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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MICROORGANISMS9030525

SARS-CoV-2 Disease Adjuvant Therapies and Supplements Breakthrough for the Infection Prevention.

04 Mar 2021-Vol. 9, Iss: 3, pp 525
Abstract: The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a high-risk viral agent involved in the recent pandemic stated worldwide by the World Health Organization. The infection is correlated to a severe systemic and respiratory disease in many cases, which is clinically treated with a multi-drug pharmacological approach. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate through a literature overview the effect of adjuvant therapies and supplements for the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The research has analyzed the advantage of the EK1C4, by also assessing the studies on the resveratrol, vitamin D, and melatonin as adjuvant supplements for long hauler patients' prognosis. The evaluated substances reported important benefits for the improvement of the immune system and as a potential inhibitor molecules against SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the use of sartans as therapy. The adjuvant supplements seem to create an advantage for the healing of the long hauler patients affected by chronic symptoms of constant chest and heart pain, intestinal disorders, headache, difficulty concentrating, memory loss, and tachycardia.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10061293
23 May 2021-Cells
Abstract: The dysregulation of both the innate and adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 have an impact on the course of COVID-19, and play a role in the clinical outcome of the disease. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in 82 patients with COVID-19, including 31 patients with a critical course of the disease. In COVID-19 patients who required hospitalization we analyzed T cell subsets, including Treg cells, as well as TCRα/β and γ/δ, NK cells, and B cells, during the first two weeks after admission to hospital due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, with marked reductions in leukocytes subpopulations, especially in critically ill COVID-19 patients. We showed decreased levels of Th, Ts cells, Treg cells (both naive and induced), TCRα/β and γ/δ cells, as well as CD16+CD56+NK cells in ICU compared to non-ICU COVID-19 patients. We observed impaired function of T and NK cells in critically ill COVID-19 patients with extremely low levels of secreted cytokines. We found that the IL-2/INFγ ratio was the strongest indicator of a critical course of COVID-19, and was associated with fatal outcomes. Our findings showed markedly impaired innate and adaptive responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and suggest that the immunosuppressive state in the case of a critical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection might reflect subsequent clinical deterioration and predict a fatal outcome.

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Topics: Peripheral blood lymphocyte (60%), T cell (58%), Immune tolerance (57%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/9978837
Abstract: Stem cells can be used to replace damaged cells or regenerate organs and have broadened our knowledge of the development and progression of certain diseases. Despite significant advances in understanding stem cell biology, several problems limit their use. These problems are related not only to the growth of tumors in animal models and their rejection in transplant cases but also to ethical and social issues about the use of embryonic cells. The ethical-scientific debate on this type of cells has taken on great interest both for their application in regenerative medicine and for the potential possibilities in the field of cell and gene therapy. Different points of view often have the expression of a perception that depends on scientific goals or opportunities or on religious traditions and beliefs. Therefore, as the questions and doubts about when life begins, so do the answers for the use of these cells as therapy or otherwise. So, in addition to the origin of stem cells, there are currently some social bioethical (such as political and legislative issues) and religious dilemmas. The purpose of the study is aimed at being a narrative on the history of stem cells and the evolution of their use to date, as well as to clarify the bioethical position of the various religions today in comparison with the social ones regarding the research and use of embryonic and adult ones. Hence, their biological hypostasis regarding the concepts of "conception" and "fertilization" and their development and therapeutic use compared to those of the main theological doctrines.

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6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10060881
31 May 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread worldwide, with a daily increase in confirmed cases and infection-related deaths. The World Health Organization declared a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020. COVID-19 presents flu-like symptoms that become severe in high-risk medically compromised subjects. The aim of this study was to perform an updated overview of the treatments and adjuvant protocols for COVID-19. Methods: A systematic literature search of databases was performed (MEDLINE PubMed, Google Scholar, UpToDate, Embase, and Web of Science) using the keywords: “COVID-19”, “2019-nCoV”, “coronavirus” and “SARS-CoV-2” (date range: 1 January 2019 to 31st October 2020), focused on clinical features and treatments. Results: The main treatments retrieved were antivirals, antimalarials, convalescent plasma, immunomodulators, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, and mesenchymal stem cells. Most of the described treatments may provide benefits to COVID-19 subjects, but no one protocol has definitively proven its efficacy. Conclusions: While many efforts are being spent worldwide in research aimed at identifying early diagnostic methods and evidence-based effective treatments, mass vaccination is thought to be the best option against this disease in the near future.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18116056
Assunta Patano1, N Cirulli1, Matteo Beretta, Paola Plantamura1  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Over the last decade, medical education changed from traditional teaching methods to telematic and networking scholar and e-learning approach. The objective of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness and teachers/student's acceptability of e-learning applied to the field of orthodontics and paediatric dentistry. A database search of the literature was conducted on PubMed and Embase databases from January 2005 to May 2021. A total of 172 articles were identified by the electronic search, while a total of 32 papers were selected for qualitative analysis. Overall, 19 articles investigated the effectiveness of e-learning, and no difference of acceptability was reported between e-learning and traditional methods for a wide part of the articles selected. A total of 25 papers provided a satisfaction questionnaire for learners and all were positive in their attitude towards e-learning. The results showed that e-learning is an effective method of instruction, complementing the traditional teaching methods, and learners had a positive attitude and perception. The evidence of the present study reported a high level of acceptability and knowledge level of e-learning techniques, compared to frontal lecture methods, in the fields of orthodontics and paediatric dentistry.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12866-021-02241-Y
Yunwen Zhang1, Yunwen Zhang2, Zhengrong Yang2, Sicheng Tian1  +14 moreInstitutions (2)
26 Jun 2021-BMC Microbiology
Abstract: Serological test is helpful in confirming and tracking infectious diseases in large population with the advantage of fast and convenience. Using the specific epitope peptides identified from the whole antigen as the detection antigen is sensitive and relatively economical. The development of epitope peptide-based detection kits for COVID-19 patients requires comprehensive information about epitope peptides. But the data on B cell epitope of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is still limited. More importantly, there is a lack of serological data on the peptides in the population. In this study, we aimed to identify the B cell epitope peptides of spike protein and detect the reactivity in serum samples, for further providing data support for their subsequent serological applications. Two B cell linear epitopes, P104 and P82, located in non-RBD region of SARS-CoV-2 S protein were identified by indirect ELISA screening of an overlapping peptide library of the S protein with COVID-19 patients’ convalescent serum. And the peptides were verified by testing with 165 serum samples. P104 has not been reported previously; P82 is contained in peptide S21P2 reported before. The positive reaction rates of epitope peptides S14P5 and S21P2, the two non-RBD region epitopes identified by Poh et al., and P82 and P104 were 77.0%, 73.9%, 61.2% and 30.3%, respectively, for 165 convalescent sera, including 30 asymptomatic patients. Although P104 had the lowest positive rate for total patients (30.3%), it exhibited slight advantage for detection of asymptomatic infections (36.7%). Combination of epitopes significantly improved the positive reaction rate. Among all combination patterns, (S14P5 + S21P2 + P104) pattern exhibited the highest positive reaction rate for all patients (92.7%), as well as for asymptomatic infections (86.7%), confirming the feasibility of P104 as supplementary antigen for serological detection. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between epitopes with neutralizing antibody, but only S14P5 had a medium positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titre (rs = 0.510, P < 0.01). Our research proved that epitopes on non-RBD region are of value in serological detection especially when combination more than one epitope, thus providing serological reaction information about the four epitopes, which has valuable references for their usage.

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Topics: Epitope (66%), Linear epitope (66%), Antigen (53%) ... read more

2 Citations


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236 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.052
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.

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Topics: Proteases (52%)

10,193 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
14 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

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Topics: Quarantine (52%)

6,092 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC2004973
Abstract: Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 In this research letter, investigators report on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 under experimental conditions. The viability of the two virus...

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5,763 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB2507
13 Mar 2020-Science
Abstract: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The CoV spike (S) glycoprotein is a key target for vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. To facilitate medical countermeasure development, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 2019-nCoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation. The predominant state of the trimer has one of the three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) rotated up in a receptor-accessible conformation. We also provide biophysical and structural evidence that the 2019-nCoV S protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity than does severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV S. Additionally, we tested several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies and found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs. The structure of 2019-nCoV S should enable the rapid development and evaluation of medical countermeasures to address the ongoing public health crisis.

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5,197 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.058
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S1/S2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination.

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Topics: Ectodomain (56%), Viral entry (55%), Epitope (53%) ... read more

4,968 Citations


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202114