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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/AJT.16474

Revisiting the changes in the Banff classification for antibody‐mediated rejection after kidney transplantation

04 Mar 2021-American Journal of Transplantation (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 21, Iss: 7, pp 2413-2423
Abstract: The Banff classification for antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) has undergone important changes, mainly by inclusion of C4d-negative ABMR in Banff'13 and elimination of suspicious ABMR (sABMR) with the use of C4d as surrogate for HLA-DSA in Banff'17. We aimed to evaluate the numerical and prognostic repercussions of these changes in a single-center cohort study of 949 single kidney transplantations, comprising 3662 biopsies that were classified according to the different versions of the Banff classification. Overall, the number of ABMR and sABMR cases increased from Banff'01 to Banff'13. In Banff'17, 248 of 292 sABMR biopsies were reclassified to No ABMR, and 44 of 292 to ABMR. However, reclassified sABMR biopsies had worse and better outcome than No ABMR and ABMR, which was mainly driven by the presence of microvascular inflammation and absence of HLA-DSA, respectively. Consequently, the discriminative performance for allograft failure was lowest in Banff'17, and highest in Banff'13. Our data suggest that the clinical and histological heterogeneity of ABMR is inadequately represented in a binary classification system. This study provides a framework to evaluate the updates of the Banff classification and assess the impact of proposed changes on the number of cases and risk stratification. Two alternative classifications introducing an intermediate category are explored.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-95714-Z
13 Aug 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Rejection after kidney transplantation remains an important cause of allograft failure that markedly impacts morbidity. Cytokines are a major player in rejection, and we, therefore, explored the impact of interleukin-6 (IL6) and IL-6 receptor (IL6R) gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of rejection after renal transplantation. We performed an observational cohort study analyzing both donor and recipient DNA in 1271 renal transplant‐pairs from the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with biopsy-proven rejection after kidney transplantation. The C-allele of the IL6R SNP (Asp358Ala; rs2228145 A > C, formerly rs8192284) in donor kidneys conferred a reduced risk of rejection following renal transplantation (HR 0.78 per C-allele; 95%-CI 0.67–0.90; P = 0.001). On the other hand, the C-allele of the IL6 SNP (at position-174 in the promoter; rs1800795 G > C) in donor kidneys was associated with an increased risk of rejection for male organ donors (HR per C-allele 1.31; 95%-CI 1.08–1.58; P = 0.0006), but not female organ donors (P = 0.33). In contrast, neither the IL6 nor IL6R SNP in the recipient showed an association with renal transplant rejection. In conclusion, donor IL6 and IL6R genotypes but not recipient genotypes represent an independent prognostic marker for biopsy-proven renal allograft rejection.

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Topics: Kidney transplantation (62%), Transplantation (59%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2215/CJN.05530421
Sookhyeon Park1, Kexin Guo1, Raymond L. Heilman2, Emilio D. Poggio3  +12 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Background and objectives Subclinical acute rejection is associated with poor outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. As an alternative to surveillance biopsies, noninvasive screening has been established with a blood gene expression profile. Donor-derived cellfree DNA (cfDNA) has been used to detect rejection in patients with allograft dysfunction but not tested extensively in stable patients. We hypothesized that we could complement noninvasive diagnostic performance for subclinical rejection by combining a donor-derived cfDNA and a gene expression profile assay. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We performed a post hoc analysis of simultaneous blood gene expression profile and donor-derived cfDNA assays in 428 samples paired with surveillance biopsies from 208 subjects enrolled in an observational clinical trial (Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-08). Assay results were analyzed as binary variables, and then, their continuous scores were combined using logistic regression. The performance of each assay alone and in combination was compared. Results For diagnosing subclinical rejection, the gene expression profile demonstrated a negative predictive value of 82%, a positive predictive value of 47%, a balanced accuracy of 64%, and an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.75. The donor-derived cfDNA assay showed similar negative predictive value (84%), positive predictive value (56%), balanced accuracy (68%), and area under the receiver operating curve (0.72). When both assays were negative, negative predictive value increased to 88%. When both assays were positive, positive predictive value increased to 81%. Combining assays using multivariable logistic regression, area under the receiver operating curve was 0.81, significantly higher than the gene expression profile (P Conclusions A combination of blood-based biomarkers can improve detection and provide less invasive monitoring for subclinical rejection. In this study, the gene expression profile detected more cellular rejection, whereas donor-derived cfDNA detected more antibody-mediated rejection.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.718122
Lynn D. Cornell1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) in the kidney can show a wide range of clinical presentations and histopathologic patterns. The Banff 2019 classification currently recognizes four diagnostic categories: 1. Active ABMR, 2. Chronic active ABMR, 3. Chronic (inactive) ABMR, and 4. C4d staining without evidence of rejection. This categorization is limited in that it does not adequately represent the spectrum of antibody associated injury in allograft, it is based on biopsy findings without incorporating clinical features (e.g., time post-transplant, de novo versus preformed DSA, protocol versus indication biopsy, complement inhibitor drugs), the scoring is not adequately reproducible, and the terminology is confusing. These limitations are particularly relevant in patients undergoing desensitization or positive crossmatch kidney transplantation. In this article, I discuss Banff criteria for these ABMR categories, with a focus on patients with pre-transplant DSA, and offer a framework for considering the continuum of allograft injury associated with donor specific antibody in these patients.

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Topics: Complement inhibitor (53%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1681/ASN.2021040433
Abstract: BACKGROUND Donor -specific HLA antibody (DSA) is present in many kidney transplant patients whose biopsies are classified as no rejection (NR). We explored whether in some NR kidneys DSA has subtle effects not currently being recognized. METHODS We used microarrays to examine the relationship between standard-of-care DSA and rejection-related transcript increases in 1679 kidney transplant indication biopsies in the INTERCOMEX study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01299168), focusing on biopsies classified as NR by automatically assigned archetypal clustering. DSA testing results were available for 835 NR biopsies and were positive in 271 (32%). RESULTS DSA positivity in NR biopsies was associated with mildly increased expression of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR)-related transcripts, particularly IFNG-inducible and NK cell transcripts. We developed a machine learning DSA probability (DSAProb) classifier based on transcript expression in biopsies from DSA-positive versus DSA-negative patients, assigning scores using 10-fold cross-validation. This DSAProb classifier was very similar to a previously described "ABMR probability" classifier trained on histologic ABMR in transcript associations and prediction of molecular or histologic ABMR. Plotting the biopsies using Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection revealed a gradient of increasing molecular ABMR-like transcript expression in NR biopsies, associated with increased DSA (P<2 × 10-16). In biopsies with no molecular or histologic rejection, increased DSAProb or ABMR probability scores were associated with increased risk of kidney failure over 3 years. CONCLUSIONS Many biopsies currently considered to have no molecular or histologic rejection have mild increases in expression of ABMR-related transcripts, associated with increasing frequency of DSA. Thus, mild molecular ABMR-related pathology is more common than previously realized.

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26 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/AJT.12590
Mark Haas1, Banu Sis2, Lorraine C. Racusen3, Kim Solez2  +24 moreInstitutions (13)
Abstract: The 12th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in Comandatuba, Brazil, from August 19-23, 2013, and was preceded by a 2-day Latin American Symposium on Transplant Immunobiology and Immunopathology. The meeting was highlighted by the presentation of the findings of several working groups formed at the 2009 and 2011 Banff meetings to: (1) establish consensus criteria for diagnosing antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in the presence and absence of detectable C4d deposition; (2) develop consensus definitions and thresholds for glomerulitis (g score) and chronic glomerulopathy (cg score), associated with improved inter-observer agreement and correlation with clinical, molecular and serological data; (3) determine whether isolated lesions of intimal arteritis ("isolated v") represent acute rejection similar to intimal arteritis in the presence of tubulointerstitial inflammation; (4) compare different methodologies for evaluating interstitial fibrosis and for performing/evaluating implantation biopsies of renal allografts with regard to reproducibility and prediction of subsequent graft function; and (5) define clinically and prognostically significant morphologic criteria for subclassifying polyoma virus nephropathy. The key outcome of the 2013 conference is defining criteria for diagnosis of C4d-negative ABMR and respective modification of the Banff classification. In addition, three new Banff Working Groups were initiated.

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Topics: Transplant glomerulopathy (52%), Arteritis (50%)

1,025 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1600-6143.2011.03840.X
Joana Sellarés1, D. G. de Freitas1, Michael Mengel1, Jeff Reeve1  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: We prospectively studied kidney transplants that progressed to failure after a biopsy for clinical indications, aiming to assign a cause to every failure. We followed 315 allograft recipients who underwent indication biopsies at 6 days to 32 years posttransplant. Sixty kidneys progressed to failure in the follow-up period (median 31.4 months). Failure was rare after T-cell–mediated rejection and acute kidney injury and common after antibody-mediated rejection or glomerulonephritis. We developed rules for using biopsy diagnoses, HLA antibody and clinical data to explain each failure. Excluding four with missing information, 56 failures were attributed to four causes: rejection 36 (64%), glomerulonephritis 10 (18%), polyoma virus nephropathy 4 (7%) and intercurrent events 6 (11%). Every rejection loss had evidence of antibody-mediated rejection by the time of failure. Among rejection losses, 17 of 36 (47%) had been independently identified as nonadherent by attending clinicians. Nonadherence was more frequent in patients who progressed to failure (32%) versus those who survived (3%). Pure T-cell–mediated rejection, acute kidney injury, drug toxicity and unexplained progressive fibrosis were not causes of loss. This prospective cohort indicates that many actual failures after indication biopsies manifest phenotypic features of antibody-mediated or mixed rejection and also underscores the major role of nonadherence.

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Topics: Nephropathy (55%), Kidney transplantation (55%), Transplant glomerulopathy (54%) ... show more

988 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1034/J.1600-6143.2003.00072.X
Abstract: Antibody-mediated rejection (AbAR) is increasingly recognized in the renal allograft population, and successful therapeutic regimens have been developed to prevent and treat AbAR, enabling excellent outcomes even in patients highly sensitized to the donor prior to transplant. It has become critical to develop standardized criteria for the pathological diagnosis of AbAR. This article presents international consensus criteria for and classification of AbAR developed based on discussions held at the Sixth Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology in 2001. This classification represents a working formulation, to be revisited as additional data accumulate in this important area of renal transplantation.

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Topics: Transplantation (52%), Population (51%)

979 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1600-6143.2008.02519.X
Abstract: The causes of kidney allograft loss remain unclear. Herein we investigated these causes in 1317 conventional kidney recipients. The cause of graft loss was determined by reviewing clinical and histologic information the latter available in 98% of cases. During 50.3 ± 32.6 months of follow-up, 330 grafts were lost (25.0%), 138 (10.4%) due to death with function, 39 (2.9%) due to primary nonfunction and 153 (11.6%) due to graft failure censored for death. The latter group was subdivided by cause into: glomerular diseases (n = 56, 36.6%); fibrosis/atrophy (n = 47, 30.7%); medical/surgical conditions (n = 25, 16.3%); acute rejection (n = 18, 11.8%); and unclassifiable (n = 7, 4.6%). Glomerular pathologies leading to failure included recurrent disease (n = 23), transplant glomerulopathy (n = 23) and presumed nonrecurrent disease (n = 10). In cases with fibrosis/atrophy a specific cause(s) was identified in 81% and it was rarely attributable to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity alone (n = 1, 0.7%). Contrary to current concepts, most cases of kidney graft loss have an identifiable cause that is not idiopathic fibrosis/atrophy or CNI toxicity. Glomerular pathologies cause the largest proportion of graft loss and alloinmunity remains the most common mechanism leading to failure. This study identifies targets for investigation and intervention that may result in improved kidney transplantation outcomes.

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Topics: Kidney transplantation (54%), Transplant glomerulopathy (53%), Transplantation (52%) ... show more

645 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/AJT.14625
Mark Haas1, Alexandre Loupy2, Carmen Lefaucheur3, Candice Roufosse4  +26 moreInstitutions (18)
Abstract: The kidney sessions of the 2017 Banff Conference focused on 2 areas: clinical implications of inflammation in areas of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (i-IFTA) and its relationship to T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), and the continued evolution of molecular diagnostics, particularly in the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). In confirmation of previous studies, it was independently demonstrated by 2 groups that i-IFTA is associated with reduced graft survival. Furthermore, these groups presented that i-IFTA, particularly when involving >25% of sclerotic cortex in association with tubulitis, is often a sequela of acute TCMR in association with underimmunosuppression. The classification was thus revised to include moderate i-IFTA plus moderate or severe tubulitis as diagnostic of chronic active TCMR. Other studies demonstrated that certain molecular classifiers improve diagnosis of ABMR beyond what is possible with histology, C4d, and detection of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and that both C4d and validated molecular assays can serve as potential alternatives and/or complements to DSAs in the diagnosis of ABMR. The Banff ABMR criteria are thus updated to include these alternatives. Finally, the present report paves the way for the Banff scheme to be part of an integrative approach for defining surrogate endpoints in next-generation clinical trials.

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541 Citations