Robustness of Results
01 Jul 2020-pp 270-300
About: The article was published on 2020-07-01. It has received 27 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Robustness (computer science).
01 Apr 2006
TL;DR: For example, in this paper, the authors propose a system for citizenship verification, which is based on the concept of "citizenship" (citizenship) and "national identity" (national identity).
Abstract: 본 논문은 대한민국에서 시티즌쉽(citizenship)이 어떻게 발전했는가를 살펴보고 있다 특히 본 논문은 시티즌쉽을 시민권을 보장하는 제도와 시민의식으로 구분해서 대한민국 수립 이후 현재까지 제도로서의 시민권이 어떻게 발전했는가를 분석하고, 그와의 관계 속에서 현재 시민의식을 실증적으로 분석하고 그 특징을 역사적으로 설명함으로써 우리나라 시민사회의 현주소를 객관적으로 이해하는데 이바지하고자 한다 본 연구에 따르면, 한국 시민권은 1987년 6월 항쟁과 그 이후 이루어진 민주화로 인해 1990년대 이후 상당히 발전했으면, 이처럼 시민의 투쟁으로 얻어진 시민권 제도의 발전은 한국 시민의식이 능동적이고 개방적이며 개인의 가치를 존중하는 방향으로 발전하는데 매우 긍정적인 효과를 미친 것으로 보인다
01 Jan 1965
01 Jan 2010
27 Mar 2017
TL;DR: The most probable scenario in the wake of the Cold War is further nuclear proliferation in Europe, but it also might just provide the best hope for maintaining stability on the Continent as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Cold War, with two super-powers serving to anchor rival alliances of clearly inferior powers, is model of bipolarity. Europe in 1914, with France, Germany, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, and Russia positioned as great powers, is model of multipolarity. During the Cold War both superpowers were drawn into Third World conflicts across the globe, often in distant areas of little strategic importance. The most probable scenario in the wake of the Cold War is further nuclear proliferation in Europe. This outcome is laden with dangers, but it also might just provide the best hope for maintaining stability on the Continent. Without a common Soviet threat or an American night watchman, Western European states will do what they did for centuries before the onset of the Cold War—look upon one another with abiding suspicion. There are good reasons for being skeptical about the claim that a more powerful EC can provide the basis for peace in a multipolar Europe.
TL;DR: In this article, a model is described in an lmer call by a formula, in this case including both fixed-and random-effects terms, and the formula and data together determine a numerical representation of the model from which the profiled deviance or the profeatured REML criterion can be evaluated as a function of some of model parameters.
Abstract: Maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of the parameters in linear mixed-effects models can be determined using the lmer function in the lme4 package for R. As for most model-fitting functions in R, the model is described in an lmer call by a formula, in this case including both fixed- and random-effects terms. The formula and data together determine a numerical representation of the model from which the profiled deviance or the profiled REML criterion can be evaluated as a function of some of the model parameters. The appropriate criterion is optimized, using one of the constrained optimization functions in R, to provide the parameter estimates. We describe the structure of the model, the steps in evaluating the profiled deviance or REML criterion, and the structure of classes or types that represents such a model. Sufficient detail is included to allow specialization of these structures by users who wish to write functions to fit specialized linear mixed models, such as models incorporating pedigrees or smoothing splines, that are not easily expressible in the formula language used by lmer.
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a theory of ratification in the context of domestic political games and international political games, which is applicable to many other political phenomena, such as dependency, legislative committees, and multiparty coalitions.
Abstract: Domestic politics and international relations are often inextricably entangled, but existing theories (particularly “state-centric” theories) do not adequately account for these linkages. When national leaders must win ratification (formal or informal) from their constituents for an international agreement, their negotiating behavior reflects the simultaneous imperatives of both a domestic political game and an international game. Using illustrations from Western economic summitry, the Panama Canal and Versailles Treaty negotiations, IMF stabilization programs, the European Community, and many other diplomatic contexts, this article offers a theory of ratification. It addresses the role of domestic preferences and coalitions, domestic political institutions and practices, the strategies and tactics of negotiators, uncertainty, the domestic reverberation of international pressures, and the interests of the chief negotiator. This theory of “two-level games” may also be applicable to many other political phenomena, such as dependency, legislative committees, and multiparty coalitions.
22 Apr 2014
TL;DR: The generalized additive model (GA) as discussed by the authors is a generalization of the generalized linear model, which replaces the linear model with a sum of smooth functions in an iterative procedure called local scoring algorithm.
Abstract: Likelihood-based regression models such as the normal linear regression model and the linear logistic model, assume a linear (or some other parametric) form for the covariates $X_1, X_2, \cdots, X_p$. We introduce the class of generalized additive models which replaces the linear form $\sum \beta_jX_j$ by a sum of smooth functions $\sum s_j(X_j)$. The $s_j(\cdot)$'s are unspecified functions that are estimated using a scatterplot smoother, in an iterative procedure we call the local scoring algorithm. The technique is applicable to any likelihood-based regression model: the class of generalized linear models contains many of these. In this class the linear predictor $\eta = \Sigma \beta_jX_j$ is replaced by the additive predictor $\Sigma s_j(X_j)$; hence, the name generalized additive models. We illustrate the technique with binary response and survival data. In both cases, the method proves to be useful in uncovering nonlinear covariate effects. It has the advantage of being completely automatic, i.e., no "detective work" is needed on the part of the statistician. As a theoretical underpinning, the technique is viewed as an empirical method of maximizing the expected log likelihood, or equivalently, of minimizing the Kullback-Leibler distance to the true model.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conceptualized path dependence as a social process grounded in a dynamic of increasing returns, and demonstrated that increasing returns processes are likely to be prevalent and that good analytical foundations exist for exploring their causes and consequences.
Abstract: It is increasingly common for social scientists to describe political processes as “path dependent.” The concept, however, is often employed without careful elaboration. This article conceptualizes path dependence as a social process grounded in a dynamic of “increasing returns.” Reviewing recent literature in economics and suggesting extensions to the world of politics, the article demonstrates that increasing returns processes are likely to be prevalent, and that good analytical foundations exist for exploring their causes and consequences. The investigation of increasing returns can provide a more rigorous framework for developing some of the key claims of recent scholarship in historical institutionalism: Specific patterns of timing and sequence matter; a wide range of social outcomes may be possible; large consequences may result from relatively small or contingent events; particular courses of action, once introduced, can be almost impossible to reverse; and consequently, political development is punctuated by critical moments or junctures that shape the basic contours of social life.
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