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Journal ArticleDOI

Remote Sensing and Control of an Irrigation System Using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network

TL;DR: Details of the design and instrumentation of variable rate irrigation, a wireless sensor network, and software for real-time in-field sensing and control of a site-specific precision linear-move irrigation system are described.
Abstract: Efficient water management is a major concern in many cropping systems in semiarid and arid areas. Distributed in-field sensor-based irrigation systemsoffer a potential solution to support site-specific irrigation management that allows producers to maximize their productivity while saving water. This paper describes details of the design and instrumentation of variable rate irrigation, a wireless sensor network, and software for real-time in-field sensing and control of a site-specific precision linear-move irrigation system. Field conditions were site-specifically monitored by six in-field sensor stations distributed across the field based on a soil property map, and periodically sampled and wirelessly transmitted to a base station. An irrigation machine was converted to be electronically controlled by a programming logic controller that updates georeferenced location of sprinklers from a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) and wirelessly communicates with a computer at the base station. Communication signals from the sensor network and irrigation controller to the base station were successfully interfaced using low-cost Bluetooth wireless radio communication. Graphic user interface-based software developed in this paper offered stable remote access to field conditions and real-time control and monitoring of the variable-rate irrigation controller.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Jun 2009-Sensors
TL;DR: The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID.
Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

662 citations


Cites methods from "Remote Sensing and Control of an Ir..."

  • ...Communication signals from the sensor network and irrigation controller to the base station were successfully interfaced using low-cost Bluetooth wireless radio communication [79]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The existing state-of-the-art in wireless sensor networks for agricultural applications is reviewed thoroughly and various case studies to thoroughly explore the existing solutions proposed in the literature in various categories according to their design and implementation related parameters.

627 citations


Cites background from "Remote Sensing and Control of an Ir..."

  • ...…recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the deployment of WSNs, specifically in the irrigation management applications (Gutiérrez et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2011, 2009, 2008; Moghaddam et al., 2010; Erdem et al., 2010; Kim and Evans, 2009; Pierce and Elliott, 2008; Vellidis et al., 2008;…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this paper is to review the need of wireless sensors in Agriculture, WSN technology and their applications in different aspects of agriculture and to report existing system frameworks in agriculture domain.

596 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An automated irrigation system developed to optimize water use for agricultural crops has the potential to be useful in water limited geographically isolated areas.
Abstract: An automated irrigation system was developed to optimize water use for agricultural crops. The system has a distributed wireless network of soil-moisture and temperature sensors placed in the root zone of the plants. In addition, a gateway unit handles sensor information, triggers actuators, and transmits data to a web application. An algorithm was developed with threshold values of temperature and soil moisture that was programmed into a microcontroller-based gateway to control water quantity. The system was powered by photovoltaic panels and had a duplex communication link based on a cellular-Internet interface that allowed for data inspection and irrigation scheduling to be programmed through a web page. The automated system was tested in a sage crop field for 136 days and water savings of up to 90% compared with traditional irrigation practices of the agricultural zone were achieved. Three replicas of the automated system have been used successfully in other places for 18 months. Because of its energy autonomy and low cost, the system has the potential to be useful in water limited geographically isolated areas.

591 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...of the appropriate amount of water [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2019
TL;DR: In this article, a survey of the work of many researchers to get a brief overview about the current implementation of automation in agriculture is presented and a proposed system which can be implemented in botanical farm for flower and leaf identification and watering using IOT.
Abstract: Agriculture automation is the main concern and emerging subject for every country. The world population is increasing at a very fast rate and with increase in population the need for food increases briskly. Traditional methods used by farmers aren't sufficient enough to serve the increasing demand and so they have to hamper the soil by using harmful pesticides in an intensified manner. This affects the agricultural practice a lot and in the end the land remains barren with no fertility. This paper talks about different automation practices like IOT, Wireless Communications, Machine learning and Artificial Intelligence, Deep learning. There are some areas which are causing the problems to agriculture field like crop diseases, lack of storage management, pesticide control, weed management, lack of irrigation and water management and all this problems can be solved by above mentioned different techniques. Today, there is an urgent need to decipher the issues like use of harmful pesticides, controlled irrigation, control on pollution and effects of environment in agricultural practice. Automation of farming practices has proved to increase the gain from the soil and also has strengthened the soil fertility. This paper surveys the work of many researchers to get a brief overview about the current implementation of automation in agriculture. The paper also discusses a proposed system which can be implemented in botanical farm for flower and leaf identification and watering using IOT.

428 citations

References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Jun 1998
TL;DR: In this article, the authors outline the system design issues for a distributed sensor network, in which each node has a limited energy supply and relatively low data rate link, and the nodes must establish a synchronous multi-hop network, determine locations, and cooperate for such purposes as beamforming and passing messages to the outside world.
Abstract: Advances in commercial IC fabrication technology have made possible the integration of wireless transceivers, CMOS signal processing, and sensing in one integrated circuit package. Combination with actuation is also possible. This amounts to a low-cost means to link communications and computer networks to the physical world, and may have profound consequences in such diverse areas as security, process control, planetary exploration, and medical monitoring and diagnosis. We outline the system design issues for a distributed sensor network, in which each node has a limited energy supply and relatively low data rate link. The nodes must establish a synchronous multi-hop network, determine locations, and cooperate for such purposes as beamforming and passing messages to the outside world.

244 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a low cost solar-powered feedback controller for distributed irrigation control of fixed irrigation systems was developed and tested, and the results indicated that the controller was effective in maintaining the SWP in the root zone close to a predetermined management allowed deficit (MAD).

67 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: This work was focused on the investigation of wireless sensor networks in agricultural applications and the factors such as the coverage area and the agricultural environment effects (bare soil, soybean, and corn fields) on the radio were studied.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a promising data mining solution of precision agriculture. Instrumented with wireless sensors, it will become available to monitor the plants in real time, such as air temperature, soil water content, and nutrition stress. The real time information of the fields will provide a solid base for farmers to adjust strategies at any time. WSN will revolutionize the data collection in agricultural research. However, there have been few researches on the applications of WSN for agriculture. This work was focused on the investigation of wireless sensor networks in agricultural applications. With a 2.4GHz wireless sensor node, the factors such as the coverage area and the agricultural environment effects (bare soil, soybean, and corn fields) on the radio were studied. The datasets were obtained from experiments. They could give an estimation of the sensors to be deployed in different environments given a certain area.

53 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a silage yield mapping system using DGPS, load-bearing cells, Bluetooth modules for wireless data transmission, and a moisture sensor, which yielded an error in the range of 0.37 ~ 1.96% of total harvested crop.
Abstract: This research was conducted to develop a silage yield mapping system using DGPS, load cells, Bluetooth modules for wireless data transmission, and a moisture sensor. A silage yield mapping system was successfully developed and tested in a silage corn field. The system yielded an error in the range of 0.37 ~ 1.96% of total harvested crop, compared with measurements by a platform scale. A Bluetooth module (wireless transmission) was successfully implemented to transfer moisture sensor information to a host computer. A silage corn yield map was created for a site-specific crop management.

42 citations


"Remote Sensing and Control of an Ir..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[8] explored an application of Bluetooth wireless data transmission of the moisture concentration of harvested silage and reported a limitation of a short 10-m range....

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  • ...adapted and used for sensing and control of agricultural systems [6]–[8]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the utility of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) remains elusive because of its complex interactions with soil properties, and a significant interest is emerging to utilize the spatial variability in ECa to guide direct soil sampling and develop varying site-specific management.
Abstract: The utility of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) remains elusive because of its complex interactions with soil properties. Nonetheless, a significant interest is emerging to utilize the spatial variability in ECa to guide direct soil sampling and develop varying site-specific management. While the spatial variability of ECa is of significant importance, understanding its temporal variability is equally important. That is particularly true if delineated ECa zones are to be used to manage agricultural inputs across the field for multiple years. We present multi-year (1998 to 2002) measurements of shallow (top 0.3 m of soil) and deep (top 0.9 m of soil) ECa from three irrigated sandy fields in eastern Colorado and quantify their degree of temporal change. During the study period, the fields were managed uniformly, including all farm operations and the applied inputs. For each field, soil ECa values were highly correlated between measurement days (for periods of a few days to four years between measurements) with coefficients ranging between 0.71 and 0.92 for shallow and 0.87 and 0.96 for deep ECa, but significant deviations from the 1:1 line (indicative of temporal variability) were exhibited by shallow ECa. In these non-saline and sandy fields, delineating spatial patterns of ECa into low, medium, and high zones was highly stable over time, mainly because they reflect the stable soil properties. Grid-by-grid comparison of the low, medium, and high ECa patterns from different measurement days showed mean matching percentages of 87, 74, and 78 for shallow and 93, 85, and 89 for deep ECa patterns, respectively, for the three fields. When salt concentration and buildup are low (as was the case herein), results suggest that single ECa mapping should suffice to delineate stable low, medium, and high ECa zones without a need for remapping.

42 citations


"Remote Sensing and Control of an Ir..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...ECa mapping has been widely used as one way to characterize variability of agricultural fields [13]–[15]....

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