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Relationships of Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms and Perceived Workload among Hospital Workers

31 Oct 2012-Journal of The Ergonomics Society of Korea (The Ergonomics Society of Korea)-Vol. 31, Iss: 5, pp 687-694

TL;DR: It is found that Korean hospital workers had MSD symptoms mainly in the shoulder, low back and legs in order, and the perceived workload surveyed in this study was highly correlated with MSD Symptoms.
Abstract: Objective: This study aims to survey the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders(MSD) among Korean hospital workers and to analyze the relationship of MSD symptoms and workload perceived by workers. Background: Despite of high exposure to the MSD risk factors and high MSD symptom prevalence among health care workers, there were not enough studies of MSD prevalence among the hospital workers. Method: This study designed a survey based on Nordic questionnaire to obtain MSD symptoms and the degree of four perceived workloads: work repetition, urgency, physical exertion and satisfaction. In this survey, 1,846 workers in a hospital participated. The prevalence of MSD was analyzed for each body part, and MSD cases, which were predetermined in this study, were identified. The relationship between the MSD cases and each perceived workload was analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The pain in the shoulder was the most prevalent among the workers as 52%, and the low back(37%) and leg discomfort(36%) followed. The MSD cases, in which degree of pain was more than severe, were also the most prevalent in the shoulder(13%). Female workers had higher rate of MSD cases than the males. Among the four workload variables, the physical exertion was the statistically related to MSD cases for all the body parts. In addition, the others also had significant relation to MSD cases except one or two body parts. Conclusion: This study found that Korean hospital workers had MSD symptoms mainly in the shoulder, low back and legs in order, and the perceived workload surveyed in this study was highly correlated with MSD symptoms. Application: This study provides another evidence that subjective physical exertion perceived by workers is an important factor to explain MSD cases as same as the objective one.
Topics: Musculoskeletal disorder (51%)

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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Vol. 31, No. 5 pp.687-694, October 2012
http://dx.doi.org/10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.687
Relationships of Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms and
Perceived Workload among Hospital Workers
Taebeum Ryu
1
, Joobong Song
2
, Myung Hwan Yun
2
, Ji Hyoun Lim
3
1
Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, 305-719
2
Department of Industrial Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791
ABSTRACT
Objective: This study aims to survey the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders(MSD) among Korean hospital workers
and to analyze the relationship of MSD symptoms and workload perceived by workers. Background: Despite of high
exposure to the MSD risk factors and high MSD symptom prevalence among health care workers, there were not enough
studies of MSD prevalence among the hospital workers. Method: This study designed a survey based on Nordic questionnaire
to obtain MSD symptoms and the degree of four perceived workloads: work repetition, urgency, physical exertion and
satisfaction. In this survey, 1,846 workers in a hospital participated. The prevalence of MSD was analyzed for each body
part, and MSD cases, which were predetermined in this study, were identified. The relationship between the MSD cases and
each perceived workload was analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The pain in the shoulder was the most prevalent
among the workers as 52%, and the low back(37%) and leg discomfort(36%) followed. The MSD cases, in which degree of
pain was more than severe, were also the most prevalent in the shoulder(13%). Female workers had higher rate of MSD
cases than the males. Among the four workload variables, the physical exertion was the statistically related to MSD cases for
all the body parts. In addition, the others also had significant relation to MSD cases except one or two body parts. Conclusion:
This study found that Korean hospital workers had MSD symptoms mainly in the shoulder, low back and legs in order, and
the perceived workload surveyed in this study was highly correlated with MSD symptoms. Application: This study provides
another evidence that subjective physical exertion perceived by workers is an important factor to explain MSD cases as
same as the objective one.
Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorder, Hospital workers, Psychosocial factors, Perceived workload
1. Introduction
병원 근로자가 수행하는 작업은 높은 반복성, 장시간의
동작의 요구, 부자연스러운 자세, 강한 힘의 사용 대부
분의 근골격계질환 유해요인들을 포함하고 있다. 병원 근로
전문적으로 분업화된 작업을 단순하고 반복적으로
오랜 시간 동안 수행한다. 또한, 대부분의 병원 근로자들은
비정형 작업들을 불편한 자세로 수행하고, 환자와 무거운
옮기는 등의 무리한 육체적 힘을 요구하는 작업들이
수작업으로 이루어지고 있다. 이러한 병원 작업들로 인해
근로자는 근골격계질환의 작업관련 유해요인에 상당히
노출되어 있다(Park et al., 2005).
국내 외국 병원 근로자들의 근골격계질환의 발병률과
Corresponding Author: Taebeum Ryu. Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, 305-719.
Mobile: +82-10-6433-2756, E-mail: tbryu75@gmail.com
Copyright@2012 by Ergonomics Society of Korea(pISSN:1229-1684 eISSN:2093-8462). All right reserved.
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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), whic
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permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://www.esk.or.kr

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TaebeumRyu·JoobongSong·MyungHwanYun·JiHy ounLim
J Ergon Soc Korea
증상 소율은 높은 으로 보고되고 있다. Bernard(1997)
따르면 Nursing and personal care facilities 근골격
계질환 발병률은 3.2%로 다른 업에 비해 높았다.
조사 결과에서 업평균은 0.8%이었고, 항공운송업 3%,
식가공업 2.6%, 음료수제조업 2.5% 그리고 광산업 2.3%
. Caillard & Iwatsubo(2000)는 표적 근골계질환
발병 부위인 허리의 통증 호소율의 경우 병원관 종사자
50%인 반면, 다른 업종 종사자는 20~50%라고
고하였다. 병원 근로자의 근골격계질환 증상 호소율을 조사
연구들도 허리 통증 호소율이 30~86% 정도라고 하였
(Murtomaa, 1982; Stubbs et al., 1983; Moens et al.,
1994; Niedhammer et al., 1994; Lee and Chiou, 1994;
Coggan and Norton, 1995). 허리 통증 외에도 네브라스카
치과의사의 근육과 목의 소율은 29%(Fish
and Morris-Allen, 1998), 기공사의 손과 어깨의
호소율은 47%와 27%(Nakladava et al., 1995), 의료
도우미의 무릎 통증 호소 39%(Caillard & Iwatsubo,
2000), 심장 음파 사자의 손목 터널 증후 증상
호소율은 63%이었다(Vanderpool et al., 1993).
병원 근로자 작업에 근골격계질환 유해요인이 많은 점과
병원 근로자의 높은 근골격계질환 증상 호소율에도 불구하
고, 국내 종합병원 근로자에 대한 근골격계질환 실태조사는
아직 미흡한 형편이다. 국내에서는 자동차, 철강, 조선, 전자
제품 제조업 등에 대한 근골격계질환 조사가 주류를
루었다(Kim et al.. 2010). 한, 병원 근로자 간호사
종에 았으(Park et al., 2010; Jeong
and Koo, 2006; Seo and Kee, 2005), 전체적 병원 근로자
대한 근골격계질환 증상의 실태조사는 Park et al.(2008)
에서 이루어졌을 아직 부족하다.
기존 근골격계질환 실태조사 연구에서는 골격계질환
호소와 인지 작업 강도 간의 관계를 파악하였지만, 상세적
인지 강도와의 계를 파악하는데 미흡하였다. Village
(2000)은 병원 탁소 근골
작업 흥미, 작업 변화, 동료 관계, 작업환경에 대한
영향력 등을 나타내는 사회심리학 변수들과 근골격계질환
증상 호소율 간의 관계를 파악하였다. 결과 작업의 다양
성은 통증 적음과 유의한 관계를 갖고, 작업 정신적인
로는 통증 많음과 유의한 관계를 갖는 사회심리학적 변수
들과 근골격계질환 증상 호소율 간의 관계는 유의하였다.
회심리학 변수들의 근골격계질환 증상과의 유의한 관계는
간호사의 일부 인체 부위에서 확인된 있다(Lagerström
et al., 1995). Bergqvist et al.(1995)는 video display
terminal(VDT) 작업에서 유연한 휴식 간, 동료 접촉,
유연성과 같은 조직 변수가 근골격계질환 증상에 영향을
주는 요인이라고 보고하였다. Lee et al.(2007) 자동차
근로자의 인지 작업 강도와 근골격계질 증상 간의 관계
분석하여 간의 유의한 관계가 있다고 보고하였다.
Josephson(1997)은 간호사의 근골격계질환 증상 조사
에서 육체적 힘의 사용은 직무 스트레스와 같이 근골격계질
환에 유의한 영향을 준다고 하였다. 그러나 근로자들이 인지
,,
근골격계질환 증상 호소율 간의 관계를 분석한 연구는 아직
미흡하다. 만약 이들의 관계가 유의하다면 종사자들이 인식
하는 개인 작업 특성을 조절하는 것도 근골격계질환
리하는 효과적인 방법이 것이다.
따라서 연구는 국내 종합병원 종사자들의 근골격계질
상과 작업 특성을 조사하였고, 병원 종사자들의 부위별
근골격계질환 증상 호소율을 분석하고 직종별 호소율을
교하였으며, 종사자의 인지적 작업 강도 만족도와 증상
호소율 간의 관계 여부를 파악하고자 하였다. 이를 위해
연구는 근골격계질환 증상과 근로자들의 인지적 작업 강도
측정하는 설문을 개발하였고, 서울 소재 종합병원을
대상으로 실태조사를 통해 근골격계질환에 대한 증상과
지적 작업 강도의 관계를 알아보고자 하였다.
2. Method
2.1 Questionnaire
연구의 설문지는 기본 인적 사항, 인지 작업 강도, 근골
질환 증상 조사의 부분으로 구성되었다. 기본 인적
사항 부분은 성별, 나이, 키, 몸무게, 부서, 업무 시간
기입하도록 구성하였다. 작업 특성 부분은 근로자가
식하는 작업의 반복성, 만족도, 촉박성, 육체적 힘의 사용을
5 Likert scale 평가하도록 구성되었다. 마지막으로
골격계질환 부분 통증 증의
평가하도록 구성되었다. 설문지의 기본 인적 사항, 작업
강도 특성은 Pennsylvania State University MSD Survey
form(You, 1999) 이용하여 작성되었고, 근골격계질환
조사 부분은 Nordic 설문지를 이용하여 작성되었다.
2.2 Subjects
종합병원 근로자의 근골격계질환 실태조사 설문에는
서울 소재 종합병원의 근로자들이 참여하였다. 종합병
원의 전체 근로자는 3,008명으로, 이중 1,846명(61.4%)이
조사에 참여하였다(Table 1). 조사 참여자 남성은 21.5%
(398명), 78.5%(1,454명)으참여자의 대부분은
여성이었다. 연령에 따른 참여자의 비율은 20대가 43%, 30

Vol.31,No.5. 2012.10.31
Relationshipsof MusculoskeletalDisorderSymptomsand PerceivedWorkloadamongHospit alWorkers 689
36.1%, 40대 15.8%, 50대 4.9%이었다.
여자의 평균 연령 32세로 남성 평균 연령은 36.5세,
성의 평균 연령은 30.9 이었다. 조사 참여자의 평균 근무
연수는 7 9월로 남성은 8 7개월, 여성은 7 6개월
이었다.
2.3 Statistical analysis
연구는 종합병원 근로자의 근골격계질환 실태 설문
과에서 작업 강도, 주요 호소 인체 위, 리고
작업 강도와 통증 호소율 간의 관계를 분석하였다. 인지
강도 분석은 반복성, 만족도, 촉박성, 육체적 힘의 사용
정도에 따른 빈도를 분석하였다. 주요 통증 호소 인체 부위
분석은 인체 부위별 통증 정도의 빈도를 분석하여 주요 통증
호소 부위를 파악하였고, 직종에 따른 주요 통증 호소 부위
비교하였다. 마지막으로 인지 작업 강도와 통증 호소율
관계는 χ
2
검정을 이용하여 분석되었다.
3. Results
3.1 Distribution of perceived workload and work
satisfaction
연구의 조사 대상 종합병원 근로자의 인지 작업 반복성
분석한 결과, 응답자의 70% 정도가 자신의 수행 작업을
반복적으로 인식하고 있었다. 작업 반복성에 대한 동의(
렇다) 응답이 48% (885명)으가장 많았고, 중립적 응답
23%(423명), 강한 의(매 그렇다) 응답 21%(384
명), 부정 응답이 7%(135명), 강한 부정 응답이 1%(19명)
순이었다(Table 2).
인지 작업의 촉박성을 분석한 결과, 응답자의 57% 정도
자신의 수행 작업이 촉박하다고 인식하고 있었다. 작업
촉박성에 대한 의(그렇다) 응답이 44%(811명)으로 가장
많았고, 중립적 응답은 32%(589명), 강한 동의(매우 그렇
다) 13%(249명), 응답 10%(184명),
응답이 1%(13명) 순이었다.
작업에서 육체적 힘의 사용을 분석한 결과, 응답자의 46%
정도가 자신의 수행 작업에 많은 힘이 요구된다고 인식하고
있었다. 육체적 힘의 사용에 대한 동의(그렇다) 응답이 34%
(630명)으로 많았, 33%(601명),
응답이 19%(356명), 강한 동의(매우 그렇다) 응답 12%
(218명), 강한 부정 응답이 2%(41명) 순이었다.
작업의 만족도를 분석한 결과, 응답자의 38% 정도가
신의 수행 작업에 만족하지 않고 있었다. 작업 만족도에
중립 응답 53%(975명)으로 가장 많았고, 부정적 응답
34%(624명), 동의 응답 8%(153명), 강한 부정 응답이
4%(71명), 강한 긍정 응답이 1%(23명), 순이었다.
작업의 만족도와 작업 강도와의 상관관계 분석 결과, 작업
만족도와 작업 반복성, 촉박성, 물리적 상관성은
것으로 나타났다. 작업 만족도와 작업 반복 간의 상관
계수는 0.23, 작업 만족도와 작업 촉박성 간의 상관계수는
0.31, 작업 만족도와 작업 물리적 간의 상관계수는 0.23
으로 작업 만족도와 인지 작업 강도 간의 상관관계는 유의
하지 않았다(α=0.05).
3.2 MSD symptoms of hospital workers
인체 부위별 통증 호소 빈도를 분석한 결과 어깨의 통증
호소가 가장 많았고 허리, 다리의 통증 호소자도 비교적
았다(Figure 1). 어깨의 통증 호소자 비율은 52%로 가장
높았고, 허리의 통증 호소자 비율은 37%, 다리의 통증 호소
자는 36%이었다. 손과 손목의 통증 호소자 비율은 31%,
통증 호소자는 29%이었고, 팔과 팔꿈치 통증 호소자
Tab le 1. Composition of responded hospital workers
Male Female Total
Age
Freq. % Freq. % Freq. %
29 105 26.4 692 47.6 797 43.0
30~39 138 34.7 531 36.5 669 36.1
40~49 108 27.1 184 12.7 292 15.8
50 43 10.8 34 2.3 77 4.2
Unclear 4 1.0 13 0.9 17 0.9
Total 398 100 1,454 100 1,852 100
Tab le 2. Distribution of perceived workload and satisfaction
Repetion Urgency
Physical
exertion
Satisfaction
Freq.
*
Ratio
(%)
Freq. Ratio Freq. Ratio Freq. Ratio
Strongly
disagree
19 1.0 13 0.7 41 2.2 23 1.2
Disagree 135 7.3 184 10.0 356 19.3 153 8.3
Neutral 423 22.9 589 31.9 601 32.6 975 52.8
Agree 885 48.0 811 43.9 630 34.1 624 33.8
Strongly
agree
384 20.8 249 13.5 218 11.8 71 3.8
*
frequency

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TaebeumRyu·JoobongSong·MyungHwanYun·JiHy ounLim
J Ergon Soc Korea
율(17%) 가장 작았다.
통증의 정도가 심각(severe) 수준 이상으로 심한 통증
호소자의 비율도 어깨 부위에서 가장 높았고(13%),
(9%) 다리(8%) 순이었다. 손과 손목, 목, 팔과 팔꿈지
심한 통증 호소자의 비율은 5% 이하로 적었다.
모든 부위에서 심한 통증 호소자의 빈도는 성별에 따라
유의한 차이를 보였다. χ
2
검정의 분석 결과, 모든 부위에서
심한 통증을 갖는 여성의 관찰 빈도는 기대 빈도보다 많았으
남성의 관찰 빈도는 기대 빈도보다 적었다. 특히, 어깨
다리 부위에서 심한 통증을 호소하는 여성의 수가 남성보다
상당히 많았고, 부위에서 차이가 다른 부위와 비교하
비교적 적었다(Table 3).
종합 병원 근로자의 직종에 따라 통증 호소하는 부위에
이가 있었다. 직종에 따라 부위별 심한 통증 호소자 비율
과는 그림과 같다. 간호사는 어깨(12%) 허리(12%) 그리
다리(11%) 심한 통증을 주로 호소하였고, 운영기능직
(staff) 목(9%), 어깨(9%), 손과 손목(9%), 허리(9%),
다리(11%) 비슷한 비율로 통증을 호소하였다. 약무직은
다리에 대한 통증 호소를 하지 않은 면, 다른 모든 부위
심한 통증을 호소하였다. 머지 기술직, 수련의, 보건직,
사무직의 심한 통증 호소 비율은 크지 않았다(Figure 2).
3.3 Relationship of MSD cases and perceived workload
statistical analysis
병원 근로자의 작업에 대한 반복성, 촉박성, 육체적인
사용, 만족도에 따라 신체 부위별 통증 호소자의 빈도가
다른지 χ
2
검정으로 분석하였다. 반복성에 대한 분석 결과,
반복성이 다고 응답한 그룹에서 모든 부위의 통증 호소율
높은 것으로 나타났으며, 팔/팔꿈치를 제외하고 유의한
차이가 있는 것으로 분석되었다(Table 4). 목, 어깨, 손,
리, 다리 통증 호소자 경우 작업 반복성에 대한 중립 의견
이하에서 관찰된 호소자 빈도수는 기대 빈도보다 적었으나,
동조 의견 이상에서 관찰된 호소자 빈도수는 기대 빈도보다
Tab le 3. Frequency of MSD cases of six body parts between male and female workers
Neck Shoulder Arm/Elbow Hand/Wrist Low back Leg
Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex.
Male 11 19.5 18 51.5 1 11.1 5 21.2 17 37.0 6 31.9
Female 79 71.1 220 188.3 51 40.6 94 77.3 155 135.2 143 116.4
χ
2
4.6 27.2 11.9 15.9 13.7 27.0
p 0.033
*
0.000
**
0.0006
**
0.00007
**
0.0002
**
0.000
**
Ob. Observed frequency of cases, Ex. Expected frequency of cases
*
significant at =0.05,
**
significant at =0.01
Figure 1. Prevalence of MSD symptom and its
severity among hospital workers
Figure 2. Proportion of MSD cases by worker types

Vol.31,No.5. 2012.10.31
Relationshipsof MusculoskeletalDisorderSymptomsand PerceivedWorkloadamongHospit alWorkers 691
높음을 있다.
촉박성에 대한 분석 결과, 반복성과 같이 작업의 촉박성이
높다고 응답한 그룹에서 모든 부위의 통증 호소율이 높은
으로 나타났으며, 목과 다리를 제외한 모든 부위에서 유의한
차이가 있는 것을 분석되었다(Table 5). 어깨, 팔, 손, 허리
통증 호소자의 경우 작업 촉박성에 대한 중립 의견 이하에서
관찰된 호소자 빈도수는 기대 빈도보다 적었으나, 동조 의견
이상에서 관찰된 호소자 빈도수는 기대 빈도보다 높음을
있다. 이러한 특성은 목과 다리 부위에서도 발견되지만,
통계적으로 유의하지 않았다.
육체적 사용에 대한 분석 결과, 육제적 사용이 많다
응답한 그룹에서 모든 부위의 통증 호소율이 높은 것으로
나타났으며, 모든 부위에서 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 분석
되었다(Table 6). 모든 부위에서 통증 호소자의 경우 육체
사용에 대한 중립 의견 이하에서 관찰된 호소자 빈도
수는 기대 빈도보다 적었으나, 동조 의견 이상에서 관찰된
호소자 빈도수는 기대 빈도보다 높음을 있다.
만족도에 대한 분석 결과, 만족하지 않는다고 응답한 그룹
모든 부위의 통증 호소율이 높은 것으로 나타났으며,
팔을 제외한 모든 부위에서 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 분석
다(Table 7). 목, 어깨, 손, 허리, 다리 통증 호소자의
경우 작업 만족에 대한 중립 의견 이상에서 관찰된 호소자
빈도수는 기대 빈도보다 적었으나, 중립 의견 이하에서 관찰
호소자 빈도수는 기대 빈도보다 높음을 있다.
4. Discussion and Conclusion
연구의 종합병원 근로자 통증 호소자가 많은 부위는
어깨(52%)인데, 이는 참여 근로자 간호사의 비중이
문이다. 간호사가 병원 근로자의 대부분을 차지하여
호사의 영향이 크므로 종합병원 근로자의 통증 호소 부위
어깨가 가장 높은 호소율을 갖는 것으로 사료된다. 간호사
Tab le 4. Frequency of cases along with perceived work repetition
Neck Shoulder Arm/Elbow Hand/Wrist Low back Leg
Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex.
Strong disagree 0 0.9 1 2.5 0 0.5 0 1.0 0 1.8 0 1.5
Disagree 1 6.6 4 17.6 3 3.8 1 7.2 7 12.6 6 10.9
Neutral 13 20.6 38 55.2 7 11.9 12 22.7 25 39.4 19 34.1
Agree 40 43.2 113 115.7 21 25.0 45 47.5 83 82.5 74 71.5
Strong agree 36 18.7 85 50.1 21 10.8 41 20.6 57 35.7 50 30.9
χ
2
8.7 16.8 3.4 11.6 9.5 10.5
p 0.034
*
0.0008
**
0.33 0.009
**
0.023
*
0.015
*
Ob. Observed frequency of cases, Ex. Expected frequency of cases
*
significant at =0.05,
**
significant at =0.01
Tab le 5. Frequency of cases along with perceived work urgency
Neck Shoulder Arm/Elbow Hand/Wrist Low back Leg
Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex. Ob. Ex.
Strong disagree 0 0.6 0 1.7 0 0.4 0 0.7 2 1.2 1 1.0
Disagree 4 9.0 14 24.0 6 5.2 8 9.9 9 17.1 9 14.8
Neutral 23 28.7 49 76.9 3 16.6 17 31.6 35 54.9 35 47.2
Agree 40 39.5 119 105.9 24 22.8 45 43.5 83 75.6 67 65.0
Strong agree 23 12.1 59 32.5 19 7.0 29 13.4 43 23.2 36 20.0
χ
2
4.5 17.6 11.7 7.8 12.3 5.5
p 0.212 0.0005
**
0.009
**
0.049
*
0.006
**
0.139
Ob. Observed frequency of cases, Ex. Expected frequency of cases
*
significant at =0.05,
**
significant at =0.01

Citations
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01 Jun 1993
Abstract: The full text of this article is not available in SOAR. Check the journal record http://libcat.wichita.edu/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=482047 for the paper version of the article in the library.

113 citations


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TL;DR: Major factors influencing adoption of smartphone for elderly users were significantly different according to gender, age, educational background based on smartphone users or non-users.
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate major factors influencing adoption of smartphone to promote its use by older adults. Background: Despite increasing proportion of elderly people and elderly market, the proportion of elderly smartphone user is still relatively small compared to whole smartphone users. Thus, we need to find out major factors influencing adoption of smartphone to increase proportion of elderly smartphone users. Method: Seven major factors were extracted from 36 survey questions using factor analysis. Regression analysis was also applied to determine specific factors affecting intention of use based on user versus non-user of smartphone, age, gender, and educational background. Results: As results of factor analysis and regression analysis, major factors influencing adoption of smartphone for elderly users were significantly different according to gender, age, educational background based on smartphone users or non-users. Conclusion: The result of this study identified major factors influencing adoption of smartphone for the elderly and provided basic information related to adoption of smartphone according to elderly people"s characteristics. Consequently, we can expect to reduce the information gap and to improve quality of life for the elderly. Application: The development and marketing strategy could be applied differently based on the factors influencing adoption of smartphone. It is also possible to develop a prediction model for smartphone adoption according to elderly users" characteristics.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hyo-Jin Kim1, Soonjoo Park1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether job satisfaction in clinical nurses was dependent on work intensity and whether physical discomfort mediated the relationships between these variables. Methods: Structural equation modeling was used with a sample of 253 clinical nurses from four general hospitals. In the model, absolute work intensity, relative work intensity, and flexibility were considered as exogenous variables and physical discomfort as a mediating variable. Data were collected using self-report measures such as the Labor Intensity Questionnaire, the Rating of Perceived Exertion, and the Index of Job Satisfaction. Results: The results of the structural equation modeling found that the higher scores on absolute and relative work intensity were positively associated with physical discomfort but only relative work intensity was significantly related to job satisfaction. Physical discomfort mediated the relationships between absolute work intensity and job satisfaction and between relative work intensity and job satisfaction. Among three kinds of work intensity, only relative work intensity had direct and indirect effects on job satisfaction. Conclusion: The findings suggest that increase in relative work intensity might play an important role in decreasing job satisfaction in clinical nurses and a reasonable reward system considering relative work intensity could be necessary.

7 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...반복적인 신체 동작을 오랜 시간 동안 수행하기 때문에 과중한 업무부담은 신체적 불편감을 일으키고[15], 간호사의 경우 업...

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  • ...신체 동작을 수반하기 때문에 간호사의 과중한 업무부담은 신 체적인 불편감을 일으킬 수 있다[15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jaeeun Park1, Rohae MyungInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: Conventional linear foot Fitts' laws were underestimated and have a limitation to predict the foot movement time in the real task related angular foot movement.
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to confirm difference between angular foot movement time and existing foot Fitts' law predicting times, and to develop the angular foot Fitts' law in the foot tapping task. Background: Existing studies of foot Fitts' law focused on horizontal movement to predict the movement time. However, when driving a car, humans move their foot from the accelerator to the brake with a fixed heel. Therefore, we examined the experiment to measure angular foot movement time in reciprocal foot tapping task and compared to conventional foot Fitts' law predicting time. And, we developed the angular foot Fitts' law. Method: In this study, we compared the angular foot movement time in foot tapping task and the predicted time of four conventional linear foot Fitts' law models - Drury's foot Fitts' law, Drury's ballistic, Hoffmann's ballistic, Hoffmann's visually-controlled. 11 subjects participated in this experiment to get a movement time and three target degrees of 20, 40, and 60 were used. And, conventional models were calculated for the prediction time. To analyze the movement time, linear and arc distance between targets were used for variables of model. Finally, the angular foot Fitts' law was developed from experimental data. Results: The average movement times for each experiment were 412.2ms, 474.9ms, and 526.6ms for the 89mm, 172mm, and 253mm linear distance conditions. The results also showed significant differences in performance time between different angle level. However, all of conventional linear foot Fitts' laws ranged 135.6ms to 401.2ms. On the other hand, the angular foot Fitts' law predicted the angular movement time well. Conclusion: Conventional linear foot Fitts' laws were underestimated and have a limitation to predict the foot movement time in the real task related angular foot movement. Application: This study is useful when considering the human behavior of angular foot movement such as driving or foot input device.

6 citations


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Abstract: 본 연구는 임상간호사의 조직침묵에 상사신뢰도, 업무강도와 조직냉소주의가 미치는 영향에 대한 서술적 조사연구이다. 자료수집은 2018년 2월부터 3월 까지 B광역시와 U광역시에 소재한 100병상 이상의 6개 병원에 근무하는 임상간호사 134명을 대상으로 실시하였다. 자료분석은 SPSS 25.0 program을 활용하여 임상간호사...

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References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
U. Bergqvist1, E. Wolgast1, B. Nilsson1, M. Voss1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A number of individual, ergonomic, and organizational factors of presumed importance for the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders were investigated in a group of 260 visual display terminal (VDT) workers.
Abstract: A number of individual, ergonomic, and organizational factors of presumed importance for the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders were investigated in a group of 260 visual display terminal (VDT) workers. The cross-sectional study utilized medical and workplace investigations as well as questionnaires. The results were subjected to a multivariate analysis in order to find the major factors associated with various upper-body muscular problems. Several such factors were identified for each investigated type of musculoskeletal problem. Some were related to the individual: age, gender, woman with children at home, use of spectacles, smoking, stomach-related stress reactions, and negative affectivity. Organizational variables of importance were opportunities for flexible rest breaks, extreme peer contacts, task flexibility, and overtime. Identified ergonomic variables were static work posture, hand position, use of lower arm support, repeated work movements, and keyboard or VDT vertical position.

416 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...성별은 기존 MSD 증상 조사 분석에서도 MSD 에 영향을 주는 요인으로 분석되고 있다 (Bergqvist et al., 1995; Cha et al., 2007)....

    [...]

  • ...Bergqvist et al.(1995) 는 video display terminal(VDT) 작업에서 유연한 휴식 시간, 동료 접촉, 과업 유연성과 같은 조직 변수가 MSD 증상에 영향을 주는 요인이라고 보고하였다....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion.

247 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
D. A. Stubbs1, Peter Buckle1, M.P. Hudson1, P.M. Rivers1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: The need for further epidemiological data is emphasized together with ergonomic assessment of the tasks performed throughout the nursing profession to form the foundation for safer systems of work within the National Health Service and, it is hoped, a reduction in the magnitude of the back pain problem.
Abstract: A survey of 3912 nurses suggests that 750,000 working days are lost annually from back pain and that 1 in 6.(159 per-1000 at risk) attributes the onset of pain to a patient-handling incident. Attempts to identify risk areas within nursing using point prevalence data have failed to confirm previous results using historical data (Stubbs et al 1980). Evidence is presented that suggests the conditions being assessed in each case are different. The need for further epidemiological data is emphasized together with ergonomic assessment of the tasks performed throughout the nursing profession. Such an assessment will form the foundation for safer systems of work within the National Health Service and, it is hoped, a reduction in the magnitude of the back pain problem.

230 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Various individual factors and physical and psychosocial work factors were related to musculoskeletal symptoms in the different body regions and might have far-reaching implications for the way in which effective health programs for prevention should be designed in the hospital setting.
Abstract: The relationship between individual factors, physical and psychosocial exposure at work, and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck, shoulders, low back, hands, and knees was studied among female nursing personnel working at a Swedish hospital. The personnel had participated in a course in work technique (patient transfer and handling principles). Prior to the course, the subjects had filled in a questionnaire (n = 688). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to elucidate whether different individual and work factors are related to musculoskeletal symptoms in a specific body region. Due to the cross-sectional design, however, causality cannot be discussed. Univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and yielded similar results. The latter analyses showed that in the present hospital setting, individual factors together with physical and psychosocial work factors were related to symptoms in the neck, low back, and hands; individual factors and psychosocial work factors were related to symptoms in the shoulders; while only individual factors were related to symptoms in the knees. The results of the present study showed that various individual factors and physical and psychosocial work factors were related to musculoskeletal symptoms in the different body regions. Thus, the identification of risk factors might have far-reaching implications for the way in which effective health programs for prevention should be designed in the hospital setting.

209 citations


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TL;DR: There was a significant association between wrist and knee pain and the number of highest-risk patient-handling tasks performed per hour interacting with the load lifted on units where lifting devices are readily available.
Abstract: Direct care-nursing personnel around the world report high numbers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the performance of high-risk patient-handling tasks and self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort in 113 nursing staff members in a veterans' hospital within the United States. Sixty-two percent of subjects reported a 7-day prevalence of moderately severe musculoskeletal discomfort. There was a significant association between wrist and knee pain and the number of highest-risk patient-handling tasks performed per hour interacting with the load lifted. On units where lifting devices are readily available, musculoskeletal risk may have shifted to the wrist and knee.

163 citations


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