Q1. What are the contributions in this paper?
The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. The authors also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. The complete Review is published online in a journal and on the website of the Particle Data Group ( http: //pdg. lbl. gov ). The printed PDG Book contains the Summary Tables and all review articles but no longer includes the detailed tables from the Particle Listings. A Booklet with the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the review articles is also available. The 2016 edition of Review of Particle Physics should be cited as: C. Patrignani et al. ( Particle Data Group ), Chinese Physics C, 40, 100001 ( 2016 ) c ©2016 Regents of the University of California ∗The publication of the Review of Particle Physics is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics of the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE–AC02–05CH11231 ; by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics ( CERN ) ; by an implementing arrangement between the governments of Japan ( MEXT: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ) and the United States ( DOE ) on cooperative research and development ; by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; and by the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics ( INFN ).
Q2. What is the way to get the values of a set of parameters?
In some cases, such as branching ratios or masses and mass differences, a constrained fit may be needed to obtain the best values of a set of parameters.
Q3. How many students from 500+ US high schools learn fundamental physics?
About 100,000 students from 500+ US high schools learn fundamental physics as they participate in inquiry-oriented investigations and analyze real data online.
Q4. How do the authors find the values of the fractions Pi?
Pi by minimizing the χ2 as a function of the m− 1 independent parameters:χ2 = Nr ∑r=1Nk ∑k=1(Rrk − RrδRrk)2, (3)where the Rrk are the measured values and Rr are the fitted values of the branching ratios.
Q5. What are the main areas of responsibility of the authors of the Particle Listings?
The Particle Listings also give information on unconfirmed particles and on particle searches, as well as reviews on subjects of particular interest or controversy.
Q6. How many full-text DOE sponsored STI reports are there?
SciTech Connect also has over 400,000 full-text DOE sponsored STI reports; most of these are post-1991, but over 140,000 of the reports were published prior to 1990.
Q7. What is the way to determine the ideogram's area?
since for this choice of area the height of the Gaussian for each measurement is proportional to (1/δ xi)2, the peak position of the ideogram will often favor the high-precision measurements at least as much as does the least-squares average.
Q8. What is the database of past, present and future conferences?
The database of more than 20,600 past, present and future conferences, schools, and meetings of interest to high-energy physics and related fields is searchable by title, acronym, series, date, location.
Q9. How many links do the ADS have?
The ADS’s search engine also indexes the full-text for approximately four million publications in this collection and tracks citations, which now amount to over 80 million links.
Q10. What is the common case of correlated errors?
Another common case of correlated errors occurs when experimenters measure two quantities and then quote the two and their difference, e.g., m1, m2, and ∆ = m2 − m1.
Q11. What is the free software suite for lattice QCD?
This freely available software suite provides a set of tools to be used in lattice QCD simulations, mainly a HMC implementation for Wilson and Wilson twisted mass fermions and inverter for different versions of the Dirac operator.
Q12. How many people are associated with particle physics?
People• INSPIRE HEPNames: Searchable worldwide database of over 112,000 people associated with particle physics and related fields.
Q13. What is the name of the LIGO Science Education Center?
LIGO Science Education Center: The LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) Science Education Center has over 40 interactive, hands-on exhibits that relate to the science of LIGO.
Q14. What is the procedure used to increase the errors?
To average data, the authors use a standard weighted least-squares procedure and in some cases, discussed below, increase the errors with a “scale factor.”