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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PH14030213

Repurposing of Some Natural Product Isolates as SARS-COV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors via In Vitro Cell Free and Cell-Based Antiviral Assessments and Molecular Modeling Approaches.

04 Mar 2021-Pharmaceuticals, policy and law (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 14, Iss: 3, pp 213
Abstract: The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has prompted scientists to search for an efficient antiviral medicine to overcome the rapid spread and the marked increase in the number of patients worldwide. In this regard natural products could be a potential source of substances active against coronavirus infections. A systematic computer-aided virtual screening approach was carried out using commercially available natural products found on the Zinc Database in addition to an in-house compound library to identify potential natural product inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPRO). The top eighteen hits from the screening were selected for in vitro evaluation on the viral protease (SARS-CoV-2 MPRO). Five compounds (naringenin, 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, sennoside B, and acetoside) displayed high activity against the viral protein. Acteoside showed similar activity to the positive control GC376. The most potent compounds were tested in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 Egyptian strain where only naringenin showed moderate anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at non-cytotoxic micromolar concentrations in vitro with a significant selectivity index (CC50/IC50 = 178.748/28.347 = 6.3). Moreover; a common feature pharmacophore model was generated to explain the requirements for enzyme inhibition by this diverse group of active ligands. These results pave a path for future repurposing and development of natural products to aid in the battle against COVID-19.

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Topics: Pharmacophore (51%), Protease (51%)
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIBIOTICS10040420
Raha Orfali1, Mostafa E. Rateb2, Hossam M. Hassan3, Mona Alonazi1  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
11 Apr 2021-Antibiotics
Abstract: SARS CoV-2 is still considered a global health issue, and its threat keeps growing with the emergence of newly evolved strains. Despite the success in developing some vaccines as a protective measure, finding cost-effective treatments is urgent. Accordingly, we screened a number of phenolic natural compounds for their in vitro anti-SARS CoV-2 activity. We found sinapic acid (SA) selectively inhibited the viral replication in vitro with an half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.69 µg/mL with significantly low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 189.3 µg/mL). Subsequently, we virtually screened all currently available molecular targets using a multistep in silico protocol to find out the most probable molecular target that mediates this compound's antiviral activity. As a result, the viral envelope protein (E-protein) was suggested as the most possible hit for SA. Further in-depth molecular dynamic simulation-based investigation revealed the essential structural features of SA antiviral activity and its binding mode with E-protein. The structural and experimental results presented in this study strongly recommend SA as a promising structural motif for anti-SARS CoV-2 agent development.

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Topics: Viral envelope (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26092654
01 May 2021-Molecules
Abstract: SARS CoV-2 pandemic is still considered a global health disaster, and newly emerged variants keep growing. A number of promising vaccines have been recently developed as a protective measure; however, cost-effective treatments are also of great importance to support this critical situation. Previously, betulinic acid has shown promising antiviral activity against SARS CoV via targeting its main protease. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory potential of this compound together with three other triterpene congeners (i.e., ursolic acid, maslinic acid, and betulin) derived from olive leaves against the viral main protease (Mpro) of the currently widespread SARS CoV-2. Interestingly, betulinic, ursolic, and maslinic acids showed significant inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.22-14.55 µM), while betulin was far less active (IC50 = 89.67 µM). A comprehensive in-silico analysis (i.e., ensemble docking, molecular dynamic simulation, and binding-free energy calculation) was then performed to describe the binding mode of these compounds with the enzyme catalytic active site and determine the main essential structural features required for their inhibitory activity. Results presented in this communication indicated that this class of compounds could be considered as a promising lead scaffold for developing cost-effective anti-SARS CoV-2 therapeutics.

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Topics: Maslinic acid (55%), Betulin (53%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMPBIOMED.2021.104568
Jignesh Prajapati1, Rohit Patel1, Dweipayan Goswami1, Meenu Saraf1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The disease outbreak of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, remains a public health concern. COVID-19 is spreading rapidly with a high mortality rate due to unavailability of effective treatment or vaccine for the disease. The high rate of mutation and recombination in SARS-CoV2 makes it difficult for scientist to develop specific anti-CoV2 drugs and vaccines. SARS-CoV-2-Mpro cleaves the viral polyprotein to produce a variety of non-structural proteins, but in human host it also cleaves the nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO), which suppresses the activation of the NF-κB pathway and weakens the immune response. Since the main protease (Mpro) is required for viral gene expression and replication, it is a promising target for antagonists to treat novel coronavirus disease and discovery of high resolution crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2-Mpro provide an opportunity for in silico identification of its possible inhibitors. In this study we intend to find novel and potential Mpro inhibitors from around 1830 chemically diverse and therapeutically important secondary metabolites available in the MeFSAT database by performing molecular docking against the Mpro structure of SARS-CoV-2 (PDB ID: 6LZE). After ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) profile and binding energy calculation through MM-GBSA for top five hits, Sterenin M was proposed as a SARS-CoV2-Mpro inhibitor with validation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study. Sterenin M seems to have the potential to be a promising ligand against SARS-CoV-2, and thus it requires further validation by in vitro and in vivo studies.

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Topics: Coronavirus (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13071263
29 Jun 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Vitis vinifera represents an important and renowned source of compounds with significant biological activity. Wines and winery bioproducts, such as grape pomace, skins, and seeds, are rich in bioactive compounds against a wide range of human pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little is known about the biological properties of vine leaves. The aim of this study was the evaluation of phenolic composition and antiviral activity of Vitis vinifera leaf extract against two human viruses: the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the pandemic and currently widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). About 40 phenolic compounds were identified in the extract by HPLC-MS/MS analysis: most of them were quercetin derivatives, others included derivatives of luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, chrysoeriol, biochanin, isookanin, and scutellarein. Leaf extract was able to inhibit both HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in the early stages of infection by directly blocking the proteins enriched on the viral surface, at a very low concentration of 10 μg/mL. These results are very promising and highlight how natural extracts could be used in the design of antiviral drugs and the development of future vaccines.

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Topics: Isorhamnetin (51%), Myricetin (51%), Chrysoeriol (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9060689
Liyan Yang1, Zhonglei Wang1, Zhonglei Wang2Institutions (2)
18 Jun 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: As a public health emergency of international concern, the highly contagious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been identified as a severe threat to the lives of billions of individuals. Lung cancer, a malignant tumor with the highest mortality rate, has brought significant challenges to both human health and economic development. Natural products may play a pivotal role in treating lung diseases. We reviewed published studies relating to natural products, used alone or in combination with US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, active against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and lung cancer from 1 January 2020 to 31 May 2021. A wide range of natural products can be considered promising anti-COVID-19 or anti-lung cancer agents have gained widespread attention, including natural products as monotherapy for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (ginkgolic acid, shiraiachrome A, resveratrol, and baicalein) or lung cancer (daurisoline, graveospene A, deguelin, and erianin) or in combination with FDA-approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents (cepharanthine plus nelfinavir, linoleic acid plus remdesivir) and anti-lung cancer agents (curcumin and cisplatin, celastrol and gefitinib). Natural products have demonstrated potential value and with the assistance of nanotechnology, combination drug therapies, and the codrug strategy, this “natural remedy” could serve as a starting point for further drug development in treating these lung diseases.

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Topics: Combination drug (53%), Cancer (52%), Lung cancer (51%) ... read more

2 Citations


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50 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Chaolin Huang1, Yeming Wang2, Xingwang Li3, Lili Ren4  +25 moreInstitutions (8)
24 Jan 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not.

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26,390 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0169-409X(00)00129-0
Abstract: Experimental and computational approaches to estimate solubility and permeability in discovery and development settings are described In the discovery setting 'the rule of 5' predicts that poor absorption or permeation is more likely when there are more than 5 H-bond donors, 10 H-bond acceptors, the molecular weight (MWT) is greater than 500 and the calculated Log P (CLogP) is greater than 5 (or MlogP > 415) Computational methodology for the rule-based Moriguchi Log P (MLogP) calculation is described Turbidimetric solubility measurement is described and applied to known drugs High throughput screening (HTS) leads tend to have higher MWT and Log P and lower turbidimetric solubility than leads in the pre-HTS era In the development setting, solubility calculations focus on exact value prediction and are difficult because of polymorphism Recent work on linear free energy relationships and Log P approaches are critically reviewed Useful predictions are possible in closely related analog series when coupled with experimental thermodynamic solubility measurements

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12,161 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... read more

12,056 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2008-3
Fan Wu1, Su Zhao2, Bin Yu3, Yan-Mei Chen1  +17 moreInstitutions (4)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1–3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of the complete viral genome of a new coronavirus from the family Coronaviridae reveal that the virus is closely related to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses found in bats in China.

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Topics: Coronavirus (62%), Betacoronavirus (59%), Zika virus disease (54%) ... read more

6,266 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JM0306430
Abstract: Unlike other methods for docking ligands to the rigid 3D structure of a known protein receptor, Glide approximates a complete systematic search of the conformational, orientational, and positional space of the docked ligand In this search, an initial rough positioning and scoring phase that dramatically narrows the search space is followed by torsionally flexible energy optimization on an OPLS-AA nonbonded potential grid for a few hundred surviving candidate poses The very best candidates are further refined via a Monte Carlo sampling of pose conformation; in some cases, this is crucial to obtaining an accurate docked pose Selection of the best docked pose uses a model energy function that combines empirical and force-field-based terms Docking accuracy is assessed by redocking ligands from 282 cocrystallized PDB complexes starting from conformationally optimized ligand geometries that bear no memory of the correctly docked pose Errors in geometry for the top-ranked pose are less than 1 A in nearly ha

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5,792 Citations


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