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Book ChapterDOI

Research Ethics in the Digital Age: Fundamentals and Problems

01 Jan 2018-pp 7-21
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors outline different readings of the term research ethics and present the approach of integrated research ethics, which steps beyond an understanding of research ethics as applied ethics and calls for the development of ethics frameworks not within the classical structures, but organized in a post-departmental interdisciplinary structure.
Abstract: This paper outlines different readings of the term research ethics and presents the approach of integrated research ethics. This approach steps beyond an understanding of research ethics as applied ethics and calls for the development of ethics frameworks not within the classical structures, i.e. in theology or philosophy departments, but organized in a post-departmental interdisciplinary structure.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study in mice suggests that ES cells might be generated using a single-cell biopsy technique similar to that used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to create new stem cell lines without destroying embryos.
Abstract: At present it is necessary to destroy embryos ex utero to obtain human embryonic stem (hES) cells, but a study in mice suggests that ES cells might be generated using a single-cell biopsy technique similar to that used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This will not interfere with the developmental potential of the embryo. Overnight growth of a single blastomere could yield cells that may be used for both genetic testing and stem cell production without altering the clinical outcome. The investigators carried out ten experiments which, collectively, showed that hES cells can be derived from single blastomeres. Starting with unused embryos produced by in vitro fertilization, 19 ES-cell-like outgrowths and two stable hES cell lines were obtained. A majority of isolated blastomeres divided at least once, and about half formed vesicles or clumps that produced outgrowths within 2 days. The cells remained able to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers (primitive endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) in vitro and also in teratomas. Among the outcomes observed over several days were three that are typical when ES cells are derived from human embryos. Cells resembling trophectoderm dominated some cultures. Secondly, cells that initially resembled ES cells differentiated within cultures. Finally, ES-cell-like cells continued to proliferate without differentiating. Some hES cell lines proliferated without differentiating for longer than 8 months. Both karyotypes and the expression of markers of pluripotency were normal. The ability to create new stem cell lines without destroying embryos addresses the ethical concerns shared by many interested individuals. Potentially, matched tissues can be generated for children and siblings born from transferred PGD embryos. Further studies will be needed to learn whether blastomere-derived hES cell lines resemble conventional hES cell lines in their ability to form functional differentiated cell types. The investigators recommend that, until safety issues are resolved, this procedure be used only in the context of PGD.

129 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ongoing developments in the area of AI/AS are critically evaluated and related advantages and serious concerns of the society are discussed.
Abstract: The applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and automated systems (AS) demonstrate excellent outcomes in various sectors of industrial units to replace the human from jobs. However, the competitive world with evolutions, advancement of technologies and thrive for success by industrial gains by the managements are leaving the interests and benefits of larger number of human beings in the society. In this paper, various ethical issues related with the implementation of AI/AS are demonstrated with different perspectives. The ongoing developments in the area of AI/AS are critically evaluated and related advantages and serious concerns of the society are discussed. Various global initiatives and legal amendments across the globe to limit the excessive usage of AI/AS are being examined with critical assessments.

3 citations


Cites background from "Research Ethics in the Digital Age:..."

  • ...Presently according to the EAD presented four standards addressing the ethical concerns include the following [6], [7], [9], [10], [16]....

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Posted ContentDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a taxonomy of the ethical challenges faced by researchers in the field of Computational Social Science (CSS) is provided, along with practical guardrails within the research activities and environments of CSS in response to these dilemmas.
Abstract: As a quintessential social impact science, Computational Social Science (CSS) holds great promise to advance social justice, human flourishing, and biospheric sustainability. However, CSS is also an all-too-human science—conceived in particular social, cultural, and historical contexts and pursued amidst intractable power imbalances, structural inequities, and potential conflicts of interest. Its proponents must thus remain continuously self-critical about the role that values, interests, and power dynamics play in shaping mission-driven research. Likewise, they must take heed of the complicated social and historical conditions surrounding the generation and construction of data as well as the way that the activities and theories of CSS researchers can function to restructure and shape the phenomena that they purport only to measure and analyse. This article is concerned with setting up practical guardrails within the research activities and environments of CSS in response to these dilemmas. It aims to provide CSS scholars, as well as policymakers and other stakeholders who apply CSS methods, with the critical and constructive means needed to ensure that their practices are ethical, trustworthy, and responsible. It begins by providing a taxonomy of the ethical challenges faced by researchers in the field of CSS. These are challenges related to (1) the treatment of research subjects, (2) the impacts of CSS research on affected individuals and communities, (3) the quality of CSS research and to its epistemological status, (4) research integrity, and (5) research equity. Taking these challenges as a motivation for cultural transformation, it then argues for the end-to-end incorporation of habits of responsible research and innovation (RRI) into CSS practices, focusing on the role that contextual considerations, anticipatory reflection, impact assessment, public engagement, and justifiable and well-documented action should play across the research lifecycle. In proposing the inclusion of habits of RRI in CSS practices, the chapter lays out several practical steps needed for ethical, trustworthy, and responsible CSS research activities. These include stakeholder engagement processes, research impact assessments, data lifecycle documentation, bias self-assessments, and transparent research reporting protocols. INTRODUCTION: COMBATTING THE LURES OF SCIENTISM IN CSS ............................................ 2 ETHICAL CHALLENGES FACED BY CSS ................................................................................................. 5 CHALLENGES RELATED TO THE TREATMENT OF RESEARCH SUBJECTS. ........................................................................... 6 CHALLENGES RELATED TO THE IMPACTS OF CSS RESEARCH ON AFFECTED INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITIES ..... 9 Adverse impacts at the individual level ..................................................................................................................................... 10 Adverse impacts at the social level ............................................................................................................................................ 11 Adverse impacts at the biospheric level ..................................................................................................................................... 12 CHALLENGES RELATED TO THE QUALITY OF CSS RESEARCH AND TO ITS EPISTEMOLOGICAL STATUS ................... 13 CHALLENGES RELATED TO RESEARCH INTEGRITY ........................................................................................................... 16 CHALLENGES RELATED TO RESEARCH EQUITY .................................................................................................................. 17 INCORPORATING HABITS OF RESPONSIBLE RESEARCH AND INNOVATION INTO CSS PRACTICES ................................................................................................................................................... 18 CONSIDER CONTEXT ............................................................................................................................................................... 19 ANTICIPATE IMPACTS .............................................................................................................................................................. 20 Stakeholder analysis ................................................................................................................................................................ 21 Establishment of clear normative criteria for impact assessment ................................................................................................. 22 Methodical evaluation of potential impacts and impact mitigation planning ............................................................................... 23 Establishment of protocols for re-visitation and re-evaluation of the research impact assessment .................................................. 26 * This paper is an unabridged pre-print of a chapter written for the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, Scientific Development Centre for Advanced Studies, to be published in Handbook of Computational Social Science for Policy (2022) by Springer. In addition to the JRC’s support, the author would like to acknowledge the support of a grant from ESRC (ES/T007354/1), Wave 1 of The UKRI Strategic Priorities Fund under the EPSRC Grant EP/W006022/1, Towards Turing 2.0 under the EPSRC Grant EP/W037211/1, and the public funds that make the Turing's Public Policy Programme possible. The author would additionally like to thank Serena Signorelli, Claudia Fischer, and Morgan Briggs for their invaluable editorial assistance.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 2022-AM
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examine transdisciplinary and transtechnological coordinates of art and humanities taking the case study of cryptoart and blockchain system usage in contemporary artistic practices.
Abstract: Contemporary times always pose a challenge for theoreticians who try to map it and encode it. Nevertheless, it is more than important to grapple with present times and bring out the topics that can engage understanding of present discourses, potentials, and possibilities. It is even more true with art and humanities that, each on its side, faced significant challenges from the rise of technology-driven reality. As for the art, it seems that technology gives more opportunities and options than ever, but it is not without questions of value, authenticity, ownership, commodification, or artivist practices. As for the humanities, they already faced the alleged “crisis” due to the new wave of technocracy. New technology offers new media, new languages, and new discourses. But is it all good news? Should art and humanities form a kind of a (trans)tactical (im)pact and adopt the technology language, or would such a turn create more slippery points than easy-going practices? This paper will try to examine transdisciplinary and transtechnological coordinates of art and humanities taking the case study of cryptoart and blockchain system usage in contemporary artistic practices. This will also engage the discussion about digital humanities, which might be one of the next transdisciplinary steps to continue the fierce line of experimentation, and to combat the trend of going back to disciplinary frameworks. Article received: December 18, 2021; Article accepted: February 1, 2022; Published online: April 15, 2022; Original scholarly article
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence the authors' own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks, and suggest that the observation of others' positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.
Abstract: Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others' positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.

2,476 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2004

770 citations


"Research Ethics in the Digital Age:..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...…codes of conduct and ethics codes are: Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee, Version 2 (Markham & Buchanan, 2012); Ethik-Kodex der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie (DGS) und des Berufsverbandes Deutscher Soziologinnen und…...

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  • ...Ethics is both an area of research within the arts and humanities (‘Geisteswissenschaften’ in German) in which theories concerning the reflection on actions are developed – which help checking the validity of justifica4 Examples of codes of conduct and ethics codes are: Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee, Version 2 (Markham & Buchanan, 2012); Ethik-Kodex der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie (DGS) und des Berufsverbandes Deutscher Soziologinnen und Soziologen (BDS) (2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
23 Nov 2006-Nature
TL;DR: A series of ten separate experiments demonstrating that hES cells can be derived from single blastomeres are reported, which would address the ethical concerns of many, and allow the generation of matched tissue for children and siblings born from transferred PGD embryos.
Abstract: The derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells currently requires the destruction of ex utero embryos. A previous study in mice indicates that it might be possible to generate embryonic stem (ES) cells using a single-cell biopsy similar to that used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which does not interfere with the embryo's developmental potential. By growing the single blastomere overnight, the resulting cells could be used for both genetic testing and stem cell derivation without affecting the clinical outcome of the procedure. Here we report a series of ten separate experiments demonstrating that hES cells can be derived from single blastomeres. In this proof-of-principle study, multiple biopsies were taken from each embryo using micromanipulation techniques and none of the biopsied embryos were allowed to develop in culture. Nineteen ES-cell-like outgrowths and two stable hES cell lines were obtained. The latter hES cell lines maintained undifferentiated proliferation for more than eight months, and showed normal karyotype and expression of markers of pluripotency, including Oct-4, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, nanog and alkaline phosphatase. These cells retained the potential to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in teratomas. The ability to create new stem cell lines and therapies without destroying embryos would address the ethical concerns of many, and allow the generation of matched tissue for children and siblings born from transferred PGD embryos.

526 citations

01 Jan 1979

469 citations

01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: Annette Markham, Guest Professor, University of Aarhus, Denmark Elizabeth Buchanan, Endowed Chair,University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA with contributions from the AoIR Ethics Committee.
Abstract: Annette Markham, Guest Professor, University of Aarhus, Denmark Elizabeth Buchanan, Endowed Chair, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA with contributions from the AoIR Ethics Committee, including: Maria Bakardjeiva, (Canada), Andrea Baker (USA), Heidi Campbell (USA), Charles Ess (Denmark), Radhika Gajjala (USA), Mark Johns (USA), Steve Jones (USA), Heidi McKee (USA), Jim Porter (USA), Soraj Hongladaram (Thailand), Susannah Stern (USA), Leslie Tkach-Kawasaki (Japan), Leslie Regan Shade (Canada), Michele White (USA).

422 citations


"Research Ethics in the Digital Age:..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...…codes of conduct and ethics codes are: Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee, Version 2 (Markham & Buchanan, 2012); Ethik-Kodex der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie (DGS) und des Berufsverbandes Deutscher Soziologinnen und…...

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  • ...Ethics is both an area of research within the arts and humanities (‘Geisteswissenschaften’ in German) in which theories concerning the reflection on actions are developed – which help checking the validity of justifica4 Examples of codes of conduct and ethics codes are: Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee, Version 2 (Markham & Buchanan, 2012); Ethik-Kodex der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie (DGS) und des Berufsverbandes Deutscher Soziologinnen und Soziologen (BDS) (2014)....

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