TL;DR: This concept analysis has clarified current understandings and enhance the clarity of return migration concept and recognises the centrality of return as a component in migration stage that needs a comprehensive approach.
Abstract: Background: Return migration is a complex, challenging phenomenon and to date it remains a concept that is not well understood. A concept analysis would help to clarify what is meant by return migration. This paper aims to report on an analysis of the concept of return migration of nurses.
Design: Concept analysis using the Walker and Avant approach.
Data Sources: Google Scholar, Pubmed, EBSCO, JSTOR and Web of Science databases were searched without a timeframe. Twenty-one articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included.
Method: This study employs eight steps of Walker and Avant’s method to conduct the concept analysis.
Results: Return migration of nurses can be defined by five attributes: the motivation and decisions of migrant nurse, return as human right, resource mobilisation, reintegration and return itineraries. Antecedents of return migration include the economic, social, geographical, political, family and life cycle that comprise the cause and eRect framework. With regards to return migration, the consequences are beneficial or detrimental depend on the point of view migrant nurses, source country, receiving country, nursing profession and country health system. Empirical referents have been identified and support potential area to undertake a research on return migration.
Conclusion: This concept analysis has clarified current understandings and enhance the clarity of return migration concept. It recognises the centrality of return as a component in migration stage that needs a comprehensive approach.
Abstract: Historically, international migration has been considered to be both unidirectional and permanent; however, return-migration is an emergent phenomenon that has been drawing more attention, particularly in healthcare. According to Efendi et al. the global migration of healthcare workers continues to increase, yet “there is increasing evidence showing that migrants are returning to their country of origin” (2018, p. 199), an observation that calls for further study. Return-migration has brought about tension for overseas Filipino nurses as they consider various conditions that motivate their return to the Philippines. This comparative case-study examined demographic variables and environmental conditions which influence the magnitude and direction of return migration for Filipino nurses employed in the North-America Sub-Group (U.S./Canada) and the Middle-East Sub-Group (KSA/UAE). Data from the annual Survey of Overseas Filipino Workers (SOF) was used to create a three-block logistic regression model to identify demographic variables that influence return migration. The models implied (1) that an older person was more likely to return; (2) the head of the household is more likely to return than the other members of the household; (3) a migrantworker deployed to the Middle-East Sub-Group is 2.4 times more likely to return than a migrantworker going to the North-America Sub-Group; (4) a migrant-worker who receives in-kind good is more like to return than the person who did not receive any goods; and (5) a migrant who received financial remittance is less likely to return. Although the logistic regression models are statistically significant, the models do not very accurately explain a nurse returning to the Philippines. Rather the models are much better at explaining why nurses do not return to the
Cites background from "Return migration of nurses: a conce..."
Most countries “lack a system to track returnees;” however, “countries convey a message that
there is a need of established tools to measure the return migration” (Efendi et al., 2018, p. 202)....
...…study of return-
migration highlights an emergent phenomenon that differentiates international migration today
from that of the previous century, where migration was assumed to be permanent and
unidirectional (Agunias, 2006; Dustmann & Weiss, 2007; Efendi et al., 2018; Iredale, 2001; Lee,
nurses employed in the United States (US), Canada, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the
United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Castro-Palaganas et al., 2017; Cortés & Pan, 2012; Cortez, Del
Rosario, & Diño, 2016; Efendi et al., 2018; Lorenzo, Galvez-Tan, Icamina, & Javier, 2007)....
Abstract: Introduction: Nurse turnover is a problem linked to low job satisfaction and organizational commitment; therefore, appropriate nurse retention strategy from nursing managers and human resource is needed. This study aims to explain the effects of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on nurse retention. Methods: This systematic review uses registration protocol from The Joanna Briggs Institute Guideline as a guide in the quality assessment of the summarized studies. Studies using the PICOS Framework were sourced from the following databases: Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, EBSCOhost, JSTOR, SAGE, and ProQuest, published between 2010-2020, the study design was limited to cross-sectional, quasi-experiment, and randomized control trials. The feasibility study assessment used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal; the search keywords were adjusted according to the Medical Subject Headings and Boolean operators. The selection results are displayed in the PRISMA flow chart. Results: The initial search of the entire database found 8059 articles, then several duplication screenings of titles 30 articles were extracted. A feasibility assessment was carried out so that the remaining 25 articles were divided into two themes, namely job satisfaction and organizational commitment, each of which can affect nurse retention. According to this study, organizational commitment has a broader dimension of job satisfaction. Conclusion: Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have an influence on nurse retention; both are of concern for nurse managers to create effective nurse retention strategy.
Cites background from "Return migration of nurses: a conce..."
...One of the causes of nurse turnover is low nurse job satisfaction, triggering nurses to look for other work alternatives or moving workplaces to obtain satisfaction and comfort at work (Dotson, 2014; Efendi et al., 2018; Kovner, Brewer, Fatehi, & Jun, 2014; North et al., 2013; Osuji et al., 2014)....
Abstract: Background International migration of healthcare workers is a global phenomenon driven by growing demand in developed countries and expectations of healthcare workers from developing countries to have improved employment and lives. This migration has been understood to impact both the individuals and countries involved, with positive and negative consequences. However, little is known about returnees' experiences that could be used to address challenges and optimize benefits. The aim of this review was to understand what is known about experiences of migrant health workers after returning to their home countries. Methods A scoping review of primary research addressing experiences of migrant health workers upon their return to their homelands. A range of database were searched including Career and Technical Education Database via ProQuest, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Education database via ProQuest, Excerpta Medica Care (EMCare) via Ovid, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) via Ovid, MEDLINE and Scopus. A systematic process was performed guided by the work of Arksey and O'Malley. Eight databases were searched and 226 articles were retrieved. After screening articles and abstracts, 15 full-texts were assessed for eligibility, and finally seven studies were further analyzed and synthesized. Results Five qualitative studies, one quantitative study and one mixed methods study met inclusion criteria. Five themes emerged: (1) reasons to return, (2) upskilling and deskilling, (3) impact on human, financial, and social capital, (4) challenges and opportunities in the home country, and (5) facilitation supports. Conclusion Return migration is portrayed as a complex situation experienced by returnees. Structured policy and supports are required to help healthcare worker returnees prepare, and to adjust to life after their return. This study highlights the importance of comprehensive approach in return migration stage. Return migration policy should support healthcare worker returnees in their home country and facilitate utilization of their skills. Multi-stakeholder partnerships are vital to develop platforms for helping and facilitating returnees in the reintegration process at their home countries.
Abstract: Introduction: Pasung intervention of people with mental disorder still happened in the society. “Pasung Free Program” which has already designed in Indonesia since 2014 did not effective to wipe out Pasung behavior. There are still many people who are abused by Pasung behavior in Kulon Progo, Java Island, Indonesia with the various perception of society. The aims of this study examined the public perception of Pasung behavior in people with mental disorders. Method: This study used quantitative method by using symbolism interaction approach. There were 9 people who experienced pasung in their surroundings that became samples. Data was collected by using in-depth interviewing and socio-demographic questionnaire. Method that was used to analyze was analysis method such as 6 stages of Creswell analysis that was suitable with the used method. Result: The result of this study could become a theme. There were 8 themes came from two different perceptions. Perception of society resulted two themes namely 1) opinion about pasung behavior and 2) conclusion about pasung. External perception resulted six themes namely 1) the reason why pasung is allowed, 2) the reason why pasung is not acceptable, 3) pemasungan idea, 4) pemasungan method, 5) the society’s hope about people with mental disorder, and 6) the obstacle of health service. Conclusion: Society perception about mental disorder still not acceptable. Pasung program planning should be in line with free people with mental disorders program. The appearance of pasung behavior related to the increase of people with mental disorders.
TL;DR: There is new interest in the Philippines in identifying ways to mitigate the costs to the health system of nurse emigration, and many of the policy options being debated involve collaboration with countries recruiting Filipino nurses.
Abstract: Objectives: To describe nurse migration patterns in the Philippines and their benefits and costs. Principal Findings: The Philippines is a job-scarce environment and even for those with jobs in the health care sector poor working conditions often motivate nurses to seek employment overseas. The country has also become dependent on labor migration to ease the tight domestic labor market. National opinion has generally focused on the improved quality of life for individual migrants and their families and on the benefits of remittances to the nation. However a shortage of highly skilled nurses and the massive retraining of physicians to become nurses elsewhere has created severe problems for the Filipino health system including the closure of many hospitals. As a result policymakers are debating the need for new policies to manage migration such that benefits are also returned to the educational institutions and hospitals that are producing the emigrant nurses. Conclusions and Recommendations: There is new interest in the Philippines in identifying ways to mitigate the costs to the health system of nurse emigration. Many of the policy options being debated involve collaboration with those countries recruiting Filipino nurses. Bilateral agreements are essential for managing migration in such a way that both sending and receiving countries derive benefit from the exchange. (authors)
TL;DR: Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods, and nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses.
Abstract: Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration.
TL;DR: Two factors have had an impact on return migration to Jamaica: 1) the characteristics of the migrants in terms of skill level, experience, and attitudes and 2) the social and economic condition of the country itself.
Abstract: Return migration to Jamaica is associated closely with the existence and nature of the transnational linkages established between migrants and their home country, especially at the level of the household and family. Remittances invariably precede, accompany and follow the actual return of migrants and comprise money as well as a range of consumer goods.
Data on the number of returning migrants to Jamaica have been collected officially only since 1992; other information is derived from field studies. The figures show that the US is the source of most return migrants to Jamaica, with the United Kingdom second.
Likewise, there are few official statistics on remittances, especially of those entering the country through informal channels. Nevertheless, data on the receipt of money through the Bank of Jamaica, indicate that during the 1990s remittances as a percentage of GDP exceeded that of the traditional foreign currency earners of bauxite and sugar.
Growing awareness of the potential of the Jamaican overseas community has led the Government of Jamaica to establish programmes, including The Return of Talent programme, supported by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), to encourage the return of nationals.
Different types of return migrants have the potential to make different kinds of contributions to national development – some through their skills, educational and professional experience, others through the financial capital which they transfer for investment or as retirement income. However, the most significant development potential of return lies in the social and economic conditions in Jamaica itself. If confidence levels are high, there will be little difficulty in attracting persons to return and financial transfers and investments will increase. Furthermore, the social and economic environment largely conditions the extent to which skills and talent as well as the financial capital are effectively utilized.