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Journal ArticleDOI

Regional Phonetic Differentiation in Standard Canadian English

Charles Boberg1
16 Apr 2008-Journal of English Linguistics (Sage Publications)-Vol. 36, Iss: 2, pp 129-154
TL;DR: This article analyzed word list data from a larger number of speakers (eighty-six) drawn from a narrower social range, comprising young, university-educated speakers of Standard Canadian English from all across the country.
Abstract: Taking as a point of departure the preliminary view of regional phonetic differentiation in Canadian English developed by the Atlas of North American English, this article presents data from a new acoustic-phonetic study of regional variation in Canadian English carried out by the author at McGill University. While the Atlas analyzes mostly spontaneous speech data from thirty-three speakers covering a broad social range, the present study analyzes word list data from a larger number of speakers (eighty-six) drawn from a narrower social range, comprising young, university-educated speakers of Standard Canadian English from all across the country. The new data set permits a more detailed view of regional variation within Canada than was possible in the Atlas, which focuses on differentiating Canadian from neighboring varieties of American English. This view adds detail to the established account in some respects, while suggesting a revised regional taxonomy of Canadian English in others. In particular, this...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the role of ethnicity in conditioning linguistic variation and found that speakers may vary in overall rate, but linguistic conditioning remains largely constant across and within ethnic groups, while there is evidence for language transfer in the first generation, differences between generations suggest that transfer does not persist.
Abstract: Following recent work that questions traditional social categories, this paper examines the role of ethnicity in conditioning linguistic variation. Reporting on a large-scale project in the multicultural context of Toronto, we argue for combining emic and etic approaches to social categorization. Focusing on the Chinese and Italian communities, our analysis of two sociolinguistic variables shows that speakers may vary in overall rate, but linguistic conditioning remains largely constant across and within ethnic groups. Whereas there is evidence for language transfer in the first generation, differences between generations suggest that transfer does not persist. Some speakers appear to use overall rates to express ethnic identity. Differences between communities may be explained in terms of different timelines of settlement and visible-minority status.

173 citations


Cites background from "Regional Phonetic Differentiation i..."

  • ...Recent research has begun to take account of other populations (e.g., Boberg, 2004; Poplack, Walker, & Malcolmson, 2006; Tagliamonte, 2006), but the ethnic dimension of sociolinguistic variation in Canadian English has remained largely uninvestigated....

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  • ...First documented by Clarke, Elms, and Youssef (1995), the CVS has been studied in various locales across Canada (Boberg, 2004, 2005, 2008; D’Arcy, 2005; De Decker, 2002; De Decker & Mackenzie, 1999; Hagiwara, 2006; Hoffman, 1998, 1999a, 1999b; Labov, Ash, & Boberg, 2006; Meechan, 1999; Roeder &…...

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  • ...Where language, race, or religion cannot be invoked, studies tend to use the criteria of “lineal descent,” “family heritage,” or “family background” (Boberg, 2004; Horvath, 1985; Horvath & Sankoff, 1987; Labov, 2001, 2008; Laferriere, 1979)....

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  • ...Though there is some dispute about its precise phonetic characterization (e.g., Boberg, 2004, 2005; Hagiwara, 2006) and its status as a chain shift (Boberg, 2005; Clarke et al., 1995; Hagiwara, 2006), most studies agree that it is an ongoing change....

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  • ...Thus, we cannot attribute the favoring effect for Italians to higher rates of retraction in this context (cf. Boberg, 2004:558)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provided longitudinal, corpus-based evidence of actual teacher behaviour with respect to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation in a communicative language learning context, using 40 hours of videotaped lessons from three experienced teachers recorded four times at 100-hour increments during the 400-hour programme for grade six (11- to 12-year-olds) francophone learners in Quebec, Canada.
Abstract: The objective of this research was to provide longitudinal, corpus-based evidence of actual teacher behaviour with respect to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation in a communicative language learning context. The data involved 40 hours of videotaped lessons from three experienced teachers recorded four times at 100-hour increments during the 400-hour programme for grade six (11- to 12-year-olds) francophone learners in Quebec, Canada. The videotaped lessons were initially transcribed and coded for individual pronunciation teaching episodes, then analysed in terms of their type, linguistic target and impact. Results demonstrated that pronunciation teaching episodes were infrequent (accounting for 10% of all language-related episodes), that pronunciation teaching targeted individual sounds (to the exclusion of other aspects of pronunciation) and that most pronunciation teaching episodes were not incorporated into lesson plans but instead involved various kinds of corrective feedback in respons...

108 citations


Cites methods from "Regional Phonetic Differentiation i..."

  • ...The pronunciation model being used in this context by the three teachers and as well as speakers outside the classroom is Canadian English, particularly its Quebec variety (Boberg 2008)....

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Book
Charles Boberg1
26 Aug 2010
TL;DR: The authors provide a framework for original studies of English, both present-day and past, and provide theoretical and descriptive contributions to our knowledge of national varities of English language, both written and spoken.
Abstract: Studies in english language. The aim of this series is to provide a framework for original studies of English, both present-day and past. All books are based surely on empirical research, and represent theoretical and descriptive contributions to our knowledge of national varities of English, both written and spoken. The series covers a broad range of topics and approaches, including syntax, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, discourse, pragmatics and sociolinguistics, and is aimed at an international readership.

79 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that no ethnic orientation facets correlate to all types of linguistic variation, and that ethnic orientation is not a key factor in modeling variation in heritage language communities, their variation should not be attributed solely to subtractive processes like incomplete acquisition or attrition.

47 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: The Atlas of North American English re-defines the regional dialects of American English on the basis of sound changes active in the 1990s and draws new boundaries reflecting those changes.
Abstract: The Atlas of North American English provides the first overall view of the pronunciation and vowel systems of the dialects of the US and Canada The Atlas re-defines the regional dialects of American English on the basis of sound changes active in the 1990s and draws new boundaries reflecting those changes It is based on a telephone survey of 762 local speakers, representing all the urbanized areas of North America It has been developed by Bill Labov, one of the leading sociolinguists of the world, together with his colleagues Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg The Atlas consists of a printed volume accompanied by an interactive CD-ROM The print and multimedia content is alsoavailable online Combined Edition: Book and Multimedia CD-ROM The printed volume contains 23 chapters that re-define the geographic boundaries of North American dialects and trace the influence of gender, age, education, and city size on the progress of sound change; findings that show a dramatic and increasing divergence of English in North America; 139 four color maps that illustrate the regional distribution of phonological and phonetic variables across the North American continent; 120 four color vowel charts of individual speakers The interactive multimedia CD-ROM supplements the printed articles and maps by providing a data base with measurements of more than 100,000 vowels and mean values for 439 speakers; the Plotnik program for mapping each of the individual vowel systems; extended sound samples of all North American dialects; interactive applications to enhance classroom presentations Online only Version: Print and Multimedia Content The online only version offers simultaneous access to the print and multimedia content to all users in the university/library network; presents a wider selection of interactive data, maps, and audio samples that will be recurrently updated; provides students with concurrent access to research material for classroom assignments Key Features: a multimedia reference tool, overthrows previously heldhypothesesin North American dialectology, sound samples on CD-ROM easily accessible through clearly designedinteractive maps System Requirements for CD-ROM and Online only version: Windows PC: Pentium PC, Windows 9x, NT, or XP, at least 16MB RAM, CD-ROM Drive, 16 Bit Soundcard, SVGA (600 x 800 resolution) Apple MAC: OS 6 or higher, 16 Bit Soundcard, at least 16MB RAM Supported Browsers: Internet Explorer, 55 or 6 (Mac OS: Internet Explorer 51)/Netscape 7x or higher/Mozilla 10 or higher/Mozilla Firefox 10 or higher PlugIns: Macromedia Flash Player 6/Acrobat Reader

696 citations


"Regional Phonetic Differentiation i..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…accents of English; acoustic phonetics; Canadian English; dialectology; dialects of English; vowels Canada in the Atlas of North American English In the Atlas of North American English, Labov, Ash, and Boberg (2006), henceforth LAB, offer the first national view of Canadian English phonetics....

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  • ...Charles Boberg McGill University Taking as a point of departure the preliminary view of regional phonetic differentiation in Canadian English developed by the Atlas of North American English, this article presents data from a new acoustic-phonetic study of regional variation in Canadian English carried out by the author at McGill University....

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  • ...Keywords: accents of English; acoustic phonetics; Canadian English; dialectology; dialects of English; vowels Canada in the Atlas of North American English In the Atlas of North American English, Labov, Ash, and Boberg (2006), henceforth LAB, offer the first national view of Canadian English phonetics....

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Book
01 Jan 1978

195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors showed that the lax vowels of Canadian English are undergoing a substantial shift, the pivot for which is suggested to be vowel merger in the Cot/Caught sets, conditioned by the voicing properties and the manner of articulation of a following consonant.
Abstract: Whereas Labov (1991) made a case for the existence of three major dialects of English, this article offers Canadian evience that runs counter to the idea of a relatively homogeneous North American third dialect area in which vowel systems remain fairly stable. It shows that the lax vowels of Canadian English are undergoing a substantial shift, the pivot for which is suggested to be vowel merger in the Cot/Caught sets. This shift is to some degree conditioned by the voicing properties and the manner of articulation of a following consonant; gender differences prove significant as well. The article also examines back vowel fronting in Candian English and its relationship to the shift affecting the front lax vowels, as well as to the general principles of vowel chain shifting articulated by Labov (1994). The Canadian Shift raises the issue of internal versus external motivation of vowel change; in addition, it brings, macrosociolinguistic evidence to bear on the purely microsociolinguistic interpretation of similar patterns of vowel shifting as symbols of local group identity (Eckert, 1991b).

182 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1942-Language

103 citations


"Regional Phonetic Differentiation i..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…the possibility of studying phonetic variation, while previous phonetic studies had been restricted to individual communities (e.g., Clarke 1991; De Wolf 1992; Gregg 1957; Woods 1991) or to single variables (e.g., Chambers 1973; Clarke, Elms, & Youssef 1995; Esling & Warkentyne 1993; Joos 1942)....

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  • ...…Canadian Raising, the pronunciation of the diphthongs /aw/ and /ay/ (house and tight) with nonlow nuclei before voiceless obstruents, first noted by Joos (1942) and further analyzed by Chambers (1973), among others; (3) the articulation of the long vowels /ey/ and /ow/ (day and go) with tense,…...

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