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Journal ArticleDOI

Reduction in Physician Reimbursement and Use of Hormone Therapy in Prostate Cancer

15 Dec 2010-Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 102, Iss: 24, pp 1826-1834

AbstractBackground Use of androgen suppression therapy (AST) in prostate cancer increased more than threefold from 1991 to 1999. The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act reduced reimbursements for AST by 64% between 2004 and 2005, but the effect of this large reduction on use of AST is unknown.

Topics: Prostate cancer (56%), Hormone therapy (55%), Androgen suppression (54%), Palliative care (51%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: SEER data should not generally be used for comparisons of treated and untreated individuals or to estimate the proportion of treated individuals in the population, andAugmenting SEER data with other data sources will provide the most accurate treatment information.
Abstract: Background: The population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries collect information on first-course treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. However, the SEER program does not release data on chemotherapy or hormone therapy due to uncertainties regarding data completeness. Activities are ongoing to investigate the opportunity to supplement SEER treatment data with other data sources.

268 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effects of pharmaceutical policies using financial incentives to influence prescribers' practices on drug use, healthcare utilisation, health outcomes and costs are determined and pay for performance policies are evaluated.
Abstract: Background Pharmaceuticals, while central to medical therapy, pose a significant burden to health care budgets. Therefore regulations to control prescribing costs and improve quality of care are implemented increasingly. These include the use of financial incentives for prescribers, namely increased financial accountability using budgets and performance based payments. Objectives To determine the effects on drug use, healthcare utilisation, health outcomes and costs ( expenditures) of policies, that intend to affect prescribers by means of financial incentives. Search strategy We searched the following databases and web sites: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Register ( August 2003), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials ( October 2003), MEDLINE ( October 2005), EMBASE ( October 2005), and other databases. Selection criteria Policies were defined as laws, rules, financial and administrative orders made by governments, non- government organisations or private insurers. One of the following outcomes had to be reported: drug use, healthcare utilisation, health outcomes, and costs. The study had to be a randomised or non- randomised controlled trial, interrupted time series analysis, repeated measures study or controlled before-after study evaluating financial incentives for prescribers introduced for a jurisdiction or healthcare system. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed study limitations. Main results Thirteen evaluations of budgetary policies and none of performance based payments met our inclusion criteria. Ten studies evaluated general practice fundholding in the UK, one the Irish Indicative Drug Target Savings Scheme ( IDTSS) and two evaluated German drug budgets for physicians in private practice. The interrupted time series analyses had some limitations. All the controlled beforeafter studies ( all from the UK) had serious limitations. Drug expenditure ( per item and per patient) and prescribed drug volume decreased with budgets in all three countries. Evidence indicated increased use of generic drugs in the UK and Ireland, but was inconclusive on the use of new and expensive drugs. We found no clear evidence of increased health care utilisation and no studies reporting effects on health. Administration costs were not reported. No studies on the effects of performance- based payments or other policies met our inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions Based on the evidence in this review from three Western European countries, drug budgets for physicians in private practice can limit drug expenditure by limiting the volume of prescribed drugs, increasing the use of generic drugs or both. Since the majority of studies included were found to have serious limitations, these results should be interpreted with care.

110 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A summary of Medicare data is provided, including the types of data that are captured, and how they may be used in epidemiologic and health outcomes research, to highlight strengths, limitations, and key considerations when designing a study using Medicare data.
Abstract: Medicare is the federal health insurance program for individuals in the US who are aged ≥65 years, select individuals with disabilities aged <65 years, and individuals with end-stage renal disease. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services grants researchers access to Medicare administrative claims databases for epidemiologic and health outcomes research. The data cover beneficiaries' encounters with the health care system and receipt of therapeutic interventions, including medications, procedures, and services. Medicare data have been used to describe patterns of morbidity and mortality, describe burden of disease, compare effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies, examine cost of care, evaluate the effects of provider practices on the delivery of care and patient outcomes, and explore the health impacts of important Medicare policy changes. Considering that the vast majority of US citizens ≥65 years of age have Medicare insurance, analyses of Medicare data are now essential for understanding the provision of health care among older individuals in the US and are critical for providing real-world evidence to guide decision makers. This review is designed to provide researchers with a summary of Medicare data, including the types of data that are captured, and how they may be used in epidemiologic and health outcomes research. We highlight strengths, limitations, and key considerations when designing a study using Medicare data. Additionally, we illustrate the potential impact that Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policy changes may have on data collection, coding, and ultimately on findings derived from the data.

88 citations


Cites result from "Reduction in Physician Reimbursemen..."

  • ...Elliott et al found that for the appropriate group of patients with metastatic disease, use of GnRH agonists did not change after MMA implementation but for males with very low-risk cancers, among whom there was a large decrease.(42) Additional studies were also able to evaluate cost implications, showing that payments to physicians for GnRH agonists decreased substantially between 2003 and 2005....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death fromComorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies and further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.

34,129 citations


"Reduction in Physician Reimbursemen..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Comorbidity was classified using a modification of the Charlson comorbidity index for use with Medicare data (19,20)....

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Journal Article
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the way in which the operation of the medical-care industry and the efficacy with which it satisfies the needs of society differ from a norm. The term norm that the economist usually uses for the purposes of such comparisons is the operation of a competitive model, that is, the flows of services that would be offered and purchased and the prices that would be paid for them. The interest in the competitive model stems partly from its presumed descriptive power and partly from its implications for economic efficiency. If a competitive equilibrium exists at all and if all commodities relevant to costs or utilities are in fact priced in the market, then the equilibrium is necessarily optimal. There is no other allocation of resources to services that will make all participants in the market better off. The most obvious distinguishing characteristics of an individual's demand for medical services is that it is not steady in origin as, for example, for food or clothing but is irregular and unpredictable. Medical services, apart from preventive services, afford satisfaction only in the event of illness, a departure from the normal state of affairs.

3,500 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Immediate androgen suppression with an LHRH analogue given during and for 3 years after external irradiation improves disease-free and overall survival of patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.
Abstract: Summary Background We did a randomised phase III trial comparing external irradiation alone and external irradiation combined with an analogue of luteinising-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) to investigate the added value of long-term androgen suppression in locally advanced prostate cancer. Methods Between 1987 and 1995, 415 patients were randomly assigned radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy plus immediate androgen suppression. Eligible patients had T1–2 tumours of WHO grade 3 or T3–4 N0–1 M0 tumours; the median age of participants was 71 years (range 51–80). In both treatment groups, 50 Gy radiation was delivered to the pelvis over 5 weeks, and 20 Gy over 2 weeks as a prostatic boost. Goserelin (3·6 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks) was started on the first day of irradiation and continued for 3 years; cyproterone acetate (150 mg orally) was given for 1 month starting 1 week before the first goserelin injection. The primary endpoint was clinical disease-free survival. Analyses were by intention to treat. Findings 412 patients had evaluable data, with median follow-up of 66 months (range 1–126). 5-year clinical disease-free survival was 40% (95% CI 32–48) in the radiotherapy-alone group and 74% (67–81) in the combined-treatment group (p=0·0001). 5-year overall survival was 62% (52–72) and 78% (72–84), respectively (p=0·0002) and 5-year specific survival 79% (72–86) and 94% (90–98). Interpretation Immediate androgen suppression with an LHRH analogue given during and for 3 years after external irradiation improves disease-free and overall survival of patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.

1,654 citations


"Reduction in Physician Reimbursemen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...AST, delivered as a depot injection of luteinizing hormone– releasing hormone, is indicated for management of prostate cancer in two clinical situations, as palliative therapy in metastatic prostate cancer (6) or in combination with external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer (7), for which it has been shown to improve survival....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comorbidity index that incorporates the diagnostic and procedure data contained in Medicare physician (Part B) claims and demonstrates the utility of a disease-specific index using an alternative method of construction employing study-specific weights.
Abstract: Important comorbidities recorded on outpatient claims in administrative datasets may be missed in analyses when only inpatient care is considered. Using the comorbid conditions identified by Charlson and colleagues, we developed a comorbidity index that incorporates the diagnostic and procedure data contained in Medicare physician (Part B) claims. In the national cohorts of elderly prostate (n = 28,868) and breast cancer (n = 14,943) patients assessed in this study, less than 10% of patients had comorbid conditions identified when only Medicare hospital (Part A) claims were examined. By incorporating physician claims, the proportion of patients with comorbid conditions increased to 25%. The new physician claims comorbidity index significantly contributes to models of 2-year noncancer mortality and treatment received in both patient cohorts. We demonstrate the utility of a disease-specific index using an alternative method of construction employing study-specific weights. The physician claims index can be used in conjunction with a comorbidity index derived from inpatient hospital claims, or employed as a stand-alone measure.

1,481 citations


"Reduction in Physician Reimbursemen..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Comorbidity was classified using a modification of the Charlson comorbidity index for use with Medicare data (19,20)....

    [...]


01 Jan 2000
Abstract: Important comorbidities recorded on outpatient claims in administrative datasets may be missed in analyses when only inpatient care is considered. Using the comorbid conditions identified by Charlson and colleagues, we developed a comorbidity index that incorporates the diagnostic and procedure data contained in Medicare physician (Part B) claims. In the national cohorts of elderly prostate ( n 5 28,868) and breast cancer ( n 5 14,943) patients assessed in this study, less than 10% of patients had comorbid conditions identified when only Medicare hospital (Part A) claims were examined. By incorporating physician claims, the proportion of patients with comorbid conditions increased to 25%. The new physician claims comorbidity index significantly contributes to models of 2-year noncancer mortality and treatment received in both patient cohorts. We demonstrate the utility of a disease-specific index using an alternative method of construction employing study-specific weights. The physician claims index can be used in conjunction with a comorbidity index derived from

1,422 citations