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Journal ArticleDOI

Robustness of visual perception system in progressive challenging weather scenarios

TL;DR: Zhang et al. as discussed by the authors investigated the adverse effects of challenging weather on the visual perception system, investigated the robustness of visual perception systems affected by adverse weather through imaging, and proposed a method to evaluate the robusts of object detection model under different weather variations.
About: This article is published in Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence.The article was published on 2023-03-01. It has received 2 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Robustness (evolution) & Computer science.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , an environmental adaptability assessment method of AI-based devices is proposed, and the formation mechanism of optical blurred image is elaborated, and measure function is used to transform the stress magnitudes of environment into distances of distribution discrepancy.
Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) models are widely used in intelligent devices. However, challenging vibration environments can seriously affect the environmental adaptability of AI-based devices. In this paper, an environmental adaptability assessment method of AI-based devices is proposed. The formation mechanism of optical blurred image is elaborated, and measure function is used to transform the stress magnitudes of environment into distances of distribution discrepancy. To ensure that the obtained optical blurred images are fully controllable, we generate vibration-blurred images using an explicitly quantifiable extended dataset. Additionally, the generated vibration-blurred image is evaluated for consistency with the actual image. Finally, the environmental adaptability of multiple state-of-the-art models is evaluated based on extended datasets. The assessment results show that the environmental adaptability of the visual perception system is mainly limited by the vibration amplitude under high frequency. Under low frequency vibration, the environmental adaptability of AI models is also frequency-dependent.
References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Jun 2016
TL;DR: Compared to state-of-the-art detection systems, YOLO makes more localization errors but is less likely to predict false positives on background, and outperforms other detection methods, including DPM and R-CNN, when generalizing from natural images to other domains like artwork.
Abstract: We present YOLO, a new approach to object detection. Prior work on object detection repurposes classifiers to perform detection. Instead, we frame object detection as a regression problem to spatially separated bounding boxes and associated class probabilities. A single neural network predicts bounding boxes and class probabilities directly from full images in one evaluation. Since the whole detection pipeline is a single network, it can be optimized end-to-end directly on detection performance. Our unified architecture is extremely fast. Our base YOLO model processes images in real-time at 45 frames per second. A smaller version of the network, Fast YOLO, processes an astounding 155 frames per second while still achieving double the mAP of other real-time detectors. Compared to state-of-the-art detection systems, YOLO makes more localization errors but is less likely to predict false positives on background. Finally, YOLO learns very general representations of objects. It outperforms other detection methods, including DPM and R-CNN, when generalizing from natural images to other domains like artwork.

27,256 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work introduces a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals and further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutionAL features.
Abstract: State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [1] and Fast R-CNN [2] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features—using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with ’attention’ mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model [3] , our detection system has a frame rate of 5 fps ( including all steps ) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.

26,458 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Ross Girshick1
07 Dec 2015
TL;DR: Fast R-CNN as discussed by the authors proposes a Fast Region-based Convolutional Network method for object detection, which employs several innovations to improve training and testing speed while also increasing detection accuracy and achieves a higher mAP on PASCAL VOC 2012.
Abstract: This paper proposes a Fast Region-based Convolutional Network method (Fast R-CNN) for object detection. Fast R-CNN builds on previous work to efficiently classify object proposals using deep convolutional networks. Compared to previous work, Fast R-CNN employs several innovations to improve training and testing speed while also increasing detection accuracy. Fast R-CNN trains the very deep VGG16 network 9x faster than R-CNN, is 213x faster at test-time, and achieves a higher mAP on PASCAL VOC 2012. Compared to SPPnet, Fast R-CNN trains VGG16 3x faster, tests 10x faster, and is more accurate. Fast R-CNN is implemented in Python and C++ (using Caffe) and is available under the open-source MIT License at https://github.com/rbgirshick/fast-rcnn.

14,824 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2016
TL;DR: This work introduces Cityscapes, a benchmark suite and large-scale dataset to train and test approaches for pixel-level and instance-level semantic labeling, and exceeds previous attempts in terms of dataset size, annotation richness, scene variability, and complexity.
Abstract: Visual understanding of complex urban street scenes is an enabling factor for a wide range of applications. Object detection has benefited enormously from large-scale datasets, especially in the context of deep learning. For semantic urban scene understanding, however, no current dataset adequately captures the complexity of real-world urban scenes. To address this, we introduce Cityscapes, a benchmark suite and large-scale dataset to train and test approaches for pixel-level and instance-level semantic labeling. Cityscapes is comprised of a large, diverse set of stereo video sequences recorded in streets from 50 different cities. 5000 of these images have high quality pixel-level annotations, 20 000 additional images have coarse annotations to enable methods that leverage large volumes of weakly-labeled data. Crucially, our effort exceeds previous attempts in terms of dataset size, annotation richness, scene variability, and complexity. Our accompanying empirical study provides an in-depth analysis of the dataset characteristics, as well as a performance evaluation of several state-of-the-art approaches based on our benchmark.

7,547 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel dataset captured from a VW station wagon for use in mobile robotics and autonomous driving research, using a variety of sensor modalities such as high-resolution color and grayscale stereo cameras and a high-precision GPS/IMU inertial navigation system.
Abstract: We present a novel dataset captured from a VW station wagon for use in mobile robotics and autonomous driving research. In total, we recorded 6 hours of traffic scenarios at 10-100 Hz using a variety of sensor modalities such as high-resolution color and grayscale stereo cameras, a Velodyne 3D laser scanner and a high-precision GPS/IMU inertial navigation system. The scenarios are diverse, capturing real-world traffic situations, and range from freeways over rural areas to inner-city scenes with many static and dynamic objects. Our data is calibrated, synchronized and timestamped, and we provide the rectified and raw image sequences. Our dataset also contains object labels in the form of 3D tracklets, and we provide online benchmarks for stereo, optical flow, object detection and other tasks. This paper describes our recording platform, the data format and the utilities that we provide.

7,153 citations