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Journal ArticleDOI

Response of a half-car model with optimal magnetorheological damper parameters

01 Feb 2016-Journal of Vibration and Control (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 22, Iss: 3, pp 784-798
TL;DR: It is observed that the MR damper suspension systems with optimal parameters perform an order of magnitude better than the passive suspension and perform as well as active suspensions with limited state feedback, and closer to the performance of fully active suspensions.
Abstract: In this paper, control of the stationary response of a half-car model with a magnetorheological (MR) damper moving over a random road is considered. The MR damper is characterized using Bingham and...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that the proposed system significantly improves both, the vibration attenuation ability and the ride quality of the vehicle.
Abstract: In this paper, Bouc–Wen type magnetorheological fluid damper has been used to monitor the ride quality of a prevailing rail vehicle in lateral vibrations. Modelling of the rail vehicle is done in such a manner that it has an entire 9 degrees of freedom by significant considerations of lateral, roll and yaw motions of the car body, rear, and the front chassis. 200 km/h is considered as train speed for tracks with two varying disturbances. A system consisting of multibody in VI-rail software is provided by a track input and ergo, wheel response it obtained. SIMULINK (software) is responsible for the representation of the motions of the wheel as mathematical models. Two different types of analysis are done firstly with conventional passive lateral damper and secondly with semi-active MR lateral damper in subordinate suspension. To diminish lateral vibrations, the disturbance refusal and non-stop state controller algorithms were executed to manage the damper force. Results acquired are in the form of acceleration and displacement of the center of mass of the body under consideration is done by comparing in terms of reduction indices of their vibrations. A significant improvement in the index is seen in which a semi-active lateral damper is mounted. The results show that the proposed system significantly improves both, the vibration attenuation ability and the ride quality of the vehicle.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main aim of this paper is to study the effects that may appear in the closed-loop performance of an automotive suspension system when the damper model is unable to represent crucial nonlinear MR phenomena.
Abstract: Recently, automotive industry has adopted semi-active damper systems to improve handling and comfort properties of vehicles. Nowadays, Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers are among the most effective solutions; with the control algorithm used for their operation being a key element. While basic controllers do not require mathematical damper models, improved performance can be achieved if these are available. Usually, the accuracy of a particular set of models can be assessed by evaluating standard quantitative metrics. However, two models with similar error-metrics can still have widely different qualitative properties. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to study the effects that may appear in the closed-loop performance of an automotive suspension system when the damper model is unable to represent crucial nonlinear MR phenomena. To highlight the model influence on the controller synthesis and subsequently on the suspension performance, two damper models with different accuracy levels were chosen: an ANN-based model is compared with the classical Bingham model. First, their accuracy is experimentally validated using typical error-metrics. Afterwards, the same suspension control strategy is designed using both models. Frequency-Estimation-Based control was selected because it better exploits available model data than other typical strategies such as sky-hook. The resulting performance is assessed with a software-in-the-loop approach using CarSim and complemented with a hardware-in-the-loop implementation using a CAN-bus, both closed-loop control cases use a Simulation-Oriented ANN model as benchmark to represent the MR damper nonlinearities. Results show that although the difference in error-metrics between models can be small using typical identification methods (e.g. 16% in one scenario), suspension performance in comfort and road-holding are significantly different. Error-metrics can be deceptive for assessing the effectiveness of MR damper models during the controller design phase. Accurate qualitative modeling in the pre/post-yield regions are the main factors which determine the resulting controller performance.

13 citations


Cites background from "Response of a half-car model with o..."

  • ...In this context it could be argued that an optimal MR damper model (for controller design) will be that which allows designing high-performance model-based controllers, regardless of the level of model accuracy reported by any particular quantitative measure (Prabakar et al 2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The work presents results of the analysis of a quarter-car model with a modified twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber. In comparison with a classical damper, this shock absorber possesses an additional double-chamber cylinder. The flow of oil into these chambers is controlled by relative displacement of the auxiliary piston and by pressure difference in the adjacent chambers. The introduced nonlinear spring element – bumper – protects the shock absorber against damage in the case of large amplitudes of excitations. Performance efficiency of the shock absorber model within the range of both large amplitudes and high excitation frequencies ensures that the change of the oil bulk modulus resulting from a change in pressure is accounted for. The introduction of additional chambers into the shock absorber leads to a change in the characteristics of the damping force. Within the range of small amplitudes and high frequencies the system acts like a shock absorber with a soft characteristic, which improves the driving comfort. In resonance ranges the increase in the damping force ensures higher driving safety. The analysis of the system response to the harmonic excitation of variable frequency and amplitude as well as to the random excitation permits to examine the impact of excitation parameters and construction parameters on the indicators characterizing the driving comfort and safety. The results of numerical simulations are illustrated with the graphs of time histories, spectral analyses, characteristics of the damping force, and others, illustrating the processes of controlling oil flow.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
04 Dec 2017-Applied Sciences
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that, compared with the open-loop system, the proposed algorithm can reduce motion oscillation to a satisfied extent when unloading torque for shifting in a Motor-Transmission Integrated System.
Abstract: As there is no clutch or hydraulic torque converter in electric vehicles to buffer and absorb torsional vibrations. Oscillation will occur in electric vehicle drivetrains when drivers tip in/out or are shifting. In order to improve vehicle response to transients, reduce vehicle jerk and reduce wear of drivetrain parts, torque step changes should be avoided. This article mainly focuses on drivetrain oscillations caused by torque interruption for shifting in a Motor-Transmission Integrated System. It takes advantage of the motor responsiveness, an optimal active control method is presented to reduce oscillations by adjusting motor torque output dynamically. A rear-wheel-drive electric vehicle with a two gear automated manual transmission is considered to set up dynamic differential equations based on Newton’s law of motion. By linearization of the affine system, a joint genetic algorithm and linear quadratic regulator method is applied to calculate the real optimal motor torque. In order to improve immediacy of the control system, time consuming optimization process of parameters is completed off-line. The active control system is tested in AMEsim® and limitation of motor external characteristics are considered. The results demonstrate that, compared with the open-loop system, the proposed algorithm can reduce motion oscillation to a satisfied extent when unloading torque for shifting.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Implementation results are showed that the performance of the fractional-order PID controller is much better that PID controller and also instead of relatively complex and expensive controller, it is possible to use fractionsal- order PID controller for the problem.
Abstract: This research is based on the determination of the parameters of the PID and fractional-order PID controllers designed for quarter-car suspension system. Initially, without considering the active suspension structure, the performance of the passive suspension system under different wheel load index is presented by using the transfer function of the system. Then, by adding a wheel-load, the classical PID controller is designed and applied to the current controlled hydraulic actuator as a part of active suspension system. The parameters of this controller are determined by three heuristic optimization algorithms; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE) and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA). As the second part of this study after evaluating the performance of classical PID controller, fractional-order PID controller is designed and applied to the problem to improve the performance of the classical PID controller. Similarly, the parameters of this controller are also obtained by using the same optimization algorithms. In the paper, for modeling the road, instead of sinusoidal (road with hill) or random changes, a saw tooth signal is preferred as a relatively harder condition. Implementation results are showed that the performance of the fractional-order PID controller is much better that PID controller and also instead of relatively complex and expensive controller, it is possible to use fractional-order PID controller for the problem.

4 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 2001-
TL;DR: This text provides an excellent introduction to the use of evolutionary algorithms in multi-objective optimization, allowing use as a graduate course text or for self-study.
Abstract: From the Publisher: Evolutionary algorithms are relatively new, but very powerful techniques used to find solutions to many real-world search and optimization problems. Many of these problems have multiple objectives, which leads to the need to obtain a set of optimal solutions, known as effective solutions. It has been found that using evolutionary algorithms is a highly effective way of finding multiple effective solutions in a single simulation run. · Comprehensive coverage of this growing area of research · Carefully introduces each algorithm with examples and in-depth discussion · Includes many applications to real-world problems, including engineering design and scheduling · Includes discussion of advanced topics and future research · Features exercises and solutions, enabling use as a course text or for self-study · Accessible to those with limited knowledge of classical multi-objective optimization and evolutionary algorithms The integrated presentation of theory, algorithms and examples will benefit those working and researching in the areas of optimization, optimal design and evolutionary computing. This text provides an excellent introduction to the use of evolutionary algorithms in multi-objective optimization, allowing use as a graduate course text or for self-study.

11,886 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Semiactive control devices have received significant attention in recent years because they offer the adaptability of active control devices without requiring the associated large power sources. Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are semiactive control devices that use MR fluids to produce controllable dampers. They potentially offer highly reliable operation and can be viewed as fail-safe in that they become passive dampers should the control hardware malfunction. To develop control algorithms that take full advantage of the unique features of the MR damper, models must be developed that can adequately characterize the damper's intrinsic nonlinear behavior. Following a review of several idealized mechanical models for controllable fluid dampers, a new model is proposed that can effectively portray the behavior of a typical MR damper. Comparison with experimental results for a prototype damper indicates that the model is accurate over a wide range of operating conditions and is adequate for control design an...

1,784 citations


"Response of a half-car model with o..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the parametric approach, the MR damper has been modeled using the Bingham model, the viscoelastic-plastic model, the Bouc–Wen and modified Bouc–Wen models (Spencer et al., 1997) etc. and the model parameters are estimated experimentally by matching the experimental behaviour with model behaviour....

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  • ...In the parametric approach, the MR damper has been modeled using the Bingham model, the viscoelastic-plastic model, the Bouc–Wen and modified Bouc–Wen models (Spencer et al., 1997) etc....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A type of force generator which can respond to general feedback signals from a vibrating system in order to control the vibration but which does not require the power supply of a servomechanism is described.
Abstract: A type of force generator which can respond to general feedback signals from a vibrating system in order to control the vibration but which does not require the power supply of a servomechanism is described. Computer simulation studies show that performance comparable to that of fully active vibration control systems can be achieved with the semi-active type of device. Physical embodiments of the concept are discussed and compared to hardware used in active and passive vibration control systems.

1,217 citations


"Response of a half-car model with o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Karnopp et al. (1974) were the earliest to propose semi-active suspension systems as alternatives to active suspension systems....

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Journal ArticleDOI

433 citations


"Response of a half-car model with o..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the nonparametric approach, the MR damper is modeled by combining a series of differential equations that realize the dynamic behaviour of the MR damper (Choi et al., 2001; Song et al., 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
G Z Yao1, Fook Fah Yap1, G Chen1, Weihua Li1, S H Yeo1 
01 Sep 2002-Mechatronics
Abstract: In this paper, a semi-active control of vehicle suspension system with magnetorheological (MR) damper is presented. At first a MR damper working in flow mode is designed. Performance testing is done for this damper with INSTRON machine. Then a mathematical model, Bouc–Wen model, is adopted to characterize the performance of the MR damper. With optimization method in MATLAB® and experimental results of MR damper, the coefficients of the model are determined. Finally, a scaled quarter car model is set up including the model of the MR damper and a semi-active control strategy is adopted to control the vibration of suspension system. Simulation results show that with the semi-active control the vibration of suspension system is well controlled.

410 citations


10


Additional excerpts

  • ...MR dampers have also been used in vehicle suspension systems as semiactive devices by a number of authors (Ahmadian and Pare, 2000; Liao and Lai, 2002; Yao et al., 2002; Du et al., 2005; Sassi et al., 2005; Tusset et al., 2009; Crews et al., 2011)....

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