scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity

01 Oct 1990-Development and Psychopathology (Cambridge University Press)-Vol. 2, Iss: 4, pp 425-444
TL;DR: This paper reviewed the research on resilience in order to delineate its significance and potential for understanding normal development and concluded that children who experience chronic adversity fare better or recover more successfully when they have a positive relationship with a competent adult, they are good learners and problem-solvers, engaging to other people, and they have areas of competence and perceived efficacy valued by self or society.
Abstract: This article reviews the research on resilience in order to delineate its significance and potential for understanding normal development. Resilience refers to the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances. Three resilience phenomena are reviewed: (a) good outcomes in high-risk children, (b) sustained competence in children under stress, and (c) recovery from trauma. It is concluded that human psychological development is highly buffered and that long-lasting consequences of adversity usually are associated with either organic damage or severe interference in the normative protective processes embedded in the caregiving system. Children who experience chronic adversity fare better or recover more successfully when they have a positive relationship with a competent adult, they are good learners and problem-solvers, they are engaging to other people, and they have areas of competence and perceived efficacy valued by self or society. Future studies of resilience will need to focus on processes that facilitate adaptation. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the range and self-righting properties of, constraints on, and linkages among different aspects of cognitive, emotional, and social development.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Social cognitive theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort.
Abstract: The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive influence, and self-reflectiveness about one's capabilities, quality of functioning, and the meaning and purpose of one's life pursuits. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. Social cognitive theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Growing transnational embeddedness and interdependence are placing a premium on collective efficacy to exercise control over personal destinies and national life.

11,235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical appraisal of resilience, a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by individuals despite experiences of significant adversity, concludes that work on resilience possesses substantial potential for augmenting the understanding of processes affecting at-risk individuals.
Abstract: This paper presents a critical appraisal of resilience, a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by individuals despite experiences of significant adversity. As empirical research on resilience has burgeoned in recent years, criticisms have been levied at work in this area. These critiques have generally focused on ambiguities in definitions and central terminology; heterogeneity in risks experienced and competence achieved by individuals viewed as resilient; instability of the phenomenon of resilience; and concerns regarding the usefulness of resilience as a theoretical construct. We address each identified criticism in turn, proposing solutions for those we view as legitimate and clarifying misunderstandings surrounding those we believe to be less valid. We conclude that work on resilience possesses substantial potential for augmenting the understanding of processes affecting at-risk individuals. Realization of the potential embodied by this construct, however, will remain constrained without continued scientific attention to some of the serious conceptual and methodological pitfalls that have been noted by skeptics and proponents alike.

7,392 citations


Cites background or result from "Resilience and development: Contrib..."

  • ...Such attention to underlying mechanisms is viewed as essential for advancing theory and research in the field, as well as for designing appropriate prevention and intervention strategies for individuals facing adversity (Cicchetti & Toth, 1991, 1992; Luthar, 1993; Masten et al., 1990; Rutter, 1990)....

    [...]

  • ...Additional confusion between process versus trait may derive from the occasional use of the term “resilient children,” even by scholars who conceptualize resilience as a dynamic process (e.g., Masten et al., 1990; Rutter, 1993; Werner, 1984)....

    [...]

  • ...Masten and her colleagues (Masten, 1994; Masten et al., 1990) have distinguished among three groups of resilient phenomena: those where (1) at-risk individuals show better-than-expected outcomes, (2) positive adaptation is maintained despite the occurrence of stressful experiences, and (3) there is…...

    [...]

  • ...Besides being misinformed and unwarranted, such perspectives do little to illuminate processes underlying resilience or to guide the design of appropriate interventions (Masten et al., 1990; Reynolds, 1998; Tarter & Vanyukov, 1999)....

    [...]

  • ...Reviews of the relatively small though burgeoning literature (see, e.g., Cicchetti & Garmezy, 1993; Luthar & Zigler, 1991; Masten et al., 1990; Masten & Coatsworth, 1995, 1998; Rutter, 1990; Werner, 1990, 1995) have indicated synchronous evidence regarding many correlates of resilience (protective factors) across multiple studies that have used varying measurement strategies....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of resilience suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems.
Abstract: The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology.

5,961 citations


Cites background from "Resilience and development: Contrib..."

  • ...These include connections to competent and caring adults in the family and community, cognitive and self-regulation skills, positive views of self, and motivation to be effective in the environment (Garmezy, 1985; Luthar et al., 2000; Masten et al., 1990; Masten & Coatsworth, 1998; Masten & Reed, in press; Wyman, Sandier, Wolchik, & Nelson, 2000)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To build collective resilience, communities must reduce risk and resource inequities, engage local people in mitigation, create organizational linkages, boost and protect social supports, and plan for not having a plan, which requires flexibility, decision-making skills, and trusted sources of information that function in the face of unknowns.
Abstract: Communities have the potential to function effectively and adapt successfully in the aftermath of disasters. Drawing upon literatures in several disciplines, we present a theory of resilience that encompasses contemporary understandings of stress, adaptation, wellness, and resource dynamics. Community resilience is a process linking a network of adaptive capacities (resources with dynamic attributes) to adaptation after a disturbance or adversity. Community adaptation is manifest in population wellness, defined as high and non-disparate levels of mental and behavioral health, functioning, and quality of life. Community resilience emerges from four primary sets of adaptive capacities—Economic Development, Social Capital, Information and Communication, and Community Competence—that together provide a strategy for disaster readiness. To build collective resilience, communities must reduce risk and resource inequities, engage local people in mitigation, create organizational linkages, boost and protect social supports, and plan for not having a plan, which requires flexibility, decision-making skills, and trusted sources of information that function in the face of unknowns.

3,592 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Signals are drawn from studies of naturally occurring resilience among children at risk because of disadvantage or trauma and also from efforts to deliberately alter the course of competence through early childhood education and preventive interventions.
Abstract: The development of competence holds great interest for parents and society alike. This article considers implications from research on competence and resilience in children and adolescents for policy and interventions designed to foster better outcomes among children at risk. Foundations of competence in early development are discussed, focusing on the role of attachment relationships and self-regulation. Results from studies of competence in the domains of peer relations, conduct, school, work, and activities are highlighted. Lessons are drawn from studies of naturally occurring resilience among children at risk because of disadvantage or trauma and also from efforts to deliberately alter the course of competence through early childhood education and preventive interventions. Converging evidence suggests that the same powerful adaptive systems protect development in both favorable and unfavorable environments.

3,034 citations

References
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1969

18,243 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism in human agency is discussed in this paper, where the influential role of perceived collective effi- cacy in social change is analyzed, as are the social con- ditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy.
Abstract: This article addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Self-per- cepts of efficacy influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the perfor- mance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. Different lines of research are reviewed, show- ing that the self-efficacy mechanism may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to ac- count for such diverse phenomena as changes in coping behavior produced by different modes of influence, level of physiological stress reactions, self-regulation of refractory behavior, resignation and despondency to failure experiences, self-debilitating effects of proxy control and illusory inefficaciousness, achievement strivings, growth of intrinsic interest, and career pur- suits. The influential role of perceived collective effi- cacy in social change is analyzed, as are the social con- ditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy. Psychological theorizing and research tend to cen- ter on issues concerning either acquisition of knowledge or execution of response patterns. As a result the processes governing the interrelation- ship between knowledge and action have been largely neglected (Newell, 1978). Some of the re- cent efforts to bridge this gap have been directed at the biomechanics problem—how efferent com- mands of action plans guide the production of ap- propriate response patterns (Stelmach, 1976,1978). Others have approached the matter in terms of algorithmic knowledge, which furnishes guides for executing action sequences (Greeno, 1973; Newell, 1973). ,

14,898 citations


"Resilience and development: Contrib..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Selfefficacy may function protectively by motivating attempts at adaptation, in contrast to the passivity that often accompanies despair (Bandura, 1982, 1986)....

    [...]

  • ...Effective parents may generate or increase self-efficacy in multiple ways by mechanisms suggested by Bandura (1982) and others (Amato & Ochiltree, 1986): they may model effective action, provide opportunities for their children to experience mastery, and verbally persuade their children of the…...

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a comprehensive theory of human motivation and action from a social cognitive perspective, and address the prominent roles played by cognitive vicarious self regulatory and self reflective processes in psychosocial functioning emphasizing reciprocal causation through the interplay of cognitive behavioral and environmental factors.
Abstract: bandura a 1986 social foundation of thought and, presents a comprehensive theory of human motivation and action from a social cognitive perspective this insightful text addresses the prominent roles played by cognitive vicarious self regulatory and self reflective processes in psychosocial functioning emphasizes reciprocal causation through the interplay of cognitive behavioral and environmental factors and systematically applies the, presents a comprehensive theory of human motivation and action from a social cognitive perspective this insightful text addresses the prominent roles played by cognitive vicarious self regulatory and self reflective processes in psychosocial functioning emphasizes reciprocal causation through the interplay of cognitive behavioral and environmental factors and systematically applies the,

9,060 citations


"Resilience and development: Contrib..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Selfefficacy may function protectively by motivating attempts at adaptation, in contrast to the passivity that often accompanies despair (Bandura, 1982, 1986)....

    [...]

Journal Article

5,680 citations


"Resilience and development: Contrib..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Attachment theory offers another perspective on the processes by which responsive parenting may lead to self-efficacy (Bowlby, 1969; Sroufe, 1979): good care leads the child to view the self as a lovable, worthwhile person; it provides a "secure base" for exploration, thereby increasing the…...

    [...]

  • ...spective on the processes by which responsive parenting may lead to self-efficacy (Bowlby, 1969; Sroufe, 1979): good care leads the child to view the self as a lovable, worthwhile person; it provides a "secure...

    [...]

01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: reduction of risk impact, reduction of negative chain reactions, establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and opening up of opportunities.
Abstract: The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: reduction of risk impact, reduction of negative chain reactions, establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and opening up of opportunities. The mechanisms operating at key turning points in people's lives must be given special attention.

5,519 citations


"Resilience and development: Contrib..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Garmezy rather than factors has been convincingly articulated by Rutter (1985, 1987, 1990)....

    [...]