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Journal ArticleDOI

Sarcopenia: Revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

01 Jan 2019-Age and Ageing (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 48, Iss: 1, pp 16-31

TL;DR: An emphasis is placed on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarc Openia diagnosis, and provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarc openia.

AbstractBackground in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.

Topics: Sarcopenia (63%), Sarcopenic obesity (58%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 introduces "possible sarcopenia," defined by either low muscle strength or low physical performance only, specifically for use in primary health care or community-based health promotion, to enable earlier lifestyle interventions.
Abstract: Clinical and research interest in sarcopenia has burgeoned internationally, Asia included. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2014 consensus defined sarcopenia as “age-related loss of muscle mass, plus low muscle strength, and/or low physical performance” and specified cutoffs for each diagnostic component; research in Asia consequently flourished, prompting this update. AWGS 2019 retains the previous definition of sarcopenia but revises the diagnostic algorithm, protocols, and some criteria: low muscle strength is defined as handgrip strength

817 citations


DOI
01 Jun 2011

618 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for screening, diagnosis and management of sarcopenia from the task force of the International Conference on Sarcopenia and Frailty Research (ICSFR) are presented.
Abstract: Sarcopenia, defined as an age-associated loss of skeletal muscle function and muscle mass, occurs in approximately 6 - 22 % of older adults. This paper presents evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for screening, diagnosis and management of sarcopenia from the task force of the International Conference on Sarcopenia and Frailty Research (ICSFR). To develop the guidelines, we drew upon the best available evidence from two systematic reviews paired with consensus statements by international working groups on sarcopenia. Eight topics were selected for the recommendations: (i) defining sarcopenia; (ii) screening and diagnosis; (iii) physical activity prescription; (iv) protein supplementation; (v) vitamin D supplementation; (vi) anabolic hormone prescription; (vii) medications under development; and (viii) research. The ICSFR task force evaluated the evidence behind each topic including the quality of evidence, the benefitharm balance of treatment, patient preferences/values, and cost-effectiveness. Recommendations were graded as either strong or conditional (weak) as per the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. Consensus was achieved via one face-to-face workshop and a modified Delphi process. We make a conditional recommendation for the use of an internationally accepted measurement tool for the diagnosis of sarcopenia including the EWGSOP and FNIH definitions, and advocate for rapid screening using gait speed or the SARC-F. To treat sarcopenia, we strongly recommend the prescription of resistance-based physical activity, and conditionally recommend protein supplementation/a protein-rich diet. No recommendation is given for Vitamin D supplementation or for anabolic hormone prescription. There is a lack of robust evidence to assess the strength of other treatment options.

263 citations


Cites methods from "Sarcopenia: Revised European consen..."

  • ...Of importance, the task force did consider grip strength as a screening tool for sarcopenia, but this was voted out in the consensus process for two main reasons: (i) the new EWGSOP guidelines for sarcopenia [EWGSOP-2 (59)] recommend that grip strength is a diagnostic assessment rather than a screening test; and (ii) the specific feedback we received from the primary care members of our external reviewing group, most of whom stated that they would prefer not to perform grip strength measurement in their primary care clinics....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is provided to support recommendations for successful resistance training in older adults related to 4 parts: program design variables, physiological adaptations, functional benefits, and considerations for frailty, sarcopenia, and other chronic conditions.
Abstract: Fragala, MS, Cadore, EL, Dorgo, S, Izquierdo, M, Kraemer, WJ, Peterson, MD, and Ryan, ED. Resistance training for older adults: position statement from the national strength and conditioning association. J Strength Cond Res 33(8): 2019-2052, 2019-Aging, even in the absence of chronic disease, is associated with a variety of biological changes that can contribute to decreases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function. Such losses decrease physiologic resilience and increase vulnerability to catastrophic events. As such, strategies for both prevention and treatment are necessary for the health and well-being of older adults. The purpose of this Position Statement is to provide an overview of the current and relevant literature and provide evidence-based recommendations for resistance training for older adults. As presented in this Position Statement, current research has demonstrated that countering muscle disuse through resistance training is a powerful intervention to combat the loss of muscle strength and muscle mass, physiological vulnerability, and their debilitating consequences on physical functioning, mobility, independence, chronic disease management, psychological well-being, quality of life, and healthy life expectancy. This Position Statement provides evidence to support recommendations for successful resistance training in older adults related to 4 parts: (a) program design variables, (b) physiological adaptations, (c) functional benefits, and (d) considerations for frailty, sarcopenia, and other chronic conditions. The goal of this Position Statement is to a) help foster a more unified and holistic approach to resistance training for older adults, b) promote the health and functional benefits of resistance training for older adults, and c) prevent or minimize fears and other barriers to implementation of resistance training programs for older adults.

241 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Older age, male gender, low BMI, decreased mini-nutritional assessment score, low serum albumin level, and high body fat were associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia, whereas higher CC reduced its risk.
Abstract: Background Sarcopenia is defined as the old age syndrome characterized by profound decline in muscle mass and function. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its risk factors in older adults. Methods Totally, 501 older people aged 65 years and older were recruited. Sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). For obtaining Skeletal Muscle mass Index (SMI), body composition was evaluated using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Muscle strength and physical performance were measured by Handgrip Strength (HGS) and Gait Speed (GS), respectively. Nutritional status, physical activity level, and biochemical indicators were assessed, as well. Results The prevalence of sarcopenia was 20.8%. Multiple logistic regression models of the predictors of decline in the components of sarcopenia showed that older age, low Body Mass Index (BMI), and serum albumin level were associated with a higher risk of low SMI. Low serum albumin level and older age were also predictive of low HGS. Besides, old age, high body fat mass, and low BMI were the risk factors of low GS. Conversely, increased Calf Circumference (CC) was protective against low SMI and GS. Finally, older age, male gender, low BMI, decreased mini-nutritional assessment score, low serum albumin level, and high body fat were associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia, whereas higher CC reduced its risk. Conclusion The prevalence of sarcopenia is high among elderly individuals. This study underlined that sarcopenia might develop in older adults with impaired nutritional status and high body fat mass. Further studies could evaluate the effects of appropriate nutritional interventions on sarcopenia management and prevention.

193 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study provides a potential standardized definition for frailty in community-dwelling older adults and offers concurrent and predictive validity for the definition, and finds that there is an intermediate stage identifying those at high risk of frailty.
Abstract: Background: Frailty is considered highly prevalent in old age and to confer high risk for falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Frailty has been considered synonymous with disability, comorbidity, and other characteristics, but it is recognized that it may have a biologic basis and be a distinct clinical syndrome. A standardized definition has not yet been established. Methods: To develop and operationalize a phenotype of frailty in older adults and assess concurrent and predictive validity, the study used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants were 5,317 men and women 65 years and older (4,735 from an original cohort recruited in 1989-90 and 582 from an African American cohort recruited in 1992-93). Both cohorts received almost identical baseline evaluations and 7 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively, with annual examinations and surveillance for outcomes including incident disease, hospitalization, falls, disability, and mortality. Results: Frailty was defined as a clinical syndrome in which three or more of the following criteria were present: unintentional weight loss (10 lbs in past year), self-reported exhaustion, weakness (grip strength), slow walking speed, and low physical activity. The overall prevalence of frailty in this community-dwelling population was 6.9%; it increased with age and was greater in women than men. Four-year incidence was 7.2%. Frailty was associated with being African American, having lower education and income, poorer health, and having higher rates of comorbid chronic diseases and disability. There was overlap, but not concordance, in the cooccurrence of frailty, comorbidity, and disability. This frailty phenotype was independently predictive (over 3 years) of incident falls, worsening mobility or ADL disability, hospitalization, and death, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.82 to 4.46, unadjusted, and 1.29-2.24, adjusted for a number of health, disease, and social characteristics predictive of 5-year mortality. Intermediate frailty status, as indicated by the presence of one or two criteria, showed intermediate risk of these outcomes as well as increased risk of becoming frail over 3-4 years of follow-up (odds ratios for incident frailty = 4.51 unadjusted and 2.63 adjusted for covariates, compared to those with no frailty criteria at baseline). Conclusions: This study provides a potential standardized definition for frailty in community-dwelling older adults and offers concurrent and predictive validity for the definition. It also finds that there is an intermediate stage identifying those at high risk of frailty. Finally, it provides evidence that frailty is not synonymous with either comorbidity or disability, but comorbidity is an etiologic risk factor for, and disability is an outcome of, frailty. This provides a potential basis for clinical assessment for those who are frail or at risk, and for future research to develop interventions for frailty based on a standardized ascertainment of frailty.

12,911 citations


"Sarcopenia: Revised European consen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The physical phenotype of frailty, described by Fried and co-workers [143], shows significant overlap with sarcopenia; low grip strength and slow gait speed are characteristic of both....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study evaluated a modified, timed version of the “Get‐Up and Go” Test (Mathias et al, 1986) in 60 patients referred to a Geriatric Day Hospital and suggested that the timed “Up & Go’ test is a reliable and valid test for quantifying functional mobility that may also be useful in following clinical change over time.
Abstract: This study evaluated a modified, timed version of the "Get-Up and Go" Test (Mathias et al, 1986) in 60 patients referred to a Geriatric Day Hospital (mean age 79.5 years). The patient is observed and timed while he rises from an arm chair, walks 3 meters, turns, walks back, and sits down again. The results indicate that the time score is (1) reliable (inter-rater and intra-rater); (2) correlates well with log-transformed scores on the Berg Balance Scale (r = -0.81), gait speed (r = -0.61) and Barthel Index of ADL (r = -0.78); and (3) appears to predict the patient's ability to go outside alone safely. These data suggest that the timed "Up & Go" test is a reliable and valid test for quantifying functional mobility that may also be useful in following clinical change over time. The test is quick, requires no special equipment or training, and is easily included as part of the routine medical examination.

10,502 citations


"Sarcopenia: Revised European consen..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...For the TUG test, individuals are asked to rise from a standard chair, walk to a marker 3 m away, turn around, walk back and sit down again [89]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a practical clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia. EWGSOP included representatives from four participant organisations, i.e. the European Geriatric Medicine Society, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region and the International Association of Nutrition and Aging. These organisations endorsed the findings in the final document. The group met and addressed the following questions, using the medical literature to build evidence-based answers: (i) What is sarcopenia? (ii) What parameters define sarcopenia? (iii) What variables reflect these parameters, and what measurement tools and cut-off points can be used? (iv) How does sarcopenia relate to cachexia, frailty and sarcopenic obesity? For the diagnosis of sarcopenia, EWGSOP recommends using the presence of both low muscle mass + low muscle function (strength or performance). EWGSOP variously applies these characteristics to further define conceptual stages as 'presarcopenia', 'sarcopenia' and 'severe sarcopenia'. EWGSOP reviewed a wide range of tools that can be used to measure the specific variables of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Our paper summarises currently available data defining sarcopenia cut-off points by age and gender; suggests an algorithm for sarcopenia case finding in older individuals based on measurements of gait speed, grip strength and muscle mass; and presents a list of suggested primary and secondary outcome domains for research. Once an operational definition of sarcopenia is adopted and included in the mainstream of comprehensive geriatric assessment, the next steps are to define the natural course of sarcopenia and to develop and define effective treatment.

7,087 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Developing more efficient methods to detect frailty and measure its severity in routine clinical practice would greatly inform the appropriate selection of elderly people for invasive procedures or drug treatments and would be the basis for a shift in the care of frail elderly people towards more appropriate goal-directed care.
Abstract: Frailty is the most problematic expression of population ageing. It is a state of vulnerability to poor resolution of homoeostasis after a stressor event and is a consequence of cumulative decline in many physiological systems during a lifetime. This cumulative decline depletes homoeostatic reserves until minor stressor events trigger disproportionate changes in health status. In landmark studies, investigators have developed valid models of frailty and these models have allowed epidemiological investigations that show the association between frailty and adverse health outcomes. We need to develop more efficient methods to detect frailty and measure its severity in routine clinical practice, especially methods that are useful for primary care. Such progress would greatly inform the appropriate selection of elderly people for invasive procedures or drug treatments and would be the basis for a shift in the care of frail elderly people towards more appropriate goal-directed care.

4,062 citations


"Sarcopenia: Revised European consen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Frailty is a multidimensional geriatric syndrome that is characterised by cumulative decline in multiple body systems or functions [139, 140], with pathogenesis involving physical as well as social dimensions [141]....

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