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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-981-33-6370-0_11

Remediation of Cadmium-Contaminated Soil Using Biochar Derived from Wheat Straw, Rice Husk and Bagasse

01 Jan 2021-Vol. 134, pp 117-126
Abstract: Improper waste disposal has resulted in rapid deterioration of the environment and the advent of fatal diseases. Carcinogenic substances that percolate into the ground deteriorate the quality of groundwater and soil. Moreover, pollution from large-scale burning of agricultural waste each time after the harvest season makes the goal of a healthy environment of utmost importance. Toxins, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metal contaminants, have several pathways to enter into the environment and bio-accumulate within living organisms. The objective of this study is to synthesise a substance that will break the source-receptor pathway resulting in cleaner water and soil. Biochar, through ion exchange or physical adsorption, has the capacity to adsorb heavy metal ions such as those of cadmium. The biochar was synthesised from biomass consisting of wheat straw, rice husk and bagasse. The biomass was then heated to temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C using the process of slow pyrolysis, in an environment in which the oxygen supply was limited. The samples were then subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to ascertain the functional groups present followed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the elements or form of metal oxides present in the samples. The samples were mixed with a known amount of cadmium solution, and the final testing was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The final testing directly showed the heavy metal ion adsorption efficiencies of biochar derived from different types of biomass, giving an insight into the future scope of using biochar has a remediating agent

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Topics: Biochar (66%), Waste disposal (55%), Soil contamination (55%) ...read more
References
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BookDOI: 10.1201/9781420005271
M.R. Carter, Edward G. Gregorich1Institutions (1)
Abstract: SOIL SAMPLING AND HANDLING, G.T. Patterson and M.R. Carter Soil Sampling Designs, D. Pennock, T. Yates, and J. Braidek Sampling Forest Soils, N. Belanger and K.C.J. Van Rees Measuring Change in Soil Organic Carbon Storage, B.H. Ellert, H.H. Janzen, A.J. VandenBygaart, and E. Bremer Soil Sample Handling and Storage, S.C. Sheppard and J.A. Addison Quality Control in Soil Chemical Analysis, C. Swyngedouw and R. Lessard DIAGNOSTIC METHODS for SOIL and ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, J.J. Schoenau and I.P. O'Halloran Nitrate and Exchangeable Ammonium Nitrogen, D.G. Maynard, Y.P. Kalra, and J.A. Crumbaugh Mehlich 3 Extractable Elements, N. Ziadi and T. Sen Tran Sodium Bicarbonate Extractable Phosphorus, J.J. Schoenau and I. P. O'Halloran Boron, Molybdenum and Selenium, G. M. Hettiarachchi and U. C. Gupta Trace Element Assessment, W.H. Hendershot, H. Lalande, D. Reyes, and D. MacDonald Readily Soluble Aluminum and Manganese in Acid Soils, Y.K. Soon, N. Belanger, and W.H. Hendershot Lime Requirement, N. Ziadi and T. Sen Tran Ion Supply Rates Using Ion Exchange Resins, P. Qian, J.J. Schoenau, and N. Ziadi Environmental Soil Phosphorus Indices, A.N. Sharpley, P.J.A. Kleinman and J.L. Weld Electrical Conductivity and Soluble Ions, J.J. Miller and D. Curtin SOIL CHEMICAL ANALYSES, Y.K. Soon and W.H. Hendershot Soil Reaction and Exchangeable Acidity, W.H. Hendershot, H. Laland,e and M. Duquette Collection and Characterization of Soil Solutions, J.D. MacDonald, N. Belanger, S. Sauve, F. Courchesne, and W.H. Hendershot Ion Exchange and Exchangeable Cations, W.H. Hendershot, H. Lalande, and M. Duquette Non-Exchangeable Ammonium, Y.K. Soon and B.C. Liang Carbonates, T.B. Goh and A.R. Mermut Total and Organic Carbon, J.O. Skjemstad and J.A. Baldock Total Nitrogen, P.M. Rutherford, W.B. McGill, C.T. Figueiredo, and J.M. Arocena Chemical Characterization of Soil Sulphur, C.G. Kowalenko and M. Grimmett Total and Organic Phosphorus, I.P. O'Halloran and B.J. Cade-Menum Characterization of Available P by Sequential Extraction, H. Tiessen and J.O. Moir Extractable Al, Fe, Mn, and Si, F. Courchesne and M.C. Turmel Determining Nutrient Availability in Forest Soils, N. Belanger, David Pare, and W.H. Hendershot Chemical Properties of Organic Soils, A. Karam SOIL BIOLOGICAL ANALYSES, E. Topp and C.A. Fox Cultural Methods for Soil and Root Associated Microorganisms, J.J. Germida and J.R. de Freitas Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Y. Dalpe and C. Hamel Root Nodule Bacteria and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation, D. Prevost and H. Antoun Microarthropods, J.P Winter and V.M. Behan-Pelletier Nematodes, T.A. Forge and J. Kimpinski Earthworms, M.J. Clapperton, G.H. Baker and C.A. Fox Enchytraeids, S.M. Adl Protozoa, S.M. Adl, D. Acosta-Mercado, and D.H. Lynn Denitrification Techniques for Soils, C.F. Drury, D.D. Myrold, E.G. Beauchamp, and W.D.Reynolds Nitrification Techniques in Soil Systems, C.F. Drury, S.C. Hart, and X.M. Yang Substrate-Induced Respiration and Selective Inhibition as Measures of Microbial Biomass in Soils, V.L. Bailey, J.L. Smith, and H. Bolton Jr. Assessment of Soil Biological Activity, R.P.Beyaert and C.A. Fox Soil ATP, R.P. Voroney, G. Wen, and R.P. Beyaert Lipid-Based Community Analysis, K.E. Dunfield Bacterial Community Analyses by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), E. Topp, Y.-C. Tien, and A. Hartmann Indicators of Soil Food Web Properties, T.A. Forge and M. Tenuta SOIL ORGANIC MATTER ANALYSES, E.G. Gregorich and M.H. Beare Carbon Mineralization, D.W. Hopkins Mineralizable Nitrogen, Denis Curtin and C.A. Campbell Physically Uncomplexed Organic Matter, E.G. Gregorich and M.H. Beare Extraction and Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter, M.H. Chantigny, D.A. Angers, K. Kaiser, and K. Kalbitz Soil Microbial Biomass C, N, P and S, R.P. Voroney, P.C. Brookes, and R.P. Beyaert Carbohydrates, M.H. Chantigny and D.A. Angers Organic Forms of Nitrogen, D.C. Olk Soil Humus Fractions, D.W. Anderson and J.J Schoenau Soil Organic Matter Analysis by Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, M. J. Simpson and C. M. Preston Stable Isotopes in Soil and Environmental Research, B.H. Ellert and L. Rock SOIL PHYSICAL ANALYSES, D.A. Angers and F.J. Larney Particle Size Distribution, D. Kroetsch and C. Wang Soil Shrinkage, C.D. Grant Soil Density and Porosity, X. Hao, B.C. Ball, J.L.B. Culley, M.R. Carter, and G.W. Parkin Soil Consistency: Upper and Lower Plastic Limits, R.A. McBride Compaction and Compressibility, P. Defossez, T. Keller and G. Richard Field Soil Strength, G.C. Topp and D.R. Lapen Air Permeability, C.D. Grant and P.H. Groenevelt Aggregate Stability to Water, D.A. Angers, M.S. Bullock, and G.R. Mehuys Dry Aggregate Size Distribution, F.J. Larney Soil Air, R.E. Farrell and J.A. Elliott Soil-Surface Gas Emissions, P. Rochette and N. Bertrand Bulk Density Measurement in Forest Soils, D.G. Maynard and M.P. Curran Physical Properties of Organic Soils and Growing Media: Particle Size and Degree of Decomposition, L.E. Parent and J. Caron Physical Properties of Organic Soils and Growing Media: Water and Air Storage and Flow Dynamics, J. Caron, D.E. Elrick, J.C. Michel, and R. Naasz SOIL WATER ANALYSES, W.D. Reynolds and G.C. Topp Soil Water Analyses: Principles and Parameters, W.D. Reynolds and G.C. Topp Soil Water Content, G.C. Topp, G.W. Parkin, and Ty P.A Ferre Soil Water Potential, N.J. Livingston and G.C. Topp Soil Water Desorption and Imbibition: Tension and Pressure Techniques, W.D. Reynolds and G.C. Topp Soil Water Desorption and Imbibition: Long Column, W.D. Reynolds and G.C. Topp Soil Water Desorption and Imbibition: Psychrometry, W.D. Reynolds and G.C. Topp Saturated Hydraulic Properties: Laboratory Methods, W.D. Reynolds Saturated Hydraulic Properties: Well Permeameter, W.D. Reynolds Saturated Hydraulic Properties: Ring Infiltrometer, W.D. Reynolds Saturated Hydraulic Properties: Auger-Hole, G.C. Topp Saturated Hydraulic Properties: Piezometer, G.C. Topp Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties: Laboratory Tension Infiltrometer, F.J. Cook Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties: Laboratory Evaporation, O.O. B. Wendroth and N. Wypler Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties: Field Tension Infiltrometer, W.D. Reynolds Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties: Instantaneous Profile, W.D. Reynolds Estimation of Soil Hydraulic Properties, F.J. Cook and H.P. Cresswell Analysis of Soil Variability, B.C. Si, R.G. Kachanoski, and W.D. Reynolds APPENDIX Site Description, G.T. Patterson and J.A. Brierley General Safe Laboratory Operation Procedures, P. St-Georges INDEX

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Topics: Soil organic matter (66%), Soil water (58%), Soil carbon (58%) ...read more

4,335 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2011.07.023
Abstract: Biochars are biological residues combusted under low oxygen conditions, resulting in a porous, low density carbon rich material. Their large surface areas and cation exchange capacities, determined to a large extent by source materials and pyrolysis temperatures, enables enhanced sorption of both organic and inorganic contaminants to their surfaces, reducing pollutant mobility when amending contaminated soils. Liming effects or release of carbon into soil solution may increase arsenic mobility, whilst low capital but enhanced retention of plant nutrients can restrict revegetation on degraded soils amended only with biochars; the combination of composts, manures and other amendments with biochars could be their most effective deployment to soils requiring stabilisation by revegetation. Specific mechanisms of contaminant-biochar retention and release over time and the environmental impact of biochar amendments on soil organisms remain somewhat unclear but must be investigated to ensure that the management of environmental pollution coincides with ecological sustainability.

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Topics: Environmental pollution (56%), Biochar (55%), Environmental remediation (53%) ...read more

1,094 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5194/BG-11-6613-2014
Keiji Jindo1, Keiji Jindo2, H. Mizumoto3, Yoshito Sawada1  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Dec 2014-Biogeosciences
Abstract: . Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, which are strongly related to the type of the initial material used and pyrolysis conditions, is crucial to identify the most suitable application of biochar in soil. A selection of organic wastes with different characteristics (e.g., rice husk (RH), rice straw (RS), wood chips of apple tree (Malus pumila) (AB), and oak tree (Quercus serrata) (OB)) were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) in order to optimize the physicochemical properties of biochar as a soil amendment. Low-temperature pyrolysis produced high biochar yields; in contrast, high-temperature pyrolysis led to biochars with a high C content, large surface area, and high adsorption characteristics. Biochar obtained at 600 °C leads to a high recalcitrant character, whereas that obtained at 400 °C retains volatile and easily labile compounds. The biochar obtained from rice materials (RH and RS) showed a high yield and unique chemical properties because of the incorporation of silica elements into its chemical structure. The biochar obtained from wood materials (AB and OB) showed high carbon content and a high absorption character.

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Topics: Biochar (72%), Pyrolysis (55%), Apple tree (53%)

418 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0113888
Xiapu Gai, Hongyuan Wang, Jian Liu1, Limei Zhai  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
03 Dec 2014-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Biochar produced by pyrolysis of biomass can be used to counter nitrogen (N) pollution. The present study investigated the effects of feedstock and temperature on characteristics of biochars and their adsorption ability for ammonium N (NH4+-N) and nitrate N (NO3−-N). Twelve biochars were produced from wheat-straw (W-BC), corn-straw (C-BC) and peanut-shell (P-BC) at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. Biochar physical and chemical properties were determined and the biochars were used for N sorption experiments. The results showed that biochar yield and contents of N, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased from 400°C to 700°C, whereas contents of ash, pH and carbon increased with greater pyrolysis temperature. All biochars could sorb substantial amounts of NH4+-N, and the sorption characteristics were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. The ability of biochars to adsorb NH4+-N followed: C-BC>P-BC>W-BC, and the adsorption amount decreased with higher pyrolysis temperature. The ability of C-BC to sorb NH4+-N was the highest because it had the largest cation exchange capacity (CEC) among all biochars (e.g., C-BC400 with a CEC of 38.3 cmol kg−1 adsorbed 2.3 mg NH4+-N g−1 in solutions with 50 mg NH4+ L−1). Compared with NH4+-N, none of NO3−-N was adsorbed to biochars at different NO3− concentrations. Instead, some NO3−-N was even released from the biochar materials. We conclude that biochars can be used under conditions where NH4+-N (or NH3) pollution is a concern, but further research is needed in terms of applying biochars to reduce NO3−-N pollution.

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Topics: Biochar (60%), Freundlich equation (52%), Pyrolysis (52%) ...read more

328 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOMBIOE.2004.04.002
Abstract: This paper reports the studies made on the vacuum pyrolysis of deashed sugarcane bagasse, on the pyrolysis products. The present work is with an objective to understand the change in the quantity and quality of the oil fraction obtained from pyrolysis, upon pretreatment for deashing of original biomass. Ash, in the entrained char is believed to be catalyzing the polymerization reaction in the oils and thereby increases the viscosity. Three different pre-treatment processes used for deashing are water leaching, mild acid treatment with HCl and mild acid treatment with HF.1 The study indicates the remarkable influence of pretreatment process for deashing, by enhancing the total energy distribution in oil fraction of the pyrolysis products. This is attributed to selective removal of ash elements along with removal of extractives and hemicellulose in different proportions. However, it was found that the pre-treatments do not improve the stability of oil. The water leachate, as expected, showed potential of making ethanol via fermentation.

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Topics: Bagasse (55%), Char (54%), Pyrolysis (54%)

216 Citations