scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Representing and Reconstructing Identities in the Postwar World: Refugees, UNRRA, and Fred Zinnemann's Film, The Search (1948)

01 Dec 2011-International Review of Social History (Cambridge University Press)-Vol. 56, Iss: 03, pp 441-473
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyse the treatment of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) by Zinnemann in The Search, a 1948 film set in the context of displaced persons in post-1945 Europe.
Abstract: This article analyses Fred Zinnemann's 1948 film, The Search, setting in the context of displaced persons in post-1945 Europe. We concentrate on Zinnemann's treatment of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), arguing that this is central to the film. We also consider the film's references to Americanism, Zionism, gender equality, and children's wartime experiences.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conclude the special issue on the history of humanitarian aid by reflecting on the role of memory and history in relation to humanitarian aid, arguing that the humanitarian sector has grown and aged and professionalized and institutionalized.
Abstract: This article concludes the special issue on the history of humanitarian aid by reflecting on the role of memory and history in relation to humanitarian aid. To address a special issue as a conclusion is to embrace the opportunity to reflect on its papers, aims and ambitions. It is also for us an opportunity to reflect on the role history has for a community of practice often forging ahead in response to the latest demands and emergencies. Historical thinking is now coming into greater salience for the world of humanitarian aid because, we argue, the ‘humanitarian sector’ has grown and aged – and professionalized and institutionalized.

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the author explores the importance of On the Road to the British counter-culture and explains why it was such an influence on those who travelled east, arguing that Kerouac proposed a "beat" mode of travelling in which the "outer" journey was a catalyst for an "inner" journey of spiritual growth or enlightenment.
Abstract: The hippy trail was one of the last great expressions of alternative tourism. The trail to Lebanon, Morocco, Afghanistan, Nepal, India and other points east, flourished between 1957 (when Jack Kerouac published his influential road narrative On the Road) and 1978 (when the Iranian Revolution closed the land route from Europe to India). This essay explores the importance of On the Road to the British counter-culture and explains why it was such an influence on those who travelled east. We argue that Kerouac proposed a “beat” mode of travelling in which the “outer” journey was a catalyst for an “inner” journey of spiritual growth or enlightenment.

5 citations

Dissertation
02 Feb 2017
TL;DR: The first comprehensive history of the IRO Children's Village Bad Aibling is presented in this paper, which represents the first comprehensive microhistorical study based on a variety of source material and previous research.
Abstract: Based on a variety of source material and previous research, this microhistorical study represents the first comprehensive history of the IRO Children’s Village Bad Aibling. Established in late 1948, it was the central facility within the US Zone of Germany where unaccompanied children were cared for by the International Refugee Organization (IRO). Displaced during or after World War II, their fates were as varied as those of adults who had survived the atrocities of the Nazi regime. In total, over 2,000 children (representing more than 20 nationalities) passed through the Children’s Village. The early days were marked by a prolonged struggle to get the installation into running order, secure necessary supplies and hire qualified staff. Tensions which arose as a result of these problems culminated in violent episodes of unrest among the children. The administrative setup in Bad Aibling was reorganized, and the situation gradually improved. With the help of various voluntary agencies such as the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), an ambitious program was developed from 1949 onwards. It was inspired by contemporary trends in child welfare and aimed at developing an inclusive, international community consisting of family-like living groups. Through schooling and vocational training, recreational activities, psychological treatment and individual case work, the inhabitants were prepared for life after the Children’s Village. A decision regarding the future of each child had to be reached. In the majority of cases, the options were either repatriation or resettlement abroad. While the political friction of the Cold War had an undeniable effect on the IRO’s activities in Bad Aibling, it seems impossible to derive a universal set of beliefs guiding the work of relief workers from this fact. Despite occasional contact with the German population as well as international press coverage, the Children’s Village remained more or less isolated from the outside world. The last months of the Children’s Village saw new challenges as the IRO slowly began to wind down its operations in Europe. A change in US occupation policy saw the introduction of new courts which would decide the cases of the remaining children. In 1951, the Children’s Village shut its doors, and its inhabitants were moved to Feldafing. By early 1952, the cases of the remaining children had been closed. It is believed that the history of the Children’s Village, as part of a broader narrative of humanitarian efforts and child welfare in the postwar period, is relevant to the sphere of international relief work today.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the role of the lost child in feature films of the immediate post-war period and argues that they use the child figure to deal with traumatization and make it part of the reconstruction of communal intergenerational relations.
Abstract: The article examines the figure of the ‘lost child’ in feature films of the immediate post-war period. The figure’s enormous symbolic value as innocent victim and future generation, granted the ‘lost child’ a key position in post-war discourse, including films which tried to grapple with the moral and physical destruction of the continent after 1945. National film industries, particularly of the perpetrator nation, employed the ‘lost child’ for genre stories in which the post-war chaos is being mastered and a new, masculine national self is re-built. However, films made by victim groups outside a national context rely on the ‘lost child’ to broach the destruction of their identity by war and persecution. Analysing two films, Fred Zinnemann’s The Search (1948) and Nata Gross’s Unzere Kinder (1948), I argue that they use the child figure to deal with traumatization and make it part of the reconstruction of communal intergenerational relations. This does not result in stories of masculine mastery but in narratives that incorporate moments of trauma process emerging around destroyed mother-child relations. The films, encoding traumatization in film language, develop a rich cinematic language along questions of identity and form a first instance of posttraumatic cinema.

3 citations


Cites background from "Representing and Reconstructing Ide..."

  • ...Similarly, Gemie and Rees (2011) put the film in the context of US American postwar politics....

    [...]

  • ...Gemie and Rees (2011) discuss this in the context of post-war de-politicisation and universalization; they also link the choice to the fears of many Jews that attention to their plight might backfire....

    [...]

References
More filters
Book
26 May 2002
TL;DR: The Politics of Immigration Control: Understanding the Rise and Fall of Policy Regimes 16 as discussed by the authors, 1776-1896, and Policy Deadlock: American Immigration Policy, 1876-1928.
Abstract: List of Tables and Figures ix Acknowledgments xi Chapter One: Introduction 1 Chapter Two: The Politics of Immigration Control: Understanding the Rise and Fall of Policy Regimes 16 Chapter Three: Immigrant Voters in a Partisan Polity: European Settlers, Nativism, and American Immigration Policy, 1776-1896 46 Chapter Four: Chinese Exclusion and Precocious State-Building in the Nineteenth-Century American Polity 87 Chapter Five: Progressivism, War, and Scientific Policymaking: The Rise of the National Origins Quota System, 1900-1928 114 Chapter Six: Two-Tiered Implementation: Jewish Refugees, Mexican Guestworkers, and Administrative Politics 150 Chapter Seven: Strangers in Cold War America: The Modern Presidency, Committee Barons, and Postwar Immigration Politics 176 Chapter Eight: The Rebirth of American Immigration: The Rights Revolution, New Restrictionism, and Policy Deadlock 219 Chapter Nine: Two Faces of Expansion: The Contemporary Politics of Immigration Reform 242 Chapter Ten: Conclusion 289 Appendix: The Sample of Interviewees 297 Notes 299 Index 361

568 citations

Book
01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: In this article, a Reel Conversations unit is introduced where the students are divided into three groups: literary, dramatic, and cinematic, and each group will have a project at the end that requires them to utilize these three elements.
Abstract: At the beginning of the unit the class will break up into new groups. There are three people per group. Before they leave their previous groups they will evaluate how well their previous group worked and how well they individually worked. The students will be working in this group for the entire unit. The unit will be broken into the three elements outlined in Reel Conversations. The first activity is that I will have the class brainstorm films that they like in groups. For every film that they like they have to give at least three reasons why they liked the film. Every group must agree on three films and the three reasons for each film. After the groups have a chance to brainstorm why they liked the film, they will write their choices on an overhead along with the reasons that they chose those particular films. Each group will share their films with the rest of the class. After each group has a chance to present, I will point out many of the similarities between films and literature. Many of the students will say that they enjoyed the film because of the actor, director, setting, characterization, violence, etc. It is important to look at these elements individually and as a whole when analyzing a film. I will tell the class that we will be studying three aspects of film; literary, dramatic, and cinematic. The students will have a project at the end that requires them to utilize these three elements.

319 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new chapter on immigration in the current age of globalization, a new Preface, and new appendixes with the most recent statistics are added to the book.
Abstract: With a timely new chapter on immigration in the current age of globalization, a new Preface, and new appendixes with the most recent statistics, this revised edition is an engrossing study of immigration to the United States from the colonial era to the present.

301 citations

Book
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: The authors examines the redefinition of gender that occurred in many Western countries during both world wars and demonstrates how much the world wars provided battlegrounds not only for nations but for the sexes.
Abstract: What effect did the two world wars have on the relations between women and men? Drawing on broad comparative material-from government policy to popular media, poetry and fiction, and personal letters-this book examines the redefinition of gender that occurred in many Western countries during both world wars. "A major addition to the literature on gender relations and war."-Helena Lewis, Women's Review of Books "One of the first, and certainly the most exciting, treatments of war as an event of gender politics."-Choice "A substantial contribution to the social history of this century."-Anne Summers, Times Literary Supplement "These essays powerfully demonstrate how much the world wars provided battlegrounds not only for nations but for the sexes."-Michael S. Sherry, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science "A work of lively, engaged scholarship...This is an important contribution to current debates about war and human identity, war and political reality, war and transformative possibility."-Jean Bethke Elshtain

134 citations

Book
01 May 1996
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the second edition of the Second Edition of their book, "Cinema as institution: Institutions, Audiences and Technology: Approaches to studying film texts".
Abstract: Notes on contributors Preface to the Second Edition Acknowledgements 1. Introduction Part One. Institutions, Audiences and Technology 2. Cinema as institution 3. Film and technolgy Part Two: Approaches to studying film texts 4. Film form and narrative 5. The film spectator 6. Genre Star and auteur - critical approaches to Hollywood cinema Part Three: Genre forms: Realism and illusion 7. The documentary form: personal and social 'realities' 8. Animation: forms and meanings Part Four: Representation of gender and sexuality 9. Women and film 10. Lesbian and gay cinema Part Five: National Cinemas 11. British cinema 12. An Introduction to Indian cinema 13. The Soviet montage cinema of the 1920s 14. New German Cinema

116 citations