement of the level of non-Gaussianity of the signal which is expected to be high. We focus on the impact of the light-cone effect on the bispectrum and its detectability with the future SKA-Low telescope. Our investigation is based on semi-numerical light-cone simulation and an ensemble of 50 independent realisations of the 21-cm signal to estimate the cosmic variance errors. We calculate the bispectrum with a new, optimised direct estimation method, DviSukta which calculates the bispectrum for all possible unique triangles. We find that the light-cone effect becomes important on scales $k_1 \lesssim 0.1\,{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ where for most triangle shapes the cosmic variance errors dominate. Only for the squeezed limit triangles, the impact of the light-cone effect exceeds the cosmic variance. Combining the effects of system noise and cosmic variance we find that $\sim 3\sigma$ detection of the bispectrum is possible for all unique triangle shapes around a scale of $k_1 \sim 0.2\,{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, and cosmic variance errors dominate above and noise errors below this length scale. Only the squeezed limit triangles are able to achieve a more than $5\sigma$ significance over a wide range of scales, $k_1 \lesssim 0.8\,{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$. Our results suggest that among all the possible triangle combinations for the bispectrum, the squeezed limit one will be the most measurable and hence useful.

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Topics: Bispectrum (62%), Cosmic variance (55%)

1 Citations

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Kanan K. Datta^{1}, Raghunath Ghara^{2}, Raghunath Ghara^{3}, Ariful Hoque^{1} +2 more•Institutions (5)

Abstract: The HI 21-cm optical depth ($\tau_b$) can be considerably large as the kinetic and spin temperature of the inter-galactic medium (IGM) is expected to be very low during cosmic dawn. It will be particularly higher at regions with HI over-density. We revisit the validity of the widely used linearized equation for estimating the HI 21-cm differential brightness temperature ($T_b$) which assumes $\tau_b << 1$ and approximates $[1-\exp({-\tau_b})]$ as $\tau_b$. We consider two scenarios, one without any additional cooling mechanism or radio background (referred as the standard scenario) and the other (referred as the excess-cooling} scenario) assumes the EDGES-like absorption profile and an excess cooling mechanism. We find that given a measured global absorption signal, consistent with the standard (excess-cooling) scenario, the linearized equation overestimates the spin temperature by $\sim 5\%(10\%)$. Further, using numerical simulations, we study the impact that the large optical depth has on various signal statistics. We observe that the variance, skewness and kurtosis, calculated at simulation resolution ($\sim 0.5 h^{-1} \, {\rm Mpc}$), are over-predicted up to $\sim 30\%$, $30\%$ and $15\%$ respectively for the standard and up to $\sim 90\%$, $50\%$ and $50\%$ respectively for the excess-cooling scenario. Moreover, we find that the probability distribution function of $T_b$ is squeezed and becomes more Gaussian in shape if no approximation is made. The spherically averaged HI power spectrum is overpredicted by up to $\sim 25 \%$ and $80\%$ at all scales for the standard and excess-cooling scenarios respectively.

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Topics: Optical depth (astrophysics) (59%), Absorption (logic) (50%)

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Abstract: Radio interferometric experiments aim to constrain the reionization model parameters by measuring the 21-cm signal statistics, primarily the power spectrum. However the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal is highly non-Gaussian, and this non-Gaussianity encodes important information about this era. The bispectrum is the lowest order statistic able to capture this inherent non-Gaussianity. Here we are the first to demonstrate that bispectra for large and intermediate length scales and for all unique $k$-triangle shapes provide tighter constraints on the EoR parameters compared to the power spectrum or the bispectra for a limited number of shapes of $k$-triangles. We use the Bayesian inference technique to constrain EoR parameters. We have also developed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based emulator for the EoR 21-cm power spectrum and bispectrum which we use to remarkably speed up our parameter inference pipeline. Here we have considered the sample variance and the system noise uncertainties corresponding to $1000$ hrs of SKA-Low observations for estimating errors in the signal statistics. We find that using all unique $k$-triangle bispectra improves the constraints on parameters by a factor of $2-4$ (depending on the stage of reionization) over the constraints that are obtained using power spectrum alone.

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Topics: Bispectrum (60%), Reionization (54%), Sample variance (53%) ... show more

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101 results found

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Peter A. R. Ade^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, C. Armitage-Caplan^{3}, Monique Arnaud^{4} +324 more•Institutions (70)

Abstract: This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (l ≳ 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ∗ = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, Ωbh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, Ωch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, Ωm = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ΛCDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ΛCDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ≲ l ≲ 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an “anomaly” in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

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Topics: Planck energy (66%), Age of the universe (65%), Planck particle (65%) ... show more

6,641 Citations

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Abstract: We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find a 95% upper limit of r<0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles. Using BAO and CMB data, we find N_eff=3.30+/-0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the summed neutrino mass. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of N_eff=3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy. Despite the success of the standard LCDM model, this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles, as noted previously by the WMAP team. While not of decisive significance, this is an anomaly in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

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Topics: Planck temperature (64%), CMB cold spot (60%), Cosmic microwave background (60%) ... show more

5,946 Citations

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Gary Hinshaw^{1}, Davin Larson^{2}, Eiichiro Komatsu^{3}, David N. Spergel^{4} +19 more•Institutions (12)

Abstract: We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year WMAP data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, bh 2 , ch 2 , and , are each determined to a precision of 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to k = 0.0027 +0.0039 0.0038 ; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to P m < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within Ne = 3.84±0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on Ne and the primordial helium abundance, YHe, agrees with the prediction of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev‐Zel’dovich eect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe. Subject headings: cosmic microwave background, cosmology: observations, early universe, dark matter, space vehicles, space vehicles: instruments, instrumentation: detectors, telescopes

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Topics: Baryon acoustic oscillations (65%), Age of the universe (64%), Cosmic microwave background (63%) ... show more

5,101 Citations

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Matthew A. Bershady^{1}, David R. Andersen^{2}, Justin Harker^{1}, Larry Ramsey^{2} +1 more•Institutions (2)

Abstract: We describe the design and construction of a formatted fiber field unit, SparsePak, and characterize its optical and astrometric performance. This array is optimized for spectroscopy of low surface brightness extended sources in the visible and near‐infrared. SparsePak contains 82, 4 \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc}
ewcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2}
ormalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $\farcs$\end{document} 7 fibers subtending an area of \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pif...

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1,568 Citations

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Abstract: Observations of the high-redshift Universe with the 21 cm hyperfine line of neutral hydrogen promise to open an entirely new window onto the early phases of cosmic structure formation. Here we review the physics of the 21 cm transition, focusing on processes relevant at high redshifts, and describe the insights to be gained from such observations. These include measuring the matter power spectrum at z ∼ 50 , observing the formation of the cosmic web and the first luminous sources, and mapping the reionization of the intergalactic medium. The epoch of reionization is of particular interest, because large HII regions will seed substantial fluctuations in the 21 cm background. We also discuss the experimental challenges involved in detecting this signal, with an emphasis on the Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds. These increase rapidly toward low frequencies and are especially severe for the highest redshift applications. Assuming that these difficulties can be overcome, the redshifted 21 cm line will offer unique insight into the high-redshift Universe, complementing other probes but providing the only direct, three-dimensional view of structure formation from z ∼ 200 to 6.

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Topics: Reionization (65%), Redshift (56%), Universe (56%) ... show more

1,149 Citations