# Resistivity and Hall effect of copper films before and after adsorption of carbon monoxide

TL;DR: In this paper, the dependence of the resistivity and the Hall effect of copper films on the method of film preparation and the film thickness has been studied before and after adsorption of carbon monoxide.

About: This article is published in Thin Solid Films.The article was published on 1975-07-01. It has received 47 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Hall effect & Electrical resistivity and conductivity.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of the adsorption on the resistance of thin film electrodes, including adsorptions processes of ions, organic compounds, oxygen, hydrogen and underpotential deposition, is discussed.

63 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of specific adsorption on the in situ resistance measurement were studied using polycrystalline gold film electrodes of various thicknesses, and a differential technique was developed where the instantaneous changes in the electrode resistance are correlated to the voltammetric current in linear sweep voltammetry.

36 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors measured the resistivity and the thermoelectric power of palladium films as functions of the thickness, the annealing temperature and the measuring temperature.

29 citations

10 Oct 2013

TL;DR: In this paper, the magnetic microstructure of domain walls located at the bend of soft magnetic V-shaped nanowires were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA).

Abstract: This thesis deals with three topics in the field of research of magnetogalvanic effects in ferromagnets of reduced dimensions. The first subject concerns the magnetic microstructure of domain walls located at the bend of soft magnetic V-shaped nanowires. Three different types of domain walls were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) and obtained from micromagnetic simulations, namely, the symmetric and asymmetric transverse domain wall as well as the vortex domain wall, that are well known from a straight wire geometry. The implementation of a symmetry breaking bend affects the spatial potential landscape while the details of the pinning behavior of the domain walls at the bend derive from the topology of their microstructures. The dependence of the preponderant domain wall type on bending angle reveals that, besides the wire’s dimensions, the bending angle is a further parameter to adjust the wall type on purpose. Concerning vortex domain walls it is shown that the sense of magnetization rotation around the vortex core, which was found to be inherently linked to the position of the core with respect to the wire’s bisection, is tunable via magnetic seeding fields that are slightly tilted out of the symmetry axis of the wire. The possibility to intentionally control the vortex wall properties gives a high flexibility for future concepts of vortex-based memory devices. The second project of this thesis introduces a method that enables the investigation of the magnetization reversal of individual nanomagnets with lateral dimensions of & 100 nm by means of magnetotransport. The method consists of the preparation of micro-circuits including the creation of the nanomagnet from a laterally homogeneous metallic stack by means of focused ion beam (FIB) technique and allows the subsequent in situ magnetoresistance (MR) investigation utilizing a micromanipulator under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The top-down creation of the nanomagnet is based on rendering the surrounding metal paramagnetically by means of ion beaminduced mixing of the material layers of the stack. Importantly, as the paramagnetic material constitutes the input leads it has to maintain a good electrical conductance to guarantee a high sensitivity for the magnetogalvanic effects of the nanomagnet. In order to find adequate stacks an in situ MR method for characterizing the influence of ion-bombardment on the electrical and magnetic properties was developed. This method was applied for different stacks containing a 20 nm thick soft magnetic permalloy layer. The best suited stack was used to demonstrate the potential and sensitivity of the MR investigations of individual nanomagnets in the case of rectangular prisms (rectangles) with lateral dimensions of 600× 300 nm, 800× 400 nm, and 1000×500 nm. The remagnetization behavior of the two generic cases with the magnetic field applied perpendicularly (hard axis) and in parallel (easy axis) to the long axis of the rectangles obtained from single field cycles is analyzed by utilizing the anisotropic MR (AMR). Reversible and irreversible remagnetization processes are quantified and unambiguously assigned to the involved micromagnetic states. The main result is that the energy density of the micromagnetic Landau state can be obtained from the hard axis remagnetization behavior, in accordance with domain theoretical considerations and micromagnetic simulations. The third subject of this thesis deals with comprehensive investigations of the MR of

27 citations

### Cites background from "Resistivity and Hall effect of copp..."

...For instance, regarding Cu films an increase [879, 880] or decrease [881] of the absolute value of R0 with decreasing film thickness was observed....

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##### References

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Royal Society

^{1}TL;DR: The mean free path of electrons in metals has been studied in this paper, where the authors show that electrons follow a straight line along the path of the electron in the metal atom.

Abstract: (2001). The mean free path of electrons in metals. Advances in Physics: Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 499-537.

2,273 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the total resistivity of a thin metal film is calculated from a model in which three types of electron scattering mechanisms are simultaneously operative: an isotropic background scattering (due to the combined effects of phonons and point defects), scattering due to a distribution of planar potentials (grain boundaries), and scattering by the external surfaces.

Abstract: In this paper, the total resistivity of a thin metal film is calculated from a model in which three types of electron scattering mechanisms are simultaneously operative: an isotropic background scattering (due to the combined effects of phonons and point defects), scattering due to a distribution of planar potentials (grain boundaries), and scattering due to the external surfaces. The intrinsic or bulk resistivity is obtained by solving a Boltzmann equation in which both grain-boundary and background scattering are accounted for. The total resistivity is obtained by imposing boundary conditions due to the external surfaces (as in the Fuchs theory) on this Boltzmann equation. Interpretation of published data on grain-boundary scattering in bulk materials in terms of the calculated intrinsic resistivity, and of thin-film data in terms of the calculated total resistivity suggests that (i) the grain-boundary reflection coefficient in Al is \ensuremath{\approx} 0.15, while it is somewhat higher in Cu; (ii) the observed thickness dependence of the resistivity in thin films is due to grain-boundary scattering as well as to the Fuchs size effect; and (iii) the common observation that single-crystal films possess lower resistivities than polycrystalline films may be accounted for by grain-boundary effects rather than by differences in the nature of surface scattering.

1,842 citations

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26 May 2012

TL;DR: In this article, the Hall Effect is defined as a low temperature effect on the conductivity tensor of an electron in the presence of a small number of open ornaments.

Abstract: 1 The Dynamics of Electrons in Metals: Low-Temperature Effects...- 1.1. Theoretical Conditions.- 1.2. Definition of the Hall Effect.- 1.3. Semiclassical Electronic Motion with Electric and Magnetic Fields.- 1.3.1. Compensation in Metals.- 1.4. Quantum Effects.- 1.4.1. Quantum Oscillations.- 1.4.2. Magnetic Breakdown.- 1.5. Size Effects.- 1.5.1. Classical Size Effects.- 1.5.2. Quantum Size Effects.- 2 The Hall Effect in Limiting Cases.- 2.1. The Hall Effect in the Classical High-Field Limit.- 2.1.1. The Hall Effect with No Open Orbits.- 2.1.2. The Hall Effect with Open Orbits.- 2.1.3. Chambers' Expression for the Conductivity Tensor.- 2.2. The Hall Effect in the Low-Field Limit.- 2.2.1. The Case with Localized Magnetic Moments.- 2.2.2. The Low-Field Spin Component.- 2.3. The Hall Effect in the Two-Band Model.- 3 The Hall Effect in Nearly-Free-Electron Metals.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. The Harrison Construction.- 3.3. The Examples of Al and In.- 3.3.1. Case of the High-Field Limit.- 3.3.2. Case of the Low-Field Limit.- 3.3.3. Case of the Intermediate-Field Region.- 4 The Hall Effect in Group 1B Metals.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. The Hall Effect in the Pure Group 1B Metals.- 4.2.1. The Dependence of R on Magnetic Field.- 4.2.2. The Dependence of R on Temperature.- 4.3. The Hall Effect in Very Dilute Alloys.- 4.4. The Hall Effect in Alloys with B-Metal Solutes.- 5 The Hall Effect in Magnetic Metals.- 5.1. Phenomenological Aspects.- 5.2. Some Conduction-Electron Spin Interactions.- 5.3. Survey of the Theoretical Developments.- 5.3.1. Theories with Itinerant Magnetic Carriers.- 5.3.2. Theories with Localized Magnetic Carriers.- 6Experimental Techniques and the Hall Effect in Unusual Conditions.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Sources of Error.- 6.3. Methods with Electrical Contact to the Sample.- 6.3.1. dc Methods.- 6.3.2. ac Methods.- 6.4. Methods without Contacts.- 6.5. Measurements under Unusual Conditions.- 6.5.1. Measurements at High Pressures.- 6.5.2. Measurements on Liquid Metals.- 6.5.3. The Hall Effect in Superconductors.- 7 A Guide to the Literature for Metallic Elements and Binary Metallic Alloys.- Appendix A Derivation of Expression (2.59).- Appendix B Units and Conversion Factors.- Notes Added in Proof.- Author Index.

667 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the shape of the Fermi surface is made to depend on a single parameter which can be interpreted as the pseudo-potential of the {111} atomic planes acting on an orthogonalized plane wave, giving rise to an energy gap of 5-10 ev at the zone boundaries.

Abstract: The Fermi Surfaces in Cu, Ag and Au are now known to be greatly distorted, with thick ‘necks’ passing through the zone boundaries. In this paper we enquire whether such an electronic structure is quantitatively consistent with the observed transport coefficients. The mathematical model is quite simple; the shape of the Fermi surface is made to depend on a single parameter which can be interpreted as the pseudo-potential of the {111} atomic planes acting on an orthogonalized plane wave, giving rise to an energy gap of 5–10 ev at the zone boundaries. Various integrals over the Fermi surface can then be evaluated by elementary methods, and compared with the corresponding experimental quantities. The electronic specific heat and optical mass in the pure metals are consistent with the model. The galvanomagnetic effects are shown to depend a great deal on the anisotropy of the electron relaxation time, whose variation with energy is also probably the electron relaxation time, whose variation with energ...

165 citations

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General Electric

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the relative amount of $s$-wave to $p$wave scattering by impurities is important and that Umklapp processes play a major role in phonon scattering.

Abstract: The ratio of the relaxation times on the "belly" and on the "necks" of the Fermi surface is estimated numerically by very crude methods. It is shown that the relative amount of $s$-wave to $p$-wave scattering by impurities is important and that Umklapp processes play a major role in phonon scattering. The ratio depends on impurity type and on temperature in just the right way to explain qualitatively the variation of the Hall coefficient in the metals and their alloys.

112 citations