Abstract: The first formal description of the microbicidal activity of extracellular traps (ETs) containing DNA occurred in neutrophils in 2004. Since then, ETs have been identified in different populations of cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Much of the knowledge has been obtained from in vitro or ex vivo studies; however, in vivo evaluations in experimental models and human biological materials have corroborated some of the results obtained. Two types of ETs have been described-suicidal and vital ETs, with or without the death of the producer cell. The studies showed that the same cell type may have more than one ETs formation mechanism and that different cells may have similar ETs formation mechanisms. ETs can act by controlling or promoting the mechanisms involved in the development and evolution of various infectious and non-infectious diseases, such as autoimmune, cardiovascular, thrombotic, and neoplastic diseases, among others. This review discusses the presence of ETs in neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and recent evidence of the presence of ETs in B lymphocytes, CD4+ T lymphocytes, and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, due to recently collected information, the effect of ETs on COVID-19 is also discussed.
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