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Journal ArticleDOI

Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation.

12 May 2011-Tobacco Induced Diseases (BioMed Central)-Vol. 9, Iss: 1, pp 5-5

TL;DR: Results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term.

AbstractBackground Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking.

Topics: Smoking cessation (59%), DNA damage (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cigarette smoking has been linked with both increased and decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is relevant for the US military because the prevalence of smoking in the military is approximately 11% higher than in civilians.
Abstract: Background Cigarette smoking has been linked with both increased and decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is relevant for the US military because the prevalence of smoking in the military is approximately 11% higher than in civilians. Methods A systematic review of published studies on the association between smoking and increased risk for AD and preclinical and human literature on the relationships between smoking, nicotine exposure, and AD-related neuropathology was conducted. Original data from comparisons of smoking and never-smoking cognitively normal elders on in vivo amyloid imaging are also presented. Results Overall, literature indicates that former/active smoking is related to a significantly increased risk for AD. Cigarette smoke/smoking is associated with AD neuropathology in preclinical models and humans. Smoking-related cerebral oxidative stress is a potential mechanism promoting AD pathology and increased risk for AD. Conclusions A reduction in the incidence of smoking will likely reduce the future prevalence of AD.

204 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...[182] Box HC, O’Connor RJ, Patrzyc HB, Iijima H, Dawidzik JB,...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The continuing development and improvement of LC-MS/MS coupled with the stable isotope-dilution method for DNA adduct quantification will further promote research about the clinical implications and diagnostic applications of oxidatively induced DNAAdducts.
Abstract: A variety of endogenous and exogenous agents can induce DNA damage and lead to genomic instability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important class of DNA damaging agents, are constantly generated in cells as a consequence of endogenous metabolism, infection/inflammation, and/or exposure to environmental toxicants. A wide array of DNA lesions can be induced by ROS directly, including single-nucleobase lesions, tandem lesions, and hypochlorous acid (HOCl)/hypobromous acid (HOBr)-derived DNA adducts. ROS can also lead to lipid peroxidation, whose byproducts can also react with DNA to produce exocyclic DNA lesions. A combination of bioanalytical chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, and molecular biology approaches have provided significant insights into the occurrence, repair, and biological consequences of oxidatively induced DNA lesions. The involvement of these lesions in the etiology of human diseases and aging was also investigated in the past several decades, suggesting that the oxidatively induce...

86 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that smoking of hand-rolled cigarettes has stronger genotoxic and oxidative effects on the metabolism than smoking of manufactured filter-cigarettes, and it is proposed that these harmful effects could be attributed to the higher level of oxidants.
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is a major cause of human cancer at various sites, although its carcinogenic mechanisms still remain unestablished. Based on the use of a filter, cigarette smoke can be divided into a gas phase and a tar phase. Both contain different concentrations of oxidants, free radicals and tobacco-specific carcinogens. To explore the effects of both filtered and non-filtered cigarette smoke on DNA damage and oxidative status, we measured the level of mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage by use of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. We also determined malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content (PC) and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) levels in blood plasma of smokers of manufactured filter-cigarettes and of hand-rolled cigarettes. Cotinine levels were also measured in plasma to estimate the degree of smoking. Mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage, plasma MDA, plasma PC and plasma cotinine levels were found significantly higher, while plasma TAC levels were found significantly lower in smokers of filter-cigarettes and smokers of hand-rolled cigarettes, compared with control subjects. TAC levels in hand-rolled and manufactured filter-cigarette smokers were not significantly different from each other. However, the levels of DNA damage, plasma MDA, plasma cotinine, and plasma protein oxidation were significantly higher in hand-rolled cigarette smokers than in filter-cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between MDA and DNA damage in both hand-rolled cigarette smokers and manufactured filter-cigarette smokers. This study indicates that smoking of hand-rolled cigarettes has stronger genotoxic and oxidative effects on the metabolism than smoking of manufactured filter-cigarettes. We propose that these harmful effects could be attributed to the higher level of oxidants.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Increasing age, male gender, smoking history, and sTNF-RI levels were associated with short LTL among persons with BE but no correlations were observed between LTL and other inflammatory markers or measures of obesity.
Abstract: Telomere shortening is associated with increasing age, male gender and lifestyle factors such as obesity and smoking. Inflammation has also been implicated in cellular senescence and may promote telomere shortening in chronic conditions such as obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the relationship between markers of obesity and inflammation, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL). LTL was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in peripheral leukocytes from 295 individuals diagnosed with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) between 1995 and 2009. Data on lifestyle variables including obesity and smoking were collected at in-person interviews. Biomarkers of obesity (leptin, adiponectin), diabetes (glucose, insulin), inflammation (C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, surface tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) I & II) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes) were measured in stored blood samples. We examined associations between these covariates and LTL in a cross-sectional analysis using linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for possible confounders. LTL was significantly associated with age (r = −0.30, p < 0.001), gender (r = 0.14 for females, p = 0.01) and inversely associated with cigarette pack-years (r = −0.11, p = 0.04). Odds of having short LTL were significantly higher for participants in the highest tertile for sTNF-RI (Odds ratio adjusted for age, gender, smoking, and obesity = 2.19; 95 % CI 1.00–4.85, p-trend = 0.02). LTL was not significantly associated with any other lifestyle factors, including smoking or obesity, or other inflammation-, obesity-/diabetes-related biomarkers measured. Increasing age, male gender, smoking history, and sTNF-RI levels were associated with short LTL among persons with BE but no correlations were observed between LTL and other inflammatory markers or measures of obesity. Larger longitudinal studies are necessary in order to further establish the potential relationships between obesity, inflammation markers and LTL.

15 citations


Cites methods from "Reduction in oxidatively generated ..."

  • ...For every variable of interest, three different models were run: unadjusted, age- and gender-adjusted, and further adjusted for smoking and obesity, both major correlates of inflammation [29, 30]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers, and the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress.
Abstract: Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be detrimental for the developing fetus. The effects of active and passive maternal smoking on umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E were examined. Secondary measures included anthropometric parameters in the newborn. Maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E were measured at delivery. The mothers were assigned to three groups: non-smoking (n 12); passive smoking (n 13); active smoking (n 18). Based on multivariate linear regressions, active smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E. While enhanced circulating levels of vitamin A in cord blood were also found in non-smoking mothers exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, those of vitamin E were not influenced. Further, an inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers. Active and passive maternal smoking behaviour during pregnancy increases the fetal demand for antioxidant compounds in order to counteract the oxidative burden by cigarette smoke. Against this background, the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress. This would reduce the availability of vitamins A and E for fetal maturation, which is critical inasmuch as both compounds are indispensable for the developing fetus. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our observation, this line of reasoning definitely requires validation in cause-effect experiments in the future.

10 citations


Cites background from "Reduction in oxidatively generated ..."

  • ...These compounds have been shown to produce DNA damage((4)), which may contribute to the detrimental effects of maternal smoking on fetal development....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: SUMMARY This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to the score equations for multivariate Gaussian outcomes. Asymptotic theory is presented for the general class of estimators. Specific cases in which we assume independence, m-dependence and exchangeable correlation structures from each subject are discussed. Efficiency of the proposed estimators in two simple situations is considered. The approach is closely related to quasi-likelih ood. Some key ironh: Estimating equation; Generalized linear model; Longitudinal data; Quasi-likelihood; Repeated measures.

16,152 citations


"Reduction in oxidatively generated ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to examine the significance of change in biomarkers across time, accounting for the within-subjects dependence of measurements and adjusting for gender, treatment group (Active, Placebo) and age [24]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g. nitric oxide, NO(*)) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. ROS and RNS are normally generated by tightly regulated enzymes, such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively. Overproduction of ROS (arising either from mitochondrial electron-transport chain or excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H) results in oxidative stress, a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins, and DNA. In contrast, beneficial effects of ROS/RNS (e.g. superoxide radical and nitric oxide) occur at low/moderate concentrations and involve physiological roles in cellular responses to noxia, as for example in defence against infectious agents, in the function of a number of cellular signalling pathways, and the induction of a mitogenic response. Ironically, various ROS-mediated actions in fact protect cells against ROS-induced oxidative stress and re-establish or maintain "redox balance" termed also "redox homeostasis". The "two-faced" character of ROS is clearly substantiated. For example, a growing body of evidence shows that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. This review will describe the: (i) chemistry and biochemistry of ROS/RNS and sources of free radical generation; (ii) damage to DNA, to proteins, and to lipids by free radicals; (iii) role of antioxidants (e.g. glutathione) in the maintenance of cellular "redox homeostasis"; (iv) overview of ROS-induced signaling pathways; (v) role of ROS in redox regulation of normal physiological functions, as well as (vi) role of ROS in pathophysiological implications of altered redox regulation (human diseases and ageing). Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing. Topics of current debate are also reviewed such as the question whether excessive formation of free radicals is a primary cause or a downstream consequence of tissue injury.

10,980 citations


"Reduction in oxidatively generated ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Oxidative DNA damage can cause transcription errors, replication errors, and genomic instability, which are all associated with carcinogenesis [3-7]....

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01 Jan 2004
Abstract: This new report of the Surgeon General on the health effects of smoking provides a startling picture of the damage to health caused by tobacco use. Smoking injures almost all bodily organs, and tragically this injury often leads to incurable disease and death. The comprehensive review process that is the foundation of this series of reports has found new causal associations of smoking with disease, reemphasizing the need for continued monitoring of scientific evidence on the health effects of smoking. This report also addresses changes in the cigarette and whether these changes present increased risks to smokers.

2,378 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The levels of oxidative DNA damage reported in many human tissues or in animal models of carcinogenesis exceed the levels of lesions induced by exposure to exogenous carcinogenic compounds, and it seems likely that oxidativeDNA damage is important in the etiology of many human cancers.
Abstract: A major development of carcinogenesis research in the past 20 years has been the discovery of significant levels of DNA damage arising from endogenous cellular sources. Dramatic improvements in analytical chemistry have provided sensitive and specific methodology for identification and quantitation of DNA adducts. Application of these techniques to the analysis of nuclear DNA from human tissues has debunked the notion that the human genome is pristine in the absence of exposure to environmental carcinogens. Much endogenous DNA damage arises from intermediates of oxygen reduction that either attack the bases or the deoxyribosyl backbone of DNA. Alternatively, oxygen radicals can attack other cellular components such as lipids to generate reactive intermediates that couple to DNA bases. Endogenous DNA lesions are genotoxic and induce mutations that are commonly observed in mutated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Their mutagenicity is mitigated by repair via base excision and nucleotide excision pathways. The levels of oxidative DNA damage reported in many human tissues or in animal models of carcinogenesis exceed the levels of lesions induced by exposure to exogenous carcinogenic compounds. Thus, it seems likely that oxidative DNA damage is important in the etiology of many human cancers. This review highlights some of the major accomplishments in the study of oxidative DNA damage and its role in carcinogenesis. It also identifies controversies that need to be resolved. Unraveling the contributions to tumorigenesis of DNA damage from endogenous and exogenous sources represents a major challenge for the future.

1,746 citations


"Reduction in oxidatively generated ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Oxidative DNA damage can cause transcription errors, replication errors, and genomic instability, which are all associated with carcinogenesis [3-7]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The epidemiological trials together with in vitro experiments suggest that the optimal approach is to reduce endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidative stress, rather than increase intake of anti-oxidants.
Abstract: The development of cancer in humans and animals is a multistep process. The complex series of cellular and molecular changes participating in cancer development are mediated by a diversity of endogenous and exogenous stimuli. One type of endogenous damage is that arising from intermediates of oxygen (dioxygen) reduction - oxygen-free radicals (OFR), which attacks not only the bases but also the deoxyribosyl backbone of DNA. Thanks to improvements in analytical techniques, a major achievement in the understanding of carcinogenesis in the past two decades has been the identification and quantification of various adducts of OFR with DNA. OFR are also known to attack other cellular components such as lipids, leaving behind reactive species that in turn can couple to DNA bases. Endogenous DNA lesions are genotoxic and induce mutations. The most extensively studied lesion is the formation of 8-OH-dG. This lesion is important because it is relatively easily formed and is mutagenic and therefore is a potential biomarker of carcinogenesis. Mutations that may arise from formation of 8-OH-dG involve GC --> TA transversions. In view of these findings, OFR are considered as an important class of carcinogens. The effect of OFR is balanced by the antioxidant action of non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as antioxidant enzymes. Non-enzymatic antioxidants involve vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids (CAR), selenium and others. However, under certain conditions, some antioxidants can also exhibit a pro-oxidant mechanism of action. For example, beta-carotene at high concentration and with increased partial pressure of dioxygen is known to behave as a pro-oxidant. Some concerns have also been raised over the potentially deleterious transition metal ion-mediated (iron, copper) pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C. Clinical studies mapping the effect of preventive antioxidants have shown surprisingly little or no effect on cancer incidence. The epidemiological trials together with in vitro experiments suggest that the optimal approach is to reduce endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidative stress, rather than increase intake of anti-oxidants. In this review, we highlight some major achievements in the study of DNA damage caused by OFR and the role in carcinogenesis played by oxidatively damaged DNA. The protective effect of antioxidants against free radicals is also discussed.

1,598 citations


"Reduction in oxidatively generated ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Over 100 oxidative DNA damage products are known, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce DNA breaks, purine, pyrimidine, or deoxyribose lesions, and even cross links among these [5]....

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  • ...Oxidative DNA damage can cause transcription errors, replication errors, and genomic instability, which are all associated with carcinogenesis [3-7]....

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