TL;DR: Ce bilan est un repertoire des accidents radiologiques les plus importants survenus pendant la periode 1945-1985 and qui sont presentes d’une facon sommaire.
Abstract: Ce bilan est un repertoire des accidents radiologiques les plus importants survenus pendant la periode 1945-1985 et qui sont presentes d’une facon sommaire. La plupart des informations incluses ont ete obtenues dans la bibliographie scientifique. Ce document est principalement destine aux professionnels qui travaillent dans le domaine de la surete des installations nucleaires et radioactives.
Abstract: As part of the preliminary design for a proposed nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to be located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. has made an extensive analysis of the environmental effects to the public from accidents occurring within the reprocessing complex. Each plant system was reviewed for its response to a spectrum of abnormal events, including natural phenomena, utility failures, equipment failures, operating errors, and process upsets. The analysis has shown that the plant is designed with sufficient confinement barriers and redundancy that in-plant accidents would not result in excessive radiation doses to the public. 2 figures, 1 table.
Abstract: During the Second World War, Canada made several important contributions to wartime nuclear research efforts. The three main contributions were: establishing a domestic nuclear research laboratory ...
TL;DR: This work of historic character and interest, examines the mechanical, physical, dosimetric and clinical aspects of the first criticality accident in history, the so called LA-1 (for Los Alamos-1) event, reference is made to the volume of literature this event has generated in the past 30 years and attempts to interpret this literature.
Abstract: This work of historic character and interest, examines the mechanical, physical, dosimetric and clinical aspects of the first criticality accident in history, the so called LA-1 (for Los Alamos-1) event, reference is made to the volume of literature this event has generated in the past 30 years and attempts are made to interpret this literature. On August 21 1945, the first uncontrolled criticality excursion in history occurred at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, in New Mexico. In 1952 Hempelmann published what until the mid 1960's was considered the definitive account of the accident. Subsequently, a number of then secret but recently declassified studies have seriously questioned Hempelmann's account. The accident occurred during the course of experiments with a subcritical 6.19 kg. sphere of Pu-239. The operator, aware of the risks, decided nevertheless to control the experiment manually since a reliable remote control mechanism was not available. The sphere was surrounded with enough tungsten carbide bricks of high neutron reflectivity to just bring the structure to criticality. For reasons that remain unclear to this day, the neutron flux increased abruptly and attempting to remove one of the bricks, the operator accidentally dropped it on top of the Pu sphere. The assembly instantly achieved prompt-criticality releasing such power that a bright blue light (Cerenkov radiation) illuminated the newspaper that a security guard was reading at distance of 4 m. The operator manually removed the fallen brick and the structure reverted to a subcritical state. Based on careful physical reconstructions and numerical simulations of the accident, the neutron-gamma exposure rate around the structure was estimated to be of the order of 10/sup 8/ R/sec. The operator was admitted to Los Alamos Hospital and within hours developed severe leukopenia (3000 mm/sup -1/) and was placed in a reverse isolation chamber with positive pressure. He was treated with high doses of antibiotics and blood coagulating agents, in addition to the administration of multiple blood transfusions. He expired on the 29/sup th/ day after the accident from generalized infection. The security guard survived for 33 years and his clinical evolution until death from acute myelogenous leukemia is presented.