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Journal ArticleDOI

Relationship between Right Ventricular Longitudinal Strain, Invasive Hemodynamics, and Functional Assessment in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

01 Sep 2015-Korean Circulation Journal (The Korean Society of Cardiology)-Vol. 45, Iss: 5, pp 398-407

TL;DR: RVLS correlates with functional and invasive hemodynamic parameters in PAH patients and decrease of mPAP and PVR as a result of treatment was associated with improvement of RVLS.

AbstractBackground and Objectives: Right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) is a new parameter of RV function. We evaluated the relationship of RVLS by speckle-tracking echocardiography with functional and invasive parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. Subjects and Methods: Thirty four patients with World Health Organization group 1 PAH (29 females, mean age 45±13 years old). RVLS were analyzed with velocity vector imaging. Results: Patients with advanced symptoms {New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III/IV} had impaired RVLS in global RV (RVLSglobal, -17±5 vs. -12±3%, p<0.01) and RV free wall (RVLSFW, -19±5 vs. -14±4%, p<0.01 to NYHA class I/II). Baseline RVLSglobal and RVLSFW showed significant correlation with 6-minute walking distance (r=-0.54 and r=-0.57, p<0.01 respectively) and logarithmic transformation of brain natriuretic peptide concentration (r=0.65 and r=0.65, p<0.01, respectively). These revealed significant correlations with cardiac index (r=-0.50 and r=-0.47, p<0.01, respectively) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR, r=0.45 and r=0.45, p=0.01, respectively). During a median follow-up of 33 months, 25 patients (74%) had follow-up examinations. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, 54±13 to 46±16 mmHg, p=0.03) and PVR (11±5 to 6±2 wood units, p<0.01) were significantly decreased with pulmonary vasodilator treatment. RVLSglobal (-12±5 to -16±5%, p<0.01) and RVLSFW (-14±5 to -18±5%, p<0.01) were significantly improved. The decrease of mPAP was significantly correlated with improvement of RVLS global (r=0.45, p<0.01) and RVLSFW (r=0.43, p<0.01). The PVR change demonstrated significant correlation with improvement of RVLS global (r=0.40, p<0.01). Conclusion: RVLS correlates with functional and invasive hemodynamic parameters in PAH patients. Decrease of mPAP and PVR as a result of treatment was associated with improvement of RVLS. (Korean Circ J 2015;45(5):398-407)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2018
TL;DR: RVGLS measurement, normal reference values, and the clinical importance of RVGLS are discussed; and RV global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) can be used as an objective index of RV systolic function with prognostic significance.
Abstract: Right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction has been identified as an independent prognostic marker of many cardiovascular diseases. However, there are problems in measuring RV systolic function objectively and identification of RV dysfunction using conventional echocardiography. Strain echocardiography is a new imaging modality to measure myocardial deformation. It can measure intrinsic myocardial function and has been used to measure regional and global left ventricular (LV) function. Although the RV has different morphologic characteristics than the LV, strain analysis of the RV is feasible. After strain echocardiography was introduced to measure RV systolic function, it became more popular and was incorporated into recent echocardiographic guidelines. Recent studies showed that RV global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) can be used as an objective index of RV systolic function with prognostic significance. In this review, we discuss RVGLS measurement, normal reference values, and the clinical importance of RVGLS.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Special attention is focused on the usefulness of RV echo-evaluation in relation to load for proper decision making before ventricular assist-device implantation in patients with CHF and for optimal timing of listing procedures to transplantation in Patients with end-stage pre-capillary PH.
Abstract: Right ventricular (RV) size, shape and function are distinctly load-dependent and pulmonary load is an important determinant of RV function in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) due to primary impaired left ventricular function and in those with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). In a pressure overloaded RV, not only dilation and aggravation of tricuspid regurgitation, but also systolic dysfunction leading to RV failure (RVF) can occur already before the development of irreversible alterations in RV myocardial contractility. This explains RV ability for reverse remodeling and functional improvement in patients with post-capillary and pre-capillary PH of a different etiology, after normalization of loading conditions. There is increasing evidence that RV evaluation by echocardiography in relation with its loading conditions can improve the decision-making process and prognosis assessments in clinical praxis. Recent approaches to evaluate the RV in relation with its actual loading conditions by echo-derived composite variables which either incorporate a certain functional parameter (i.e. tricuspid annulus peak systolic excursion, stroke volume, RV end-systolic volume index, velocity of myocardial shortening) and load, or incorporate measures which reflect the relationship between RV load and RV dilation, also taking the right atrial pressure into account (i.e. "load adaptation index"), appeared particularly suited and therefore also potentially useful for evaluation of RV contractile function. Special attention is focused on the usefulness of RV echo-evaluation in relation to load for proper decision making before ventricular assist-device implantation in patients with CHF and for optimal timing of listing procedures to transplantation in patients with end-stage pre-capillary PH.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that RVFreeWSt may be a suitable non-geometric 2DE surrogate of CMR-RVEF in PAH patients, constituting a powerful independent predictor of long-term outcome in this cohort with relatively preserved functional capacity.
Abstract: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction harbingers adverse prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is limited for RV systolic function quantitation, RV strain can be a useful tool. The diagnostic and prognostic impact of 2DE speckle-tracking RV longitudinal strain was evaluated, including other 2DE systolic indexes, in a group of PAH patients without severe impairment of functional capacity, chronic pulmonary thromboembolism or left ventricular dysfunction. Sixty-six group I PAH patients, 67 % NYHA functional class I or II (none in IV) were studied by 2DE to obtain: RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV myocardial performance index, tissue Doppler tricuspid annulus systolic velocity. Global, free wall (RVFreeWSt) and septal RV longitudinal systolic strain were obtained. RV ejection fraction by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR-RVEF) was also assessed. All patients were followed up to 3.9 years (mean 3.3 years). Combined endpoints were hospitalization for worsening PAH or cardiovascular death. Among all the 2DE indexes of RV systolic function, RVFreeWSt exhibited the best correlation with CMR-RVEF (r = 0.83; p < 0.005). Combined endpoints occurred in 15 (22.7 %) patients (6 hospitalizations and 9 deaths). Multivariate analysis identified RVFreeWSt ≤-14 % as the only 2DE independent variable associated with combined endpoints [HR 4.66 (1.25-17.37); p < 0.05]. We conclude that RVFreeWSt may be a suitable non-geometric 2DE surrogate of CMR-RVEF in PAH patients, constituting a powerful independent predictor of long-term outcome in this cohort with relatively preserved functional capacity.

24 citations


Cites background or methods from "Relationship between Right Ventricu..."

  • ...Several other studies reported the prognostic role of RV longitudinal systolic strain in patients with PAH, including significant proportion of advanced NYHA functional class (III/IV) individuals [11, 12], group IV PAH patients (chronic thromboembolism) [13–16] and low left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction [14], conditions that may affect long-term...

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  • ...A reference point was set at the onset of the QRS complex of the superimposed ECG [12] for all measurements....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review discusses the particular challenges and limits in obtaining accurate measurements of RV anatomical and functional parameters and focuses primarily on the difficulties in proper interpretation of the highly load dependent RV ECHO-parameters which complicates the use of this valuable diagnostic and surveillance technique.
Abstract: Introduction: Compared with the left ventricle (LV), the right ventricle (RV) is less suited for evaluation by echocardiography (ECHO). Nevertheless, RV ECHO-assessment has currently emerged as an ...

21 citations


Cites background from "Relationship between Right Ventricu..."

  • ...In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) it was found that RV longitudinal strain and strain rate correlate not only with 6MWD, but also with invasive hemodynamic parameters, and decrease of both mPAP and PVR after treatment was associated with improvement of right ventricle longitudinal strain (RVLS)[63]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques and discussed pre-existing and novel forms of analysis where echocardiography and CMRI can be used to examine atrial, ventricular, and interventricular function in patients with PH at rest and under stress.
Abstract: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive illness characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure; however, the main cause of mortality in PH patients is right ventricular (RV) failure. Historically, improving the hemodynamics of pulmonary circulation was the focus of treatment; however, it is now evident that cardiac response to a given level of pulmonary hemodynamic overload is variable but plays an important role in the subsequent prognosis. Non-invasive tests of RV function to determine prognosis and response to treatment in patients with PH is essential. Although the right ventricle is the focus of attention, it is clear that cardiac interaction can cause left ventricular dysfunction, thus biventricular assessment is paramount. There is also focus on the atrial chambers in their contribution to cardiac function in PH. Furthermore, there is evidence of regional dysfunction of the two ventricles in PH, so it would be useful to understand both global and regional components of dysfunction. In order to understand global and regional cardiac function in PH, the most obvious non-invasive imaging techniques are echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Both techniques have their advantages and disadvantages. Echocardiography is widely available, relatively inexpensive, provides information regarding RV function, and can be used to estimate RV pressures. CMRI, although expensive and less accessible, is the gold standard of biventricular functional measurements. The advent of 3D echocardiography and techniques including strain analysis and stress echocardiography have improved the usefulness of echocardiography while new CMRI technology allows the measurement of strain and measuring cardiac function during stress including exercise. In this review, we have analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques and discuss pre-existing and novel forms of analysis where echocardiography and CMRI can be used to examine atrial, ventricular, and interventricular function in patients with PH at rest and under stress.

16 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Members of the Chamber Quantification Writing Group are: Roberto M. Lang, MD, Fase, Michelle Bierig, MPH, RDCS, FASE, Richard B. Devereux,MD, Frank A. Flachskampf, MD and Elyse Foster, MD.
Abstract: Members of the Chamber Quantification Writing Group are: Roberto M. Lang, MD, FASE, Michelle Bierig, MPH, RDCS, FASE, Richard B. Devereux, MD, Frank A. Flachskampf, MD, Elyse Foster, MD, Patricia A. Pellikka, MD, Michael H. Picard, MD, Mary J. Roman, MD, James Seward, MD, Jack S. Shanewise, MD, FASE, Scott D. Solomon, MD, Kirk T. Spencer, MD, FASE, Martin St John Sutton, MD, FASE, and William J. Stewart, MD

10,259 citations


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Abstract: on Statement: Society of Echocardiography is accreditedby theAccreditationCouncil for edical Education to provide continuingmedical education for physicians. n Society of Echocardiography designates this educational activity for of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits . Physicians should only claim credit te with the extent of their participation in the activity. CCI recognize ASE’s certificates and have agreed to honor the credit hours registry requirements for sonographers. Society of Echocardiography is committed to ensuring that its educational ll sponsored educational programs are not influencedby the special interests ation or individual, and itsmandate is to retain only those authors whose fists canbeeffectively resolved tomaintain thegoals andeducational integrity y. While a monetary or professional affiliation with a corporation does not fluence an author’s presentation, the Essential Areas and policies of the ire that any relationships that could possibly conflict with the educational activity be resolved prior to publication and disclosed to the audience. f faculty and commercial support relationships, if any, have been indicated. ience: is designed for all cardiovascular physicians and cardiac sonographers with erest and knowledge base in the field of echocardiography; in addition, reschers, clinicians, intensivists, and other medical professionals with a spein cardiac ultrasound will find this activity beneficial.

4,383 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: This activity is designed for all cardiovascular physicians and cardiac sonographers with arest and knowledge base in the field of echocardiography and reschers, clinicians, intensivists, and other medical professionals with a spein cardiac ultrasound will find this activity beneficial.
Abstract: on Statement: Society of Echocardiography is accredited by the Accreditation Council for edical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. n Society of Echocardiography designates this educational activity for of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits . Physicians should only claim credit te with the extent of their participation in the activity. CCI recognize ASE’s certificates and have agreed to honor the credit hours registry requirements for sonographers. Society of Echocardiography is committed to ensuring that its educational ll sponsored educational programs are not influenced by the special interests ation or individual, and its mandate is to retain only those authors whose fists can be effectively resolved to maintain the goals andeducational integrity y. While a monetary or professional affiliation with a corporation does not fluence an author’s presentation, the Essential Areas and policies of the ire that any relationships that could possibly conflict with the educational activity be resolved prior to publication and disclosed to the audience. f faculty and commercial support relationships, if any, have been indicated. ience: is designed for all cardiovascular physicians and cardiac sonographers with erest and knowledge base in the field of echocardiography; in addition, reschers, clinicians, intensivists, and other medical professionals with a spein cardiac ultrasound will find this activity beneficial.

4,084 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents summarize and evaluate all currently available evidence on a particular issue with the aim to assist physicians in selecting the best management strategies for a typical patient, suffering from a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk/benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines are no substitutes for textbooks. The legal implications of medical guidelines have been discussed previously. A great number of Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents have been issued in recent years by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) as well as by other societies and organizations. Because of the impact on clinical practice, quality criteria for development of guidelines have been established in order to make all decisions transparent to the user. The recommendations for formulating and issuing ESC Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents can be found on the ESC website (http://www.escardio.org/knowledge/guidelines). In brief, experts in the field are selected and undertake a comprehensive review of the published evidence for management and/or prevention of a given condition. Unpublished clinical trial results are not taken into account. A critical evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is performed including assessment of the risk/benefit ratio. Estimates of expected health outcomes for larger societies are included, where data exist. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular treatment options are weighed and graded according to predefined scales, as outlined in Tables 1 and 2 . View this table: Table 1 Classes of recommendations View this table: Table 2 Levels of evidence The experts of the writing panels have provided disclosure statements of all relationships they may have which might be perceived as real or potential sources of conflicts of interest. These disclosure forms are kept on file at the European Heart House, headquarters of the ESC. Any changes in conflict of interest that arise …

3,348 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mortality was most closely associated with right ventricular hemodynamic function and can be characterized by means of an equation using three variables: mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean right atrial pressure, and cardiac index.
Abstract: Objective To characterize mortality in persons diagnosed with primary pulmonary hypertension and to investigate factors associated with survival. Design Registry with prospective follow-up. Setting Thirty-two clinical centers in the United States participating in the Patient Registry for the Characterization of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Patients Patients (194) diagnosed at clinical centers between 1 July 1981 and 31 December 1985 and followed through 8 August 1988. Measurements At diagnosis, measurements of hemodynamic variables, pulmonary function, and gas exchange variables were taken in addition to information on demographic variables, medical history, and life-style. Patients were followed for survival at 6-month intervals. Main results The estimated median survival of these patients was 2.8 years (95% Cl, 1.9 to 3.7 years). Estimated single-year survival rates were as follows: at 1 year, 68% (Cl, 61% to 75%); at 3 years, 48% (Cl, 41% to 55%); and at 5 years, 34% (Cl, 24% to 44%). Variables associated with poor survival included a New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class of III or IV, presence of Raynaud phenomenon, elevated mean right atrial pressure, elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure, decreased cardiac index, and decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Drug therapy at entry or discharge was not associated with survival duration. Conclusions Mortality was most closely associated with right ventricular hemodynamic function and can be characterized by means of an equation using three variables: mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean right atrial pressure, and cardiac index. Such an equation, once validated prospectively, could be used as an adjunct in planning treatment strategies and allocating medical resources.

3,132 citations


"Relationship between Right Ventricu..." refers background in this paper

  • ...2 Functional classification NYHA FC I/II (%) 2 (6%)/10 (29) NYHA FC III/IV (%) 21 (62%)/1 (3) 6 min walking distance (m) 374±99 Medications No medication (%) 18 (53) Calcium channel blockers (%) 3 (9) Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (%) 7 (21) Endothelin receptor antagonists (%) 9 (27) Prostacyclines (%) 11 (32) Laboratory Hemoglobin (g/dL) 13....

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