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Book ChapterDOI

Remote sensing of the ignorosphere: Need for a complete earth-ionosphere radio wave propagation model

Sujay Pal1
01 Jan 2018-Vol. 53, pp 527-543
TL;DR: In this article, a short review on retrieval mechanism of the D-region ionospheric plasma using sub-ionospheric VLF/LF data is presented, where the authors discuss importance of VLFs/LFs observation techniques and significant earth-ionosphere propagation models to diagnose electron-ion distribution in the lower ionosphere.
Abstract: We present a short review on retrieval mechanism of the D-region ionospheric plasma using sub-ionospheric VLF/LF data. First, we discuss importance of VLF/LF observation techniques and significant earth-ionosphere propagation models to diagnose electron-ion distribution in the lower ionosphere. Then we discuss about VLF/LF perturbations due to different geophysical phenomena and corresponding numerical simulations applied to retrieve the state of the D-region ionosphere.
Citations
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01 Jul 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of the total solar eclipse on the VLF signal were investigated using the knowledge of the lower ionospheric chemical and physical properties, which is not well studied till date.
Abstract: The variation in the solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation flux by any measure is the most dominant natural source to produce perturbations or modulations in the ionospheric chemical and plasma properties. A solar eclipse, though a very rare phenomenon, is similarly bound to produce a significant short time effect on the local ionospheric properties. The influence of the ionizing solar flux reduction during a solar eclipse on the lower ionosphere or, more precisely, the D-region, can be studied with the observation of Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio wave signal modulation. The interpretation of such an effect on VLF signals requires a knowledge of the D-region ion chemistry, which is not well studied till date. Dominant parameters which govern the ion chemistry, such as the recombination coefficients, are poorly known. The occurrence of events such as a solar eclipse provides us with an excellent opportunity to investigate the accuracy of our knowledge of the chemical condition in this part of Earth’s atmosphere and the properties which control the ionospheric stability under such disturbances. In this paper, using existing knowledge of the lower ionospheric chemical and physical properties we carry out an interpretation of the effects obtained during the total solar eclipse of 22 of July 2009 on the VLF signal. Data obtained from a week long campaign conducted by the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) over the Indian subcontinent has been used for this purpose. Both positive and negative amplitude changes during the eclipse were observed along various receiver locations. In this paper, data for a propagation path between a Indian Navy VLF transmitter named VTX3 and a pair of receivers in India are used. We start from the observed solar flux during the eclipse and calculate the ionization during the whole time span over most of the influenced region in a range of height. We incorporate a D-region ion-chemistry model to find the equilibrium ion density over the region and employ the LWPC code to find the VLF signal amplitude. To tackle the uncertainty in the values of the recombination coefficients we explore a range of values in the chemical evolution model. We achieve two goals by this exercise: First, we have been able to reproduce the trends, if not the exact signal variation, of the VLF signal modulations during a solar eclipse at two different receiving stations with sufficient accuracy purely from theoretical modeling, and second our knowledge of some of the D-region ion-chemistry parameters is now improved.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the D-region ionospheric disturbances due to the tropical cyclone Fani over the Indian Ocean have been analyzed using Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio communication signals from three transmitters (VTX, NWC and JJI) received at two low latitude stations (Kolkata-CUB and Cooch Behar-CHB).

7 citations

01 Dec 2006
TL;DR: In this article, a new class of early/fast VLF events with recoveries of up to 20 min was introduced, much longer than typical Early/fast and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events which recover to pre-event levels in ≲200 s.
Abstract: [1] We introduce a new class of Early/fast VLF events with recoveries of up to 20 min, much longer than typical Early/fast and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events which recover to pre-event levels in ≲200 s. Three distinct types of long recovery events are observed, each exhibiting different characteristics, with the observed features of at least some of the event types consistent with the possibility of persistent ionization at altitudes below 60 km as put forth by Lehtinen and Inan (2007).

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reported disturbance in the mid-latitude sub-ionospheric VLF radio signals due to the super geomagnetic storm which began on 17 March 2015.

3 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comparison of lightning mapping array, broadband (up to 10 MHz) electric field, and VLF (∼300-to-42-kHz) magnetic field measurements was performed to demonstrate that initial breakdown and leader processes are indicators of discharge properties highly relevant to the total energy transfer between lightning discharges.
Abstract: The recent discovery of long recovery, early VLF scattering events (LOREs) indicates that the electric field changes from lightning discharges are capable of producing long-lasting disturbances (up to tens of minutes) in the upper mesosphere and lower ionosphere. Comparison of lightning mapping array, broadband (up to 10 MHz) electric field, and VLF (∼300 Hz to 42 kHz) magnetic field measurements shows that the field changes produced by initial breakdown (IB) processes and the following leaders in natural, cloud-to-ground lightning discharges are detectable in VLF magnetic field measurements at long distances. IB radiation has been detected in VLF for lightning discharges occurring up to 2630 km away from the VLF observing station. Radio atmospherics associated with 52 LOREs, 51 regular recovery events, and 3098 flashes detected by National Lightning Detection Network and/or GLD360 were examined for IB radiation occurring up to 15 ms before the return stroke. Our analysis reveals that in contrast to regular recovery early VLF events, LOREs are strongly associated with lightning discharges which exhibit an intense IB process and a fast first leader (typical duration <4 ms). These experimental results demonstrate that initial breakdown and leader processes are indicators of discharge properties highly relevant to the total energy transfer between lightning discharges and the middle/upper atmosphere.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a wave hop method for calculating field strengths of sky-waves, the ground-wave and the resultant of those wave components at frequencies from 60 to 500 kHz up to 4000 km is presented.
Abstract: A wave hop method for calculating field strengths of sky-waves, the ground-wave and the resultant of those wave components at frequencies from 60 to 500 kHz up to 4000 km is presented. The diurnal and distance variations of resultant field strengths predicted with the method for various transmission conditions show good agreement with those measured.

15 citations

01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: An improved ray theory and transfer matrix method-based model for a lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) propagating in Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG) is proposed and tested.
Abstract: An improved ray theory and transfer matrix method-based model for a lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) propagating in Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG) is proposed and tested. The model involves the presentation of a lightning source, parameterization of the lower ionosphere, derivation of a transfer function representing all effects of EIWG on LEMP sky wave, and determination of attenuation mode of the LEMP ground wave. The lightning source is simplified as an electric point dipole standing on Earth surface with finite conductance. The transfer function for the sky wave is derived based on ray theory and transfer matrix method. The attenuation mode for the ground wave is solved from Fock's diffraction equations. The model is then applied to several lightning sferics observed in central China during day and night times within 1000 km. The results show that the model can precisely predict the time domain sky wave for all these observed lightning sferics. Both simulations and observations show that the lightning sferics in nighttime has a more complicated waveform than in daytime. Particularly, when a LEMP propagates from east to west (Φ = 270°) and in nighttime, its sky wave tends to be a double-peak waveform (dispersed sky wave) rather than a single peak one. Such a dispersed sky wave in nighttime may be attributed to the magneto-ionic splitting phenomenon in the lower ionosphere. The model provides us an efficient way for retrieving the electron density profile of the lower ionosphere and hence to monitor its spatial and temporal variations via lightning sferics.

14 citations

01 Jul 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of the total solar eclipse on the VLF signal were investigated using the knowledge of the lower ionospheric chemical and physical properties, which is not well studied till date.
Abstract: The variation in the solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation flux by any measure is the most dominant natural source to produce perturbations or modulations in the ionospheric chemical and plasma properties. A solar eclipse, though a very rare phenomenon, is similarly bound to produce a significant short time effect on the local ionospheric properties. The influence of the ionizing solar flux reduction during a solar eclipse on the lower ionosphere or, more precisely, the D-region, can be studied with the observation of Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio wave signal modulation. The interpretation of such an effect on VLF signals requires a knowledge of the D-region ion chemistry, which is not well studied till date. Dominant parameters which govern the ion chemistry, such as the recombination coefficients, are poorly known. The occurrence of events such as a solar eclipse provides us with an excellent opportunity to investigate the accuracy of our knowledge of the chemical condition in this part of Earth’s atmosphere and the properties which control the ionospheric stability under such disturbances. In this paper, using existing knowledge of the lower ionospheric chemical and physical properties we carry out an interpretation of the effects obtained during the total solar eclipse of 22 of July 2009 on the VLF signal. Data obtained from a week long campaign conducted by the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) over the Indian subcontinent has been used for this purpose. Both positive and negative amplitude changes during the eclipse were observed along various receiver locations. In this paper, data for a propagation path between a Indian Navy VLF transmitter named VTX3 and a pair of receivers in India are used. We start from the observed solar flux during the eclipse and calculate the ionization during the whole time span over most of the influenced region in a range of height. We incorporate a D-region ion-chemistry model to find the equilibrium ion density over the region and employ the LWPC code to find the VLF signal amplitude. To tackle the uncertainty in the values of the recombination coefficients we explore a range of values in the chemical evolution model. We achieve two goals by this exercise: First, we have been able to reproduce the trends, if not the exact signal variation, of the VLF signal modulations during a solar eclipse at two different receiving stations with sufficient accuracy purely from theoretical modeling, and second our knowledge of some of the D-region ion-chemistry parameters is now improved.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a cylindrically symmetric coupled electrodynamic and photo-chemical model was used to simulate diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150kA).
Abstract: We present results of a cylindrically symmetric, coupled electrodynamic and photo-chemical model which simulates diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150 kA). Scattering of sub-ionospherically propagating, very low frequency radio waves is then evaluated using the Long-Wave Propagation Capability code. Some modeled sprite halos exhibit continued electron density growth up to timescales of seconds due to O− detachment, though it is not yet clear how this might relate to the slower onset durations (>20 msec) of some early VLF events. Modeled electron density enhancements in sprite halos, capable of strong VLF scattering, can persist for long periods of time (greater than hundreds of seconds) even at lower altitudes where their recovery is initially controlled by fast attachment processes. Consequently, our modeling results indicate that both typical recovery (20 to 240 seconds) and long recovery (LOREs, >300 second) VLF scattering events can be explained by scattering from conductivity changes associated with sprite halos. In contrast, modeled scattered fields resulting from elve-associated conductivity changes, though exhibiting long recovery times, are too weak to sufficiently explain typical LORE observations. Theoretical scattering from structured ionization events (e.g., sprites columns and gigantic jets) is not considered in this work.

13 citations