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Journal ArticleDOI

Role of Self-efficacy, Optimism and Job Engagement in Positive Change: Evidence from the Middle East

01 Dec 2018-Scopus (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 43, Iss: 4, pp 222-235
Abstract: Positive change comprises an examination of the factors that influence the adaptation of a positive lens, positively deviant performance, the effects of an affirmative bias, and the impact of pursuing the best of human conditions in an organization. To generate positive change, a Middle Eastern financial services firm designed and implemented a positive business initiative ‘RACE’, which involved various sports, arts, cultural, and everyday business activities, intended to engage employees and build their psychological strengths. In the context of RACE initiative, this study examines the role of self-efficacy, optimism, and job engagement in positive change. Self-efficacy is a specific, positive expectation of success based on belief in one’s individual abilities. Employees’ with higher levels of optimism tend to maintain positive expectation about what will happen to them in the process of change. Employees who are engaged in the jobs bring in their complete selves by investing physical, emotional, and cognitive energies. This study explores the relationship of self-efficacy and optimism with performance outcome. It further provides an explanation of this relationship through the mediating role of three dimensions of job engagement, that is, cognitive, emotional, and physical. Responses were collected from 406 employees who participated in the RACE initiative. While all of the respondents are based in the UAE, the sample is international in nature, encompassing 15 countries. These respondents were asked to assess their own self-efficacy, optimism, and job engagement, along with their perception of the team-level performance of the branch office in which they work. The hypothesized relationships were tested in AMOS 20 using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that higher levels of self-efficacy and optimism significantly predict higher levels of cognitive, emotional, and physical engagement. Also, the higher levels of cognitive, emotional, and physical engagement significantly predict performance. Further, significant indirect effects support the mediating role of job engagement in relationship between these psychological strengths and performance outcome. Thus, employees’ level of self-efficacy, optimism, and job engagement can be enhanced by designing and implementing business initiatives that are relevant to positive change. more

Topics: Optimism (56%)
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Posted Content
01 Jan 2005-
Abstract: The terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 affected the U.S. airline industry more than almost any other industry. Certain of these companies emerged successful, however, and demonstrated remarkable resilience while others languished. This investigation identifies the reasons why some airline companies recovered successfully after the attacks while others struggled. Evidence is provided that layoffs after the crisis, while intended to foster recovery, instead inhibited recovery throughout the four years after the crisis. But layoffs after the crisis were strongly correlated with the lack of financial reserves and the lack of a viable business model prior to the crisis. Digging deeper, we find that having a viable business model itself depended on the extent to which positive employee relationships had been achieved and maintained over the long term. One implication of our findings is that layoffs, while reducing costs in the short term, may also undermine the positive relationships that are critical for achieving lasting recovery. more

55 citations

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Albert Bandura1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1997-
Abstract: Albert Bandura and the Exercise of Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control Albert Bandura. New York: W. H. Freeman ( 1997, 604 pp., $46.00 (hardcover). Enter the term "self-efficacy" in the on-line PSYCLIT database and you will find over 2500 articles, all of which stem from the seminal contributions of Albert Bandura. It is difficult to do justice to the immense importance of this research for our theories, our practice, and indeed for human welfare. Self-efficacy (SE) has proven to be a fruitful construct in spheres ranging from phobias (Bandura, Jeffery, & Gajdos, 1975) and depression (Holahan & Holahan, 1987) to career choice behavior (Betz & Hackett, 1986) and managerial functioning (Jenkins, 1994). Bandura's Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control is the best attempt so far at organizing, summarizing, and distilling meaning from this vast and diverse literature. Self-Efficacy may prove to be Bandura's magnum opus. Dr. Bandura has done an impressive job of summarizing over 1800 studies and papers, integrating these results into a coherent framework, and detailing implications for theory and practice. While incorporating prior works such as Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) and "Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency" (Bandura, 1982), Self-Efficacy extends these works by describing results of diverse new research, clarifying and extending social cognitive theory, and fleshing out implications of the theory for groups, organizations, political bodies, and societies. Along the way, Dr. Bandura masterfully contrasts social cognitive theory with many other theories of human behavior and helps chart a course for future research. Throughout, B andura' s clear, firm, and self-confident writing serves as the perfect vehicle for the theory he espouses. Self-Efficacy begins with the most detailed and clear explication of social cognitive theory that I have yet seen, and proceeds to delineate the nature and sources of SE, the well-known processes via which SE mediates human behavior, and the development of SE over the life span. After laying this theoretical groundwork, subsequent chapters delineate the relevance of SE to human endeavor in a variety of specific content areas including cognitive and intellectual functioning; health; clinical problems including anxiety, phobias, depression, eating disorders, alcohol problems, and drug abuse; athletics and exercise activity; organizations; politics; and societal change. In Bandura's words, "Perceived self-efficacy refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments" (p. 3). People's SE beliefs have a greater effect on their motivation, emotions, and actions than what is objectively true (e.g., actual skill level). Therefore, SE beliefs are immensely important in choice of behaviors (including occupations, social relationships, and a host of day-to-day behaviors), effort expenditure, perseverance in pursuit of goals, resilience to setbacks and problems, stress level and affect, and indeed in our ways of thinking about ourselves and others. Bandura affirms many times that humans are proactive and free as well as determined: They are "at least partial architects of their own destinies" (p. 8). Because SE beliefs powerfully affect human behaviors, they are a key factor in human purposive activity or agency; that is, in human freedom. Because humans shape their environment even as they are shaped by it, SE beliefs are also pivotal in the construction of our social and physical environments. Bandura details over two decades of research confirming that SE is modifiable via mastery experiences, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and interpretation of physiological states, and that modified SE strongly and consistently predicts outcomes. SE beliefs, then, are central to human self-determination. STRENGTHS One major strength of Self-Efficacy is Bandura's ability to deftly dance from forest to trees and back again to forest, using specific, human examples and concrete situations to highlight his major theoretical premises, to which he then returns. … more

44,457 citations

"Role of Self-efficacy, Optimism and..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Vicarious learning happens when a person observes another successfully accomplishing the task (Bandura, 1997)....


  • ...Self-efficacy Drawn from the research of Bandura (1997), when applied to the workplace, self-efficacy is defined as VIKALPA • VOLUME 43 • ISSUE 4 • OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2018 225 ‘the employee’s conviction or confidence about his or her abilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources or…...


  • ...There are four sources of efficacy development that are relevant to work engagement (Bandura, 1997; Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998)....


  • ...Bandura (1997) also suggested psychological and physiological arousal can temporarily increase one’s efficacy....


  • ...First, task mastery builds the ability of an individual to successfully accomplish specific tasks, leading to confidence building for the future (Bandura, 1997)....


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results is examined, potential sources of method biases are identified, the cognitive processes through which method bias influence responses to measures are discussed, the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases is evaluated, and recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and Statistical remedies are provided. more

Abstract: Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings. more

41,990 citations

Andrew F. Hayes1Institutions (1)
06 May 2013-
Abstract: I. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. Introduction 1.1. A Scientist in Training 1.2. Questions of Whether, If, How, and When 1.3. Conditional Process Analysis 1.4. Correlation, Causality, and Statistical Modeling 1.5. Statistical Software 1.6. Overview of this Book 1.7. Chapter Summary 2. Simple Linear Regression 2.1. Correlation and Prediction 2.2. The Simple Linear Regression Equation 2.3. Statistical Inference 2.4. Assumptions for Interpretation and Statistical Inference 2.5. Chapter Summary 3. Multiple Linear Regression 3.1. The Multiple Linear Regression Equation 3.2. Partial Association and Statistical Control 3.3. Statistical Inference in Multiple Regression 3.4. Statistical and Conceptual Diagrams 3.5. Chapter Summary II. MEDIATION ANALYSIS 4. The Simple Mediation Model 4.1. The Simple Mediation Model 4.2. Estimation of the Direct, Indirect, and Total Effects of X 4.3. Example with Dichotomous X: The Influence of Presumed Media Influence 4.4. Statistical Inference 4.5. An Example with Continuous X: Economic Stress among Small Business Owners 4.6. Chapter Summary 5. Multiple Mediator Models 5.1. The Parallel Multiple Mediator Model 5.2. Example Using the Presumed Media Influence Study 5.3. Statistical Inference 5.4. The Serial Multiple Mediator Model 5.5. Complementarity and Competition among Mediators 5.6. OLS Regression versus Structural Equation Modeling 5.7. Chapter Summary III. MODERATION ANALYSIS 6. Miscellaneous Topics in Mediation Analysis 6.1. What About Baron and Kenny? 6.2. Confounding and Causal Order 6.3. Effect Size 6.4. Multiple Xs or Ys: Analyze Separately or Simultaneously? 6.5. Reporting a Mediation Analysis 6.6. Chapter Summary 7. Fundamentals of Moderation Analysis 7.1. Conditional and Unconditional Effects 7.2. An Example: Sex Discrimination in the Workplace 7.3. Visualizing Moderation 7.4. Probing an Interaction 7.5. Chapter Summary 8. Extending Moderation Analysis Principles 8.1. Moderation Involving a Dichotomous Moderator 8.2. Interaction between Two Quantitative Variables 8.3. Hierarchical versus Simultaneous Variable Entry 8.4. The Equivalence between Moderated Regression Analysis and a 2 x 2 Factorial Analysis of Variance 8.5. Chapter Summary 9. Miscellaneous Topics in Moderation Analysis 9.1. Truths and Myths about Mean Centering 9.2. The Estimation and Interpretation of Standardized Regression Coefficients in a Moderation Analysis 9.3. Artificial Categorization and Subgroups Analysis 9.4. More Than One Moderator 9.5. Reporting a Moderation Analysis 9.6. Chapter Summary IV. CONDITIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS 10. Conditional Process Analysis 10.1. Examples of Conditional Process Models in the Literature 10.2. Conditional Direct and Indirect Effects 10.3. Example: Hiding Your Feelings from Your Work Team 10.4. Statistical Inference 10.5. Conditional Process Analysis in PROCESS 10.6. Chapter Summary 11. Further Examples of Conditional Process Analysis 11.1. Revisiting the Sexual Discrimination Study 11.2. Moderation of the Direct and Indirect Effects in a Conditional Process Model 11.3. Visualizing the Direct and Indirect Effects 11.4. Mediated Moderation 11.5. Chapter Summary 12. Miscellaneous Topics in Conditional Process Analysis 12.1. A Strategy for Approaching Your Analysis 12.2. Can a Variable Simultaneously Mediate and Moderate Another Variable's Effect? 12.3. Comparing Conditional Indirect Effects and a Formal Test of Moderated Mediation 12.4. The Pitfalls of Subgroups Analysis 12.5. Writing about Conditional Process Modeling 12.6. Chapter Summary Appendix A. Using PROCESS Appendix B. Monte Carlo Confidence Intervals in SPSS and SAS more

26,130 citations

"Role of Self-efficacy, Optimism and..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We follow that of Hayes (2013), which involves the use of bootstrapping to develop confidence intervals to assess whether cognitive, emotional and physical engagement mediated the self-efficacy performance relationship; specifically, we use Hayes’ Process Model 4....


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in the authors' knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish. more

Abstract: A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless, The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish. more

11,929 citations

"Role of Self-efficacy, Optimism and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Employees high on optimism believe they will succeed regardless of their abilities, so it is proposed that for optimism to be effective, it must be realistic (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000)....


  • ...Optimists tend to expect good things to happen to them, have more positive moods and are persevering in their endeavours throughout the change process (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000)....


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups. more

Abstract: The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working conditions provided strong evidence for the JD-R model: Job demands are primarily related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas (lack of) job resources are primarily related to disengagement. Highly similar patterns were observed in each of 3 occupational groups: human services, industry, and transport (total N = 374). In addition, results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups. more

6,554 citations