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Journal ArticleDOI

Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors

25 Nov 2004-Nature (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 432, Iss: 7016, pp 488-492

TL;DR: A novel semiconducting material is proposed—namely, a transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor from the In-Ga-Zn-O system (a-IGZO)—for the active channel in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs), which are fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate sheets and exhibit saturation mobilities and device characteristics are stable during repetitive bending of the TTFT sheet.
Abstract: Transparent electronic devices formed on flexible substrates are expected to meet emerging technological demands where silicon-based electronics cannot provide a solution. Examples of active flexible applications include paper displays and wearable computers1. So far, mainly flexible devices based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)2,3,4,5 and organic semiconductors2,6,7,8,9,10 have been investigated. However, the performance of these devices has been insufficient for use as transistors in practical computers and current-driven organic light-emitting diode displays. Fabricating high-performance devices is challenging, owing to a trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose to solve this problem by using a novel semiconducting material—namely, a transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor from the In-Ga-Zn-O system (a-IGZO)—for the active channel in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs). The a-IGZO is deposited on polyethylene terephthalate at room temperature and exhibits Hall effect mobilities exceeding 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than for hydrogenated amorphous silicon. TTFTs fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate sheets exhibit saturation mobilities of 6–9 cm2 V-1 s-1, and device characteristics are stable during repetitive bending of the TTFT sheet.
Topics: Amorphous silicon (58%), Indium gallium zinc oxide (56%), Thin-film transistor (55%), Semiconductor (53%), Transistor (50%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes of the unintentional n-type conductivity, emphasize the role of impurities, critically review the current status of p-type doping and address possible routes to controlling the electrical conductivity in ZnO. Finally, we discuss band-gap engineering using MgZnO and CdZnO alloys.

2,962 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
12 Jun 2012-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: The recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed andp-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed.
Abstract: Transparent electronics is today one of the most advanced topics for a wide range of device applications. The key components are wide bandgap semiconductors, where oxides of different origins play an important role, not only as passive component but also as active component, similar to what is observed in conventional semiconductors like silicon. Transparent electronics has gained special attention during the last few years and is today established as one of the most promising technologies for leading the next generation of flat panel display due to its excellent electronic performance. In this paper the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed and p-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed. After a short introduction where the main advantages of these semiconductors are presented, as well as the industry expectations, the beautiful history of TFTs is revisited, including the main landmarks in the last 80 years, finishing by referring to some papers that have played an important role in shaping transparent electronics. Then, an overview is presented of state of the art n-type TFTs processed by physical vapour deposition methods, and finally one of the most exciting, promising, and low cost but powerful technologies is discussed: solution-processed oxide TFTs. Moreover, a more detailed focus analysis will be given concerning p-type oxide TFTs, mainly centred on two of the most promising semiconductor candidates: copper oxide and tin oxide. The most recent data related to the production of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices based on n- and p-type oxide TFT is also be presented. The last topic of this review is devoted to some emerging applications, finalizing with the main conclusions. Related work that originated at CENIMAT|I3N during the last six years is included in more detail, which has led to the fabrication of high performance n- and p-type oxide transistors as well as the fabrication of CMOS devices with and on paper.

2,076 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches and the performance limits and advantages, when exploited for both digital and analog applications.
Abstract: The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

2,038 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jan 2014-ACS Nano
TL;DR: By critically assessing and comparing the performance of these devices with competing technologies, the merits and shortcomings of this emerging class of electronic materials are identified, thereby providing a roadmap for future development.
Abstract: With advances in exfoliation and synthetic techniques, atomically thin films of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides have recently been isolated and characterized. Their two-dimensional structure, coupled with a direct band gap in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, suggests suitability for digital electronics and optoelectronics. Toward that end, several classes of high-performance devices have been reported along with significant progress in understanding their physical properties. Here, we present a review of the architecture, operating principles, and physics of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors. By critically assessing and comparing the performance of these devices with competing technologies, the merits and shortcomings of this emerging class of electronic materials are identified, thereby providing a roadmap for future development.

1,996 citations


PatentDOI
06 Apr 2012-Science
Abstract: The present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention may be adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

1,673 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Jan 2002-Advanced Materials
Abstract: Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have lived to see great improvements in recent years. This review presents new insight into conduction mechanisms and performance characteristics, as well as opportunities for modeling properties of OTFTs. The shifted focus in research from novel chemical structures to fabrication technologies that optimize morphology and structural order is underscored by chapters on vacuum-deposited and solution-processed organic semiconducting films. Finally, progress in the growing field of the n-type OTFTs is discussed in ample detail. The Figure, showing a pentacene film edge on SiO2, illustrates the morphology issue.

4,714 citations


Book
Yuan Taur1, Tak H. Ning1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2016-
Abstract: Learn the basic properties and designs of modern VLSI devices, as well as the factors affecting performance, with this thoroughly updated second edition. The first edition has been widely adopted as a standard textbook in microelectronics in many major US universities and worldwide. The internationally-renowned authors highlight the intricate interdependencies and subtle tradeoffs between various practically important device parameters, and also provide an in-depth discussion of device scaling and scaling limits of CMOS and bipolar devices. Equations and parameters provided are checked continuously against the reality of silicon data, making the book equally useful in practical transistor design and in the classroom. Every chapter has been updated to include the latest developments, such as MOSFET scale length theory, high-field transport model, and SiGe-base bipolar devices.

2,655 citations


"Room-temperature fabrication of tra..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Thin-film transistors (TFTs) are fundamental building blocks for state-of-the-art microelectronics, such as flat-panel displays and system-on-glas...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Kenji Nomura1, Hiromichi Ohta1, Kazushige Ueda1, Toshio Kamiya1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
23 May 2003-Science
TL;DR: The fabrication of transparent field-effect transistors using a single-crystalline thin-film transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO3(ZnO)5, as an electron channel and amorphous hafnium oxide as a gate insulator provides a step toward the realization of transparent electronics for next-generation optoelectronics.
Abstract: We report the fabrication of transparent field-effect transistors using a single-crystalline thin-film transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO 3 (ZnO) 5 , as an electron channel and amorphous hafnium oxide as a gate insulator. The device exhibits an on-to-off current ratio of ∼10 6 and a field-effect mobility of ∼80 square centimeters per volt per second at room temperature, with operation insensitive to visible light irradiation. The result provides a step toward the realization of transparent electronics for next-generation optoelectronics.

2,616 citations


"Room-temperature fabrication of tra..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Thus it is vital to choose a material in which carrier concentration can be controlled at a low level, for example, 14  cm -3 , in order to achieve a low off current and large on-to-off current ratio...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
30 Oct 1997-Nature
Abstract: Optically transparent oxides tend to be electrical insulators, by virtue of their large electronic bandgap (⩾3.1 eV). The most notable exceptions are doped versions of the oxides In2O3, SnO2 and ZnO—all n-type (electron) conductors—which are widely used as the transparent electrodes in flat-panel displays1,2. On the other hand, no transparent oxide exhibiting high p-type (hole) conductivity is known to exist, whereas such materials could open the way to a range of novel applications. For example, a combination of the two types of transparent conductor in the form of a pn junction could lead to a ‘functional’ window that transmits visible light yet generates electricity in response to the absorption of ultraviolet photons. Here we describe a strategy for identifying oxide materials that should combine p-type conductivity with good optical transparency. We illustrate the potential of this approach by reporting the properties of thin films of CuAlO2, a transparent oxide having room-temperature p-type conductivity up to 1 S cm−1. Although the conductivity of our candidate material is significantly lower than that observed for the best n-type conducting oxides, it is sufficient for some applications, and demonstrates that the development of transparent p-type conductors is not an insurmountable goal.

1,724 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Further, when combined with ‘transparent circuit technology&rsquo...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We have investigated carrier transport in a crystalline oxide semiconductor InGaO3(ZnO)5 using single-crystalline thin films. When carrier concentration is less than 2×1018cm−3, logarithm of electrical conductivity decreases in proportion to T−1∕4 and room-temperature Hall mobility was as low as ∼1cm2(Vs)−1. When carrier concentration was increased to 4×1018cm−3, the conduction mechanism changed to degenerate conduction and room-temperature Hall mobility was steeply increased to >10cm2(Vs)−1, showing metal–insulator transition behavior. These results are explained by percolation conduction over distribution of potential barriers formed around conduction band edge. The potential distribution is a consequence of potential modulation originating from random distribution of Ga3+ and Zn2+ ions in the crystal structure of InGaO3(ZnO)5.

1,218 citations


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