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Journal ArticleDOI

RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With the Internet of Things

04 Jun 2018-IEEE Access (IEEE)-Vol. 6, pp 30149-30161
TL;DR: Four wireless technologies for indoor localization: Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11n-2009 at the 2.4 GHz band), Bluetooth low energy, Zigbee, and long-range wide-area network are compared in terms of localization accuracy and power consumption when IoT devices are used.
Abstract: In the era of smart cities, there are a plethora of applications where the localization of indoor environments is important, from monitoring and tracking in smart buildings to proximity marketing and advertising in shopping malls. The success of these applications is based on the development of a cost-efficient and robust real-time system capable of accurately localizing objects. In most outdoor localization systems, global positioning system (GPS) is used due to its ease of implementation and accuracy up to five meters. However, due to the limited space that comes with performing localization of indoor environments and the large number of obstacles found indoors, GPS is not a suitable option. Hence, accurately and efficiently locating objects is a major challenge in indoor environments. Recent advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) along with novel wireless technologies can alleviate the problem. Small-size and cost-efficient IoT devices which use wireless protocols can provide an attractive solution. In this paper, we compare four wireless technologies for indoor localization: Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11n-2009 at the 2.4 GHz band), Bluetooth low energy, Zigbee, and long-range wide-area network. These technologies are compared in terms of localization accuracy and power consumption when IoT devices are used. The received signal strength indicator (RSSI) values from each modality were used and trilateration was performed for localization. The RSSI data set is available online. The experimental results can be used as an indicator in the selection of a wireless technology for an indoor localization system following application requirements.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to provide a detailed survey of different indoor localization techniques, such as angle of arrival (AoA), time of flight (ToF), return time ofFlight (RTOF), and received signal strength (RSS) based on technologies that have been proposed in the literature.
Abstract: Indoor localization has recently witnessed an increase in interest, due to the potential wide range of services it can provide by leveraging Internet of Things (IoT), and ubiquitous connectivity. Different techniques, wireless technologies and mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to provide indoor localization services in order to improve the services provided to the users. However, there is a lack of an up-to-date survey paper that incorporates some of the recently proposed accurate and reliable localization systems. In this paper, we aim to provide a detailed survey of different indoor localization techniques, such as angle of arrival (AoA), time of flight (ToF), return time of flight (RTOF), and received signal strength (RSS); based on technologies, such as WiFi, radio frequency identification device (RFID), ultra wideband (UWB), Bluetooth, and systems that have been proposed in the literature. This paper primarily discusses localization and positioning of human users and their devices. We highlight the strengths of the existing systems proposed in the literature. In contrast with the existing surveys, we also evaluate different systems from the perspective of energy efficiency, availability, cost, reception range, latency, scalability, and tracking accuracy. Rather than comparing the technologies or techniques, we compare the localization systems and summarize their working principle. We also discuss remaining challenges to accurate indoor localization.

1,447 citations


Cites background from "RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..."

  • ...Sadowsi and Spachos [143] compare the performance of Wi-Fi, BLE, ZigBee and long-range WAN for indoor localization using RSSI and evaluate their power consumption when...

    [...]

  • ...Sadowsi and Spachos [143] compare the performance of Wi-Fi, BLE, ZigBee and long-range WAN for indoor localization using RSSI and evaluate their power consumption when they are used by IoT devices....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Oct 2019-Sensors
TL;DR: This paper provides an introduction to IPS and the different technologies, techniques, and some methods commonly employed and serves as a guide for the reader to easily find further details on each technology used in IPS.
Abstract: An accurate and reliable Indoor Positioning System (IPS) applicable to most indoor scenarios has been sought for many years. The number of technologies, techniques, and approaches in general used in IPS proposals is remarkable. Such diversity, coupled with the lack of strict and verifiable evaluations, leads to difficulties for appreciating the true value of most proposals. This paper provides a meta-review that performed a comprehensive compilation of 62 survey papers in the area of indoor positioning. The paper provides the reader with an introduction to IPS and the different technologies, techniques, and some methods commonly employed. The introduction is supported by consensus found in the selected surveys and referenced using them. Thus, the meta-review allows the reader to inspect the IPS current state at a glance and serve as a guide for the reader to easily find further details on each technology used in IPS. The analyses of the meta-review contributed with insights on the abundance and academic significance of published IPS proposals using the criterion of the number of citations. Moreover, 75 works are identified as relevant works in the research topic from a selection of about 4000 works cited in the analyzed surveys.

163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An assistant vehicle localization method based on direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation based on a sparse Bayesian learning (SBL)-based robust DOA estimation approach is proposed, which shows the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.
Abstract: As a promising research area in Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has attracted much attention in wireless communication and network. In general, vehicle localization can be achieved by the global positioning systems (GPSs). However, in some special scenarios, such as cloud cover, tunnels or some places where the GPS signals are weak, GPS cannot perform well. The continuous and accurate localization services cannot be guaranteed. In order to improve the accuracy of vehicle localization, an assistant vehicle localization method based on direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is proposed in this paper. The assistant vehicle localization system is composed of three base stations (BSs) equipped with a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) array. The locations of vehicles can be estimated if the positions of the three BSs and the DOAs of vehicles estimated by the BSs are known. However, the DOA estimated accuracy maybe degrade dramatically when the electromagnetic environment is complex. In the proposed method, a sparse Bayesian learning (SBL)-based robust DOA estimation approach is first proposed to achieve the off-grid DOA estimation of the target vehicles under the condition of nonuniform noise, where the covariance matrix of nonuniform noise is estimated by a least squares (LSs) procedure, and a grid refinement procedure implemented by finding the roots of a polynomial is performed to refine the grid points to reduce the off-grid error. Then, according to the DOA estimation results, the target vehicle is cross-located once by each two BSs in the localization system. Finally, robust localization can be realized based on the results of three-time cross-location. Plenty of simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

153 citations


Cites methods from "RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..."

  • ...The Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) technique has been adopted widely [8], [9], [10] to achieve target vehicle localization....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental results on distance estimation, location, and detection accuracy show that BLE beacon is a promising solution for an interactive smart museum.
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) can enable smart infrastructures to provide advanced services to the users. New technological advancement can improve our everyday life, even simple tasks as a visit to the museum. In this article, an indoor localization system is presented, to enhance the user experience in a museum. In particular, the proposed system relies on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons proximity and localization capabilities to automatically provide the users with cultural contents related to the observed artworks. At the same time, a received signal strength-based technique is used to estimate the location of the visitor in the museum. An Android application is developed to estimate the distance from the exhibits and collect useful analytics regarding each visit and provide a recommendation to the users. Moreover, the application implements a simple Kalman filter in the smartphone, without the need of the cloud, to improve localization, precision and accuracy. Experimental results on distance estimation, location, and detection accuracy show that BLE beacon is a promising solution for an interactive smart museum. The proposed system has been designed to be easily extensible to the IoT technologies and its effectiveness has been evaluated through experimentation.

121 citations


Cites background from "RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..."

  • ...There are many works in the literature that focus on RSS-based localization [7], [15], [51], [52]....

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  • ...to their availability and low cost [7], [10]–[13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of ML enabled localization techniques using most common wireless technologies for accurate indoor positioning and how the ML algorithms can be effectively used for fusing different technologies and algorithms to achieve a comprehensive IPS is provided.
Abstract: Widespread proliferation of wireless coverage has enabled culmination of number of advanced location-based services (LBS). Continuous tracking of accurate physical location is the foundation of these services, which is a challenging task especially indoors. Multitude of techniques and algorithms have been proposed for indoor positioning systems (IPS’s). However, accuracy, reliability, scalability and, adaptability to the environment still remain as challenges for widespread deployment. Especially, unpredictable radio propagation characteristics in vastly varying indoor environments plus access technology limitations contribute to these challenges. Machine learning (ML) approaches have been widely attempted recently to overcome these challenges with reasonable success. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey of ML enabled localization techniques using most common wireless technologies. First, we provide a brief background on indoor localization techniques. Afterwards, we discuss various ML techniques (supervised and unsupervised) that could alleviate different challenges in indoor localization including Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) issue, device heterogeneity and environmental variations with reasonable complexity. The trade-offs among multitude of issues are discussed using numerous published results. We also discuss how the ML algorithms can be effectively used for fusing different technologies and algorithms to achieve a comprehensive IPS. In essence, this survey will serve as a reference material to acquire a detailed knowledge on recent development of machine learning for accurate indoor positioning.

119 citations


Cites background from "RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..."

  • ...The authors in [78], compared the performance ofWi-Fi, BLE and ZigBee with simple RSSI-based trilateration method and found the achieved accuracy of Wi-Fi, BLE and ZigBee are 48....

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References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper will present and discuss the technical solutions and best-practice guidelines adopted in the Padova Smart City project, a proof-of-concept deployment of an IoT island in the city of Padova, Italy, performed in collaboration with the city municipality.
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) shall be able to incorporate transparently and seamlessly a large number of different and heterogeneous end systems, while providing open access to selected subsets of data for the development of a plethora of digital services. Building a general architecture for the IoT is hence a very complex task, mainly because of the extremely large variety of devices, link layer technologies, and services that may be involved in such a system. In this paper, we focus specifically to an urban IoT system that, while still being quite a broad category, are characterized by their specific application domain. Urban IoTs, in fact, are designed to support the Smart City vision, which aims at exploiting the most advanced communication technologies to support added-value services for the administration of the city and for the citizens. This paper hence provides a comprehensive survey of the enabling technologies, protocols, and architecture for an urban IoT. Furthermore, the paper will present and discuss the technical solutions and best-practice guidelines adopted in the Padova Smart City project, a proof-of-concept deployment of an IoT island in the city of Padova, Italy, performed in collaboration with the city municipality.

4,335 citations


"RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These devices are capable of communicating with the IoT to allow for smart buildings to poses a greater amount of control that could never have been achieved before [1], [2]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2007
TL;DR: Comprehensive performance comparisons including accuracy, precision, complexity, scalability, robustness, and cost are presented.
Abstract: Wireless indoor positioning systems have become very popular in recent years. These systems have been successfully used in many applications such as asset tracking and inventory management. This paper provides an overview of the existing wireless indoor positioning solutions and attempts to classify different techniques and systems. Three typical location estimation schemes of triangulation, scene analysis, and proximity are analyzed. We also discuss location fingerprinting in detail since it is used in most current system or solutions. We then examine a set of properties by which location systems are evaluated, and apply this evaluation method to survey a number of existing systems. Comprehensive performance comparisons including accuracy, precision, complexity, scalability, robustness, and cost are presented.

4,123 citations


"RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...AoA systems use an array of antennae to determine the angle, from which the signal propagated [8], [19], [20]....

    [...]

  • ...The most common technologies are: WiFi, Bluetooth, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) and cellular [8]....

    [...]

  • ...So far, a standard model for indoor localization has not been developed due to obstacles, floor layouts, and reflections of signals that can occur [8]....

    [...]

  • ...other methods need to be used in order to determine a device’s location [8]–[10]....

    [...]

  • ...For instance, there are many more obstacles indoors, including furniture, walls, and people, which can reflect the signals produced, increasing multipath effects [7], [8], [15]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors introduce a hierarchy of architectures with increasing levels of real-world awareness and interactivity for smart objects, describing activity-, policy-, and process-aware smart objects and demonstrating how the respective architectural abstractions support increasingly complex application.
Abstract: The combination of the Internet and emerging technologies such as nearfield communications, real-time localization, and embedded sensors lets us transform everyday objects into smart objects that can understand and react to their environment. Such objects are building blocks for the Internet of Things and enable novel computing applications. As a step toward design and architectural principles for smart objects, the authors introduce a hierarchy of architectures with increasing levels of real-world awareness and interactivity. In particular, they describe activity-, policy-, and process-aware smart objects and demonstrate how the respective architectural abstractions support increasingly complex application.

1,459 citations


"RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These devices are capable of communicating with the IoT to allow for smart buildings to poses a greater amount of control that could never have been achieved before [1], [2]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to provide a detailed survey of different indoor localization techniques, such as angle of arrival (AoA), time of flight (ToF), return time ofFlight (RTOF), and received signal strength (RSS) based on technologies that have been proposed in the literature.
Abstract: Indoor localization has recently witnessed an increase in interest, due to the potential wide range of services it can provide by leveraging Internet of Things (IoT), and ubiquitous connectivity. Different techniques, wireless technologies and mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to provide indoor localization services in order to improve the services provided to the users. However, there is a lack of an up-to-date survey paper that incorporates some of the recently proposed accurate and reliable localization systems. In this paper, we aim to provide a detailed survey of different indoor localization techniques, such as angle of arrival (AoA), time of flight (ToF), return time of flight (RTOF), and received signal strength (RSS); based on technologies, such as WiFi, radio frequency identification device (RFID), ultra wideband (UWB), Bluetooth, and systems that have been proposed in the literature. This paper primarily discusses localization and positioning of human users and their devices. We highlight the strengths of the existing systems proposed in the literature. In contrast with the existing surveys, we also evaluate different systems from the perspective of energy efficiency, availability, cost, reception range, latency, scalability, and tracking accuracy. Rather than comparing the technologies or techniques, we compare the localization systems and summarize their working principle. We also discuss remaining challenges to accurate indoor localization.

1,447 citations


"RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..." refers background in this paper

  • ...to ToA in that it requires devices to have synchronized clocks, but it uses the signal propagation time to multiple receivers to find the absolute signal propagation time [20]....

    [...]

  • ...AoA systems use an array of antennae to determine the angle, from which the signal propagated [8], [19], [20]....

    [...]

  • ...Through the use of synchronized clocks, the signal propagation time between the transmitter and receiver can be determined [19], [20]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work provides a detailed study of BLE fingerprinting using 19 beacons distributed around a ~600 m2 testbed to position a consumer device, and investigates the choice of key parameters in a BLE positioning system, including beacon density, transmit power, and transmit frequency.
Abstract: The complexity of indoor radio propagation has resulted in location-awareness being derived from empirical fingerprinting techniques, where positioning is performed via a previously-constructed radio map, usually of WiFi signals. The recent introduction of the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) radio protocol provides new opportunities for indoor location. It supports portable battery-powered beacons that can be easily distributed at low cost, giving it distinct advantages over WiFi. However, its differing use of the radio band brings new challenges too. In this work, we provide a detailed study of BLE fingerprinting using 19 beacons distributed around a $\sim\! 600\ \mbox{m}^2$ testbed to position a consumer device. We demonstrate the high susceptibility of BLE to fast fading, show how to mitigate this, and quantify the true power cost of continuous BLE scanning. We further investigate the choice of key parameters in a BLE positioning system, including beacon density, transmit power, and transmit frequency. We also provide quantitative comparison with WiFi fingerprinting. Our results show advantages to the use of BLE beacons for positioning. For one-shot (push-to-fix) positioning we achieve $30\ \mbox{m}^2$ ), compared to $100\ \mbox{m}^2$ ) and < 8.5 m for an established WiFi network in the same area.

736 citations


"RSSI-Based Indoor Localization With..." refers background in this paper

  • ...With the recent emergence of BLE and beacons, it has becomemore feasible to place inexpensive beacons around an environment than it is to rearrange existing hardware and use that for localization [17], [18]....

    [...]