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Proceedings ArticleDOI

SampLe: towards a framework for system-supported multimedia authoring

05 Jan 2004-pp 362

TL;DR: A framework for the authoring system called SampLe (semiautomatic presentation generation environment), where the system support is provided at any stage of the presentation building process by incorporating explicit knowledge about the domain, narrative structures, media modalities, and tasks involved into the process of multimedia presentation creation.
Abstract: Multimedia authoring is a complex, resource demanding, knowledge-intensive, and multilayered process. While a large part of presentation creation cases involve manual production of presentations, such as performed in daily work of students and teachers, most applications for manual production (e.g. PowerPoint, Director) are only working environments with no help on the conceptual level. We propose a framework for the authoring system called SampLe (semiautomatic presentation generation environment), where the system support is provided at any stage of the presentation building process. The support is managed by incorporating explicit knowledge about the domain, narrative structures, media modalities, and tasks involved into the process of multimedia presentation creation.
Topics: Authoring system (70%), Presentation (54%), Explicit knowledge (50%)

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Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica
INformation Systems
SampLe: Towards a Framework for System-supported
Multimedia Authoring
Kateryna Falkovych, Frank Nack,
Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Lloyd Rutledge
REPORT INS-E0302 AUGUST 31, 2003
INS
Information Systems

CWI is the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science. It is sponsored by the
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
CWI is a founding member of ERCIM, the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics.
CWI's research has a theme-oriented structure and is grouped into four clusters. Listed below are the names
of the clusters and in parentheses their acronyms.
Probability, Networks and Algorithms (PNA)
Software Engineering (SEN)
Modelling, Analysis and Simulation (MAS)
Information Systems (INS)
Copyright © 2003, Stichting Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica
P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (NL)
Kruislaan 413, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (NL)
Telephone +31 20 592 9333
Telefax +31 20 592 4199
ISSN 1386-3681

SampLe: Towards a Framework for System-
supported Multimedia Authoring
ABSTRACT
Much current research on hypermedia generation accepts user input only at the start of an
otherwise fully-automated process. However, since multimedia presentation creation is often a
complex and creative process, it has multiple phases which would each benefit from human
intervention. This paper presents a hypermedia generation model that lets the user influence all
phases of this computer-assisted human-guided process. The main focus is on providing extra
support for helping the user find relevant media items and combine them meaningfully into a
rich and coherent multimedia presentation. Like fully-automated systems, our approach uses
explicit knowledge about the presentation's topic domain, narrative structures, hypermedia
presentation and distinctions between media modalities. This paper presents a motivating
scenario that is used to derive a number of system requirements and to discuss the pros and
cons of the presented approach.
Keywords and Phrases: Multimedia authoring, semantics, narrative structure, intelligent support

Samp
L
e: Towards a Framework for System-supported Multimedia Authoring
Kateryna Falkovych, Frank Nack, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Lloyd Rutledge
CWI, Amsterdam
Firstname.Lastname@cwi.nl
Abstract
Much current research on hypermedia generation
accepts user input only at the start of an otherwise fully-
automated process. However, since multimedia
presentation creation is often a complex and creative
process, it has multiple phases which would each benefit
from human intervention. This paper presents a
hypermedia generation model that lets the user influence
all phases of this computer-assisted human-guided
process. The main focus is on providing extra support for
helping the user find relevant media items and combine
them meaningfully into a rich and coherent multimedia
presentation. Like fully-automated systems, our approach
uses explicit knowledge about the presentation's topic
domain, narrative structures, hypermedia presentation
and distinctions between media modalities. This paper
presents a motivating scenario that is used to derive a
number of system requirements and to discusses the pros
and cons of the presented approach.
1. Introduction
The production of multimedia presentations is a
complex, resource demanding, distributed, and creative
process. The aim of the process is to provide engaging
and relevant information by composing a multi-
dimensional network of relationships between different
kinds of audio-visual information units.
We divided this process into five stages: theme
identification, specification of presentation structure,
collection of material, arrangement of material, and
presentation creation. At the first stage, a topic of the
presentation is chosen within a domain of interest. The
scope of the presentation is outlined at this stage by
defining the genre of the presentation as well as main and
secondary characters. This information allows
specification of the logical structure of the presentation
at the second stage. At the third stage appropriate
material is selected and placed within each part of the
logical structure. The particular ordering of the selected
material is done at the fourth stage. At the fifth stage the
final presentation is created by determining spatial-
temporal relationships between selected items and
defining stylistic aspects.
Even though we presented the stages above in a
sequential manner, we find that the various stages are
typically iterative and mutually interrelating. While this
increases the complexity of the process it also leads to
semantically rich and engaging presentations.
Many multimedia presentations, such as those made
by pupils, students, researchers or managers, are
manually crafted presentations. The support in manual
production comes mainly in form of production
environments such as Director, Premiere, Photoshop,
Flash, FrontPage, PowerPoint and others. These tools
are, however, not equipped to support the complex
processes of content and design development, as they
assume that the user has a sufficient level of expertise [4].
In this paper, we present a framework that supports
the five steps of the presentation generation process. Our
approach combines the creative strength of humans with
the analytical and procedural power of machines. It
allows a way of presentation generation in which the user
has full control over the presentation creation process,
but at the same time is facilitated with ontology-based

and context-oriented information at those stages where
she lacks knowledge or skills.
Our system, called SampLe (Semi-Automatic
Multimedia Presentation generation Environment), is
connected to a large multimedia database. In order to
create a presentation, the material from the database is
used.
Since different users have different levels of expertise
in the domain as well as various experiences with
presentation building process, the system should be able
to support any type of a user by providing support at
each stage of presentation creation process. Depending
on the user's level of expertise, created presentations can
be included into the system repository, enriching it with
new points of view on the material and new interrelation
structures between media items. In such a way, stored
presentations might help novice users (such as students
having an assignment to build a presentation) get an
insight into the domain and get an idea about possible
topics and designs for their own presentations.
Additionally, the system is also in the position to offer
assistance on the presentational level by providing
various ways of structuring a presentation.
The paper is structured as follows. Section 2
discusses related work in which we show connections
between our approach and existing presentation
generation techniques. Further discussion follows the
five stage process described in the Introduction. Section
3 presents the theme identification stage. Section 4
discusses presentation structure specification. Section 5
describes the elaboration on the created structure by
facilitating content selection. Arrangement of selected
media items is presented in Section 6. Section 7 discusses
the last stage of the process where the presentation is
created according to the proper style and duration.
Finally Section 8 outlines conclusions and future work.
2. Related work
The development of the SampLe framework took
account of existing work in two related research domains,
namely authoring environments for the fully manual
generation of presentations and techniques from the field
of automatic presentation generation.
The usual computer support for manually crafted
presentations is manifested in form of production
environments, such as image editing tools (Photoshop,
Illustrator, GIMP, or Maya), new media authoring tools,
such as Director/Shockwave, Flash, Dreamweaver,
Frontpage, PowerPoint, GRiNS, Authorware, HyperCard,
or WWW presentation technology, such as HTML and
SMIL. Although these tools provide the user with much
freedom during the development process, they are not
equipped to support the complex process of content
development, because they assume that the user has a
sufficient level of expertise.
Systems that facilitate automated presentation
generation, on the other hand, are typically applied for
dynamic, interactive environments that do not allow the
intervention of a human during presentation generation at
any time after the initial request, such as web sites of
museums [8], real time instruction generation [1],
discourse driven hypermedia presentations [9] or user
tailored biographies of artists [6]. These systems provide
ontology-based description layers for content and
presentation aspects that permit reliable control
mechanisms to establish presentations that are flexible
enough to respond to changing individual user needs and
user groups. The complexity of logical structure
developments and the complex choice of stylistic aspects
regarding conveying certain information typically result,
however, in quite simple structures and styles and hence
unexciting presentations.
The blend of these two methodologies for multimedia
presentation generation can lead to an improvement of
mainly human generated presentations.
First attempts to make use of description structures and
mechanisms taken from automatic processes as the basis
for support in manual authoring environments are
described on the content level, such as for the authoring
of motion pictures [2], or on a task-oriented level, such as
in supporting the early exploration of design ideas [3]. The
advantage of this system-guided approach is that it
facilitates the creation of attractive presentations by

Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
Steffen Staab1, Ansgar Scherp1, Richard Arndt1, Raphaël Troncy  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Sep 2008-
TL;DR: This tutorial aims to provide a red thread through different issues and to give an outline of where Semantic Web modeling and reasoning needs to further contribute to the area of semantic multimedia for the fruitful interaction between these two fields of computer science.
Abstract: Multimedia constitutes an interesting field of application for Semantic Web and Semantic Web reasoning, as the access and management of multimedia content and context depends strongly on the semantic descriptions of both. At the same time, multimedia resources constitute complex objects, the descriptions of which are involved and require the foundation on sound modeling practice in order to represent findings of low- and high level multimedia analysis and to make them accessible via Semantic Web querying of resources. This tutorial aims to provide a red thread through these different issues and to give an outline of where Semantic Web modeling and reasoning needs to further contribute to the area of semantic multimedia for the fruitful interaction between these two fields of computer science.

85 citations


Cites background from "SampLe: towards a framework for sys..."

  • ...Although today’s systems and approaches like the Cuypers Multimedia Transformation Engine [24, 95] and the Semi-automatic Multimedia Presentation Generation Environment [13, 14] generate rich multimedia content, exploit semantically-rich annotations and metadata, and even derive further information while authoring the content, this valuable source of information is thrown away once the content creation task is finished....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Ansgar Scherp1Institutions (1)
01 Dec 2008-Multimedia Systems
TL;DR: This paper derived a general creation chain for the (semi-)automatic generation of semantically rich multimedia content and presents software engineering support for the chain, the component framework SemanticMM4U, and the canonical processes supported.
Abstract: Authoring of multimedia content can be considered as composing media assets such as images, videos, text, and audio in time, space, and interaction into a coherent multimedia presentation. Personalization of such content means that it reflects the users' or user groups' profile information and context information. Enriching the multimedia content with semantically rich metadata allows for a better search and retrieval of the content. To actually create personalized semantically-rich multimedia content, a manual authoring of the many different documents for all the different users' and user groups' needs is not feasible. Rather a (semi-)automatic authoring of the content seems reasonable. We have analyzed in detail today's approaches and systems for authoring, personalizing, and semantically enriching multimedia presentations. Based on this analysis, we derived a general creation chain for the (semi-)automatic generation of such content. In this paper, we introduce this creation chain. We present our software engineering support for the chain, the component framework SemanticMM4U. The canonical processes supported by the creation chain and SemanticMM4U framework are described in detail. We also provide an explicit mapping of SemanticMM4U framework components to the processes and argue for the benefits of defining canonical processes for creating personalized semantically rich multimedia presentations.

30 citations


Cites methods from "SampLe: towards a framework for sys..."

  • ...Well known examples from research are the Cuypers engine [17, 36], the projects Opéra [3] and WAM [23, 24], the SampLe framework [14, 15], and the Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems [7, 13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Kateryna Falkovych1, Frank Nack1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 2006-
TL;DR: This paper extends the existing authoring support by integrating processes of topic identification, content collection and discourse structure building in a single environment and combines this process context awareness with explicit domain and discourse knowledge to steer system suggestions.
Abstract: This paper presents an approach to assist authors during the authoring of multimedia presentations. We extend the existing authoring support by integrating processes of topic identification, content collection and discourse structure building in a single environment. This integration allows identification of the context of the authoring process. Our approach combines this process context awareness with explicit domain and discourse knowledge to steer system suggestions. We evaluate our approach with an experimental system prototype.

26 citations


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  • ...Our approach is explored in the design of a SemiAutomatic Multimedia Presentation authoring Environment (SampLe) [8]....

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Kateryna Falkovych1, Frank Nack1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2005-
Abstract: This paper presents an approach to assist authors during the authoring of multimedia presentations. We extend existing authoring support by integrating processes of topic identification, content collection and discourse structure building in a single environment. This integration allows identification of the context of the authoring process. Our approach combines this process context awareness with explicit domain and discourse knowledge to steer system suggestions. We evaluate our approach with an experimental system prototype

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Proceedings Article
Ansgar Scherp1Institutions (1)
21 Aug 2008-
TL;DR: The SemanticMM4U framework is presented, an approach that enhances the state-of-the-art by providing support for deriving semantics at any point in time during the assemble process and integrating it into the syntax of the final presentation formats.
Abstract: Support for personalized multimedia content has become a crucial aspect of today's multimedia applications. We find many different systems and approaches that provide multimedia content tailored to the specific needs and requirements of the users. These systems and approaches exploit semantically-rich information for the multimedia content creation task. However, once the content is created, this very valuable source of information is thrown away. Thus, it is lost for any further processing of the created multimedia presentations. Systems that analyze such presentations can only revive a very limited amount of the semantic information that was initially available and used. Consequently, we present with the SemanticMM4U framework an approach that enhances the state-of-the-art by providing support for deriving semantics at any point in time during the assemble process and integrating it into the syntax of the final presentation formats. By this, the semantics is made machine-readable and machine-processable. It allows for a better indexing, retrieval, and processing of the multimedia presentations.

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Cites background from "SampLe: towards a framework for sys..."

  • ...In regard of multimedia content, we find the well-known Cuypers Multimedia Transformation Engine [12, 28], the projects Opéra [3] and its successor WAM [15, 16], the Semi-automatic Multimedia Presentation Generation Environment [10, 11], and the 612-012 57 Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems [26, 9]....

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  • ...These systems are the Semi-automatic Multimedia Presentation Generation Environment and the Cuypers Multimedia Transformation Engine....

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  • ...In regard of multimedia content, we find the well-known Cuypers Multimedia Transformation Engine [12, 28], the projects Opéra [3] and its successor WAM [15, 16], the Semi-automatic Multimedia Presentation Generation Environment [10, 11], and the...

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Abstract: To create an innovative interactive multimedia application, a multimedia designer needs to rapidly explore numerous behavioral design ideas early in the design process, as creating innovative behavior is the cornerstone of creating innovative multimedia. Current tools and techniques do not support a designer's need for early behavior exploration, limiting her ability to rapidly explore and effectively communicate behavioral design ideas. To address this need, we have developed a sketch-based, interactive multimedia storyboard tool that uses a designer's ink strokes and textual annotations as an input design vocabulary. By operationalizing this vocabulary, the tool transforms an otherwise static sketch into a working example. The behavioral sketch can be quickly edited using gestures and an expressive visual language. By enabling a designer to explore and communicate behavioral design ideas using working examples early in the design process, our tool facilitates the creation of a more effective, compelling, and entertaining multimedia application.

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"SampLe: towards a framework for sys..." refers background in this paper

  • ...First attempts to make use of description structures and mechanisms taken from automatic processes as the basis for support in manual authoring environments are described on the content level, such as for the authoring of motion pictures [2], or on a task-oriented level, such as in supporting the early exploration of design ideas [3]....

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"SampLe: towards a framework for sys..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Systems that facilitate automated presentation generation, on the other hand, are typically applied for dynamic, interactive environments that do not allow the intervention of a human during presentation generation at any time after the initial request, such as web sites of museums [8], real time instruction generation [1], discourse driven hypermedia presentations [9] or user tailored biographies of artists [6]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Aug 2003-
TL;DR: This paper presents the results of the first phase of the Topia project, which explored generating a discourse structure derived from generic processing of the underlying domain semantics, transforming this to a structured progression and then using this to steer the choice of hypermedia communicative devices used to convey the actual information in the resulting presentation.
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1997-
TL;DR: How the system has worked with users in an iterative design process and how studies of the work of these users have informed key design issues are reviewed.
Abstract: MAD (Movie Authoring and Design) is a novel design and authoring system that facilitates the process of creating dynamic visual presentations such as motion pictures and lecture-demonstrations. MAD supports the process by enhancing the author's ability to structure and modify a presentation and to visualize the ultimate result. It does this by allowing both top-down design and bottom-up creation with a hierarchical multimedia document representation; by supporting the flexible inclusion and combination of words, images, sounds, and video sequences; and by providing realtime playback of the best approximation to the ultimate presentation that can be produced at any stage of the design process. MAD represents a paradigm shift from traditional methods of authoring and producing motion pictures. Its development therefore requires in-depth observation of a variety of users working on a variety of filmmaking projects. After describing the key concepts underlying MAD and the current, second-generation prototype software, we describe a number of interesting applications of MAD. In doing so, we review how we have worked with users in an iterative design process and how studies of the work of these users have informed key design issues.

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