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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHRS.2021.105536

Reproductive toxic potential of phthalate compounds - State of art review.

04 Mar 2021-Pharmacological Research (Academic Press)-Vol. 167, pp 105536-105536
Abstract: Phthalates are pervasive compounds, and due to the ubiquitous usage of phthalates, humans or even children are widely exposed to them. Since phthalates are not chemically bound to the plastic matrix, they can easily leach out to contaminate the peripheral environment. Various animal and human studies have raised vital health concern including developmental and reproductive toxicity of phthalate exposure. The present review is based upon the available literature on phthalates with respect to their reproductive toxic potential. Common reproductive effects such as declined fertility, reduced testis weight, variations in accessory sex organs and several female reproductive disorders appeared to be largely associated with the transitional phthalates. Among the higher molecular weight phthalates (≥ C7), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) produces some minor effects on development of male reproductive tract and among low molecular weight phthalates (≤C3), di-methyl (DMP) and di-isobutyl (DIBP) phthalate produce some adverse effects on male reproductive system. Whereas transitional phthalates such as di-butyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate have shown adverse effects on female reproductive system. Owing to these, non-toxic alternatives to phthalates may be developed and use of phthalates could be rationalized as an important issue where human reproduction system is involved. Though, more epidemiological studies are needed to substantiate the reported findings on phthalates.

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5 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-14774-W
Chaman Ara1, Asmatullah1, Faiza Yaseen1, Shaukat Ali2  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Phthalates, plasticizing chemicals, are top-rated environmental contaminants. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), a chief member of this family, was declared a potent endocrine disruptor and carcinogen in animals and humans. The current study was designed to explore the probable reproductive damage induced by DEP and the therapeutic efficacy of raw honey in male albino mice. Four-week-old 50 male mice were randomized equally in five groups, as control (C) received 0.1 ml distilled water; vehicle control (VC) received corn oil (0.1 ml/mouse); DEP (3mg/g/BW) dissolved in corn oil; honey control (HC) administered with honey (0.2 mg/g/day); and phthalate plus honey (P+H) administered with DEP and honey (3mg and 0.2 mg/g/BW/day respectively). Mice were treated through oral gavage for 54 days routinely, acclimatized for 6 days, and dissected. In the first instance, the antioxidant potential and total phenolic contents (TPC) of honey were analyzed through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu assay to confirm the antioxidant capacity of honey. The morphological, morphometric, histological, micrometric, sperm count, and hormonal analyses, and antioxidant capacity test in tissue homogenates were conducted by using tissues (testis, epididymis) and blood samples of mice. Mice exposed to DEP have a significant increase in body weight, LH level, and seminiferous tubule lumen diameter and decrease in the gonado-somatic index, testosterone level, sperm count, and seminiferous tubule diameter. Additionally, histopathology of testes showed interstitial space dilations, exfoliations, Leydig cell atrophy, germ cell degenerations, and spermatid retention in DEP-exposed testes sections. However, concomitant use of honey and DEP had shown a significant improvement in histopathological lesions, steroid hormone levels, and healthy sperm count. By these results, it is concluded that honey possessed antioxidant potential that can efficiently protect DEP-induced anomalies in male mice.

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Topics: Seminiferous tubule (52%)

1 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WATRES.2021.117597
Yuanyuan Yan1, Fengxiao Zhu1, Fengxiao Zhu2, Changyin Zhu1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Oct 2021-Water Research
Abstract: In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand the capacity of microplastics to adsorb environmental pollutants; however, relatively little is known about the ability of microplastics to release inherent additives into peripheral environments. In this study, we investigated the leaching behavior of phthalate plasticizer from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastics, in aqueous solutions relevant to aquatic and soil environments. It was found that plastic properties, such as particle size, plasticizer content and aging of plastics had a great effect on the leaching of dibutyl phthalate (DnBP). Phthalate release was generally higher in smaller particles and particles with higher phthalate content. Whereas, plastic aging caused by solar irradiation could either enhance phthalate release by increasing plastic hydrophilicity or decrease the leaching by reducing readily available fractions of phthalate. Regarding environmental factors, solution pH (3–9) and ionic strength (0–0.2 M NaCl) were found to have minor effect on phthalate release, while fulvic acid (0–200 mg/L) greatly promoted the release by improving phthalate solubility and solution-plastic affinity. Interestingly, we found that more DnBP was leached out when fulvic acid and NaCl coexisted, and the results from dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy analyzes suggested that the leaching of other fulvic acid-like additives might have played a role. These findings would be helpful for predicting the potential of microplastics to release toxic additives under different environmental conditions.

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Topics: Dibutyl phthalate (58%), Microplastics (56%), Phthalate (56%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.13028
Abstract: The alpha/beta-fold superfamily of hydrolases is rapidly becoming one of the largest groups of structurally related enzymes with diverse catalytic functions. In this superfamily of enzymes, esterase deserves special attention because of their wide distribution in biological systems and importance towards environmental and industrial applications. Among various esterases, phthalate hydrolases are the key alpha/beta enzymes involved in the metabolism of structurally diverse estrogenic phthalic acid esters, ubiquitously distributed synthetic chemicals, used as plasticizer in plastic manufacturing processes. Although they vary both at the sequence and functional levels, these hydrolases use a similar acid-base-nucleophile catalytic mechanism to catalyse reactions on structurally different substrates. The current review attempts to present insights on phthalate hydrolases, describing their sources, structural diversities, phylogenetic affiliations and catalytically different types or classes of enzymes, categorized as diesterase, monoesterase and diesterase-monoesterase, capable of hydrolysing phthalate diester, phthalate monoester and both respectively. Furthermore, available information on in silico analyses and site-directed mutagenesis studies revealing structure-function integrity and altered enzyme kinetics have been highlighted along with the possible scenario of their evolution at the molecular level.

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Topics: Phthalate (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FTOX.2021.752140
29 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Humans are exposed to micro- and nanoplastics (MNPLs) through inhalation, ingestion and, to a lesser extent, dermal contact. In recent years, new insights indicate the potential of MNPLs to cause damages to human health. Particle toxicity can include oxidative stress, inflammatory lesions, and then increased internalization or translocation through tissues. On the other hand, plastic additives are used in plastic particles, once internalized, can release toxic substances. It is noteworthy that the potential effects of MNPLs encompass a wide range of polymers and chemical additives, showing various physicochemical and toxicological properties, and the size, shape and surface properties are other variables influencing their effects. In spite of the research carried out recently, MNPLs research is in its early stages, and further investigation is required. In this review article, the knowledge of human exposure routes and the recent results on the toxicological effects of MNPLs in human health are presented and discussed. Finally, the current limitations and the main gaps in the body of knowledge are summarised.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TALO.2021.100057
18 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) associated pollutants is a global concern due to the risk posed in human health after inhalation. In this study, a simple and sensitive multi-residue method is developed for the analysis of 50 organic pollutants, comprising 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 12 phthalate esters (PAEs), 12 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), 6 synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) and 2 bisphenols in PM2.5 samples. The method consists of three cycles of ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction and vortex (UASE + vortex), followed by a vortex-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up and a final determination step by using programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS/MS). Experimental conditions concerning clean-up adsorbents (alumina, silica gel and Florisil®) and filters (glass fibre, PTFE and nylon), as well as PTV-GC-MS/MS conditions were studied. In addition, the use of SRM (selected reaction monitoring) mode in MS-MS, as well as matrix-matched calibration together with labelled subrogate standards, resulted in successfully validation results for most of the compounds due to the high sensitivity, minimization of matrix effects and recovering losses compensation. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification (LODs and LOQs), analytical recoveries by analysing a spiked composite sample (PM2.5) at three spiking levels and intra-day and inter-day precision. Moreover, an urban particulate matter standard reference material (SRM 1648a) was analysed to assess PAHs determination accuracy. Furthermore, applicability of the method was proved by analysing 12 PM2.5 samples from an industrial area. Among all studied pollutants, bisphenol A (BPA) was the most predominant with an average concentration of 5000 pg m−3, followed by bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthtalate (DiBP) with 1990 pg m−3 and 632 pg m-3, respectively. Concerning OPFRs, average concentrations between 345 – 253 pg m−3 were found for triphenyl phosphine oxide (TPPO), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP). Finally, the highest PAHs levels were found for 5-6 ring-number PAHs (Σ5-6 rings PAHs) with an average concentration of 2680 pg m−3, while only 2 SMCs were quantitated accounting for 17.5 pg m−3 by average.

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Topics: Synthetic musk (50%), Solid phase extraction (50%)

118 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1289/EHP.8100
Shanna H. Swan1, Katharina M. Main, Fan Liu2, Sara Stewart2  +7 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Prenatal phthalate exposure impairs testicular function and shortens anogenital distance (AGD) in male rodents. We present data from the first study to examine AGD and other genital measurements in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure in humans. A standardized measure of AGD was obtained in 134 boys 2–36 months of age. AGD was significantly correlated with penile volume (R = 0.27, p = 0.001) and the proportion of boys with incomplete testicular descent (R = 0.20, p = 0.02). We defined the anogenital index (AGI) as AGD divided by weight at examination [AGI = AGD/weight (mm/kg)] and calculated the age-adjusted AGI by regression analysis. We examined nine phthalate monoester metabolites, measured in prenatal urine samples, as predictors of age-adjusted AGI in regression and categorical analyses that included all participants with prenatal urine samples (n = 85). Urinary concentrations of four phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP)] were inversely related to AGI. After adjusting for age at examination, p-values for regression coefficients ranged from 0.007 to 0.097. Comparing boys with prenatal MBP concentration in the highest quartile with those in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio for a shorter than expected AGI was 10.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 42.2). The corresponding odds ratios for MEP, MBzP, and MiBP were 4.7, 3.8, and 9.1, respectively (all p-values < 0.05). We defined a summary phthalate score to quantify joint exposure to these four phthalate metabolites. The age-adjusted AGI decreased significantly with increasing phthalate score (p-value for slope = 0.009). The associations between male genital development and phthalate exposure seen here are consistent with the phthalate-related syndrome of incomplete virilization that has been reported in prenatally exposed rodents. The median concentrations of phthalate metabolites that are associated with short AGI and incomplete testicular descent are below those found in one-quarter of the female population of the United States, based on a nationwide sample. These data support the hypothesis that prenatal phthalate exposure at environmental levels can adversely affect male reproductive development in humans.

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Topics: Anogenital distance (59%), Phthalate (55%), Dibutyl phthalate (53%) ... show more

1,435 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/TOXSCI/58.2.350
L. Earl Gray1, Joseph S. Ostby, Johnathan Furr, Matthew Price  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In mammals, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of AR antagonists like vinclozolin and procymidone or chemicals like di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) that inhibit fetal testicular testosterone production demasculinize the males such that they display reduced anogenital distance (AGD), retained nipples, cleft phallus with hypospadias, undescended testes, a vaginal pouch, epididymal agenesis, and small to absent sex accessory glands as adults. In addition to DEHP, di-n-butyl (DBP) also has been shown to display antiandrogenic activity and induce malformations in male rats. In the current investigation, we examined several phthalate esters to determine if they altered sexual differentiation in an antiandrogenic manner. We hypothesized that the phthalate esters that altered testis function in the pubertal male rat would also alter testis function in the fetal male and produce malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. In this regard, we expected that benzyl butyl (BBP) and diethylhexyl (DEHP) phthalate would alter sexual differentiation, while dioctyl tere- (DOTP or DEHT), diethyl (DEP), and dimethyl (DMP) phthalate would not. We expected that the phthalate mixture diisononyl phthalate (DINP) would be weakly active due to the presence of some phthalates with a 6-7 ester group. DEHP, BBP, DINP, DEP, DMP, or DOTP were administered orally to the dam at 0.75 g/kg from gestational day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 3. None of the treatments induced overt maternal toxicity or reduced litter sizes. While only DEHP treatment reduced maternal weight gain during the entire dosing period by about 15 g, both DEHP and DINP reduced pregnancy weight gain to GD 21 by 24 g and 14 g, respectively. DEHP and BBP treatments reduced pup weight at birth (15%). Male (but not female) pups from the DEHP and BBP groups displayed shortened AGDs (about 30%) and reduced testis weights (about 35%). As infants, males in the DEHP, BBP, and DINP groups displayed femalelike areolas/nipples (87, 70, and 22% (p < 0.01), respectively, versus 0% in other groups). All three of the phthalate treatments that induced areolas also induced a significant incidence of reproductive malformations. The percentages of males with malformations were 82% (p < 0.0001) for DEHP, 84% (p < 0.0001) for BBP, and 7.7% (p < 0.04) in the DINP group. In summary, DEHP, BBP, and DINP all altered sexual differentiation, whereas DOTP, DEP, and DMP were ineffective at this dose. Whereas DEHP and BBP were of equivalent potency, DINP was about an order of magnitude less active.

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Topics: Phthalate (65%), Diisononyl phthalate (58%), Anogenital distance (53%)

968 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2605.2005.00567.X
Ted Schettler1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Phthalate exposures in the general population and in subpopulations are ubiquitous and widely variable. Many consumer products contain specific members of this family of chemicals, including building materials, household furnishings, clothing, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, medical devices, dentures, children's toys, glow sticks, modelling clay, food packaging, automobiles, lubricants, waxes, cleaning materials and insecticides. Consumer products containing phthalates can result in human exposures through direct contact and use, indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contamination. Historically, the diet has been considered the major source of phthalate exposure in the general population, but all sources, pathways, and their relative contributions to human exposures are not well understood. Medical devices containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are a source of significant exposure in a susceptible subpopulation of individuals. Cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposures to dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, or dimethyl phthalate. Oven baking of polymer clays may cause short-term, high-level inhalation exposures to higher molecular weight phthalates.

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Topics: Environmental exposure (57%), Phthalate (57%), Population (53%) ... show more

773 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1289/EHP.97105802
Abstract: A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisiononyl phthalate (DINP). Potencies ranged from approximately 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(7) times less than 17beta-estradiol. The phthalates that were estrogenic in the yeast screen were also mitogenic on the human breast cancer cells. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed no estrogenic activity in these in vitro assays. A number of metabolites were tested, including mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, mon-n-octyl phthalate; all were wound to be inactive. One of the phthalates, ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP), produced inconsistent results; one sample was weakly estrogenic, whereas another, obtained from a different source, was inactive. analysis by gel chromatography-mass spectometry showed that the preparation exhibiting estrogenic activity contained 0.5% of the ortho-isomer of bisphenol A. It is likely that the presence of this antioxidant in the phthalate standard was responsible for the generation of a dose-response curve--which was not observed with an alternative sample that had not been supplemented with o,p'-bisphenol A--in the yeast screen; hence, DTDP is probably not weakly estrogenic. The activities of simple mixtures of BBP, DBP, and 17beta-estradiol were assessed in the yeast screen. No synergism was observed, although the activities of the mixtures were approximately additive. In summary, a small number of phthalates are weakly estrogenic in vitro. No data has yet been published on whether these are also estrogenic in vitro. No data has yet been published on whether these are also estrogenic in vivo; this will require tests using different classes of vertebrates and different routes of exposure.

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Topics: Benzyl butyl phthalate (67%), Phthalate (64%), Diisobutyl phthalate (62%) ... show more

726 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/TOXSCI/58.2.339
Abstract: Phthalate esters (PE) such as DEHP are high production volume plasticizers used in vinyl floors, food wraps, cosmetics, medical products, and toys. In spite of their widespread and long-term use, most PE have not been adequately tested for transgenerational reproductive toxicity. This is cause for concern, because several recent investigations have shown that DEHP, BBP, DBP, and DINP disrupt reproductive tract development of the male rat in an antiandrogenic manner. The present study explored whether the antiandrogenic action of DEHP occurs by (1) inhibiting testosterone (T) production, or by (2) inhibiting androgen action by binding to the androgen receptor (AR). Maternal DEHP treatment at 750 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 3 caused a reduction in T production, and reduced testicular and whole-body T levels in fetal and neonatal male rats from GD 17 to PND 2. As a consequence, anogenital distance (AGD) on PND 2 was reduced by 36% in exposed male, but not female, offspring. By GD 20, DEHP treatment also reduced testis weight. Histopathological evaluations revealed that testes in the DEHP treatment group displayed enhanced 3ss-HSD staining and increased numbers of multifocal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia as well as multinucleated gonocytes as compared to controls at GD 20 and PND 3. In contrast to the effects of DEHP on T levels in vivo, neither DEHP nor its metabolite MEHP displayed affinity for the human androgen receptor at concentrations up to 10 microM in vitro. These data indicate that DEHP disrupts male rat sexual differentiation by reducing T to female levels in the fetal male rat during a critical stage of reproductive tract differentiation.

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Topics: Phthalate (57%), Anogenital distance (52%), Testosterone (52%) ... show more

706 Citations

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